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Full text of "The Hudson-Fulton celebration, 1909, the fourth annual report of the Hudson-Fulton celebration commission to the Legislature of the state of New York. Transmitted to the Legislature, May twentieth, nineteen ten"

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3 1924 092 228 497 


From water color drawing by H. J. Kohler 

See page 90 





The Fourth Annual Report of the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission to the Legis- 
lature of the State of New York • Transmitted 
to the Legislature May twentieth, nineteen ten 

Prepared by Edward Hagaman Hall, L. H. M., L. H. D. 

VOLUME I . PAGES 1 to 714 

Printed for the State of New York by 
J. B. Lyon Company, State Printers, at Albany, 1910 

"It is as pleasant a land as one need tread upon The land is the finest for culti- 

vation that I ever in my life set foot upon.' — Henry Hudson. 

"Industry will give abundance to a virtuous world and call mankind to unbounded 
feats of harmony and friendship. The liberty of the seas will be the happiness of the 
earth." — Robert Fulton. 

"We are not celebrating ourselves . . . We celebrate the immense significance of 
America to all mankind. May the harmony and fraternity of this festival be an auguiy 
for the future. May the blending of races which has made possible all that we now cele- 
brate never be made naught by the conflict of races upon the battlefield. May the spirit 
of this day persist, grow ever more effective in the minds of men, and this occasion be the 
precursor of many a festival in the years to come, marking the steady progress of all 
peoples of the earth who have united to make America what it is, upwards and onward, 
along the path that leads to perfect peace and justice and liberty." — Elihu Root, Sept. 
29, 1909. 

"The money that has been spent on this Celebration has not been wasted. We have too 
few opportunities in this country to come together when there are no partisan questions to 
be discussed, when there are no individual prejudices to be incurred, when there are no 
candidacies to be fostered; but we are all united, emphasizing our unity and sinking our 
differences, in order that America may be great because the people are inspired to justice 
and to appreciation of the ideals of the great Republic I say to you, my friends, 

it has been worth while, and we are altogether in this great State of New York better 
equipped for our duties as citizens, knowing more of our glorious past, more confident of the 
future, than we would have been if we had not worked so hard to give an adequate repre- 
sentation of our joy in our progress.'' — Charles £. Hughes, Oct. 7, 1910. 



Letter of Transmittal I 

Introduction 3 

Chapter I 
Origin of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission 15 

Chapter II 
Incorporation, Legislation and Legal Matters 24 

Chapter III 
Organization and Committee System 35 

Chapter IV 
Financial System and Statements 45 

Chapter V 
Evolution of the Plan of Celebration 58 

Chapter VI 
Official Insignia and Publications 75 

Chapter VII 
The Building of the Half Moon 92 

Chapter VIII 
The Building of the Clermont 105 

Chapter IX 
Reviewing Stands and Decorations I16 

Chapter X 
Illuminations and Pyrotechnics 120 

Chapter XI 
Invitations to Official Guests 126 


iv Table of Contents 

Chapter XII page 

Entertainment of Official Guests I3^ 

Chapter XIII 
Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions I74 

Chapter XIV 
Inaugural Naval Parade 19° 

Chapter XV 
Religious Services 246 

Chapter XVI 
Official Reception of Foreign Guests 248 

Chapter XVII 
Historical Parade in Manhattan 282 

Chapter XVIII 
Aquatic Sports 305 

Chapter XIX 
Official Banquet 314 

Chapter XX 
Military Parade 345 

Chapter XXI 
Naval Parade to Newburgh 354 

Chapter XXII 
Carnival Parade 061 

Chapter XXIII 
Dedication of Parks and Memorials 383 

Chapter XXIV 
Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park ^02 

Chapter XXV 
Dedication of Hudson Monument 4.1^ 

Table of Contents 

Chapter XXVI page 

Dedication of Fort Amsterdam Tablet 427 

Chapter XXVII 
Dedication of Fort Tryon Tablet 443 

Chapter XXVIII 
Dedication of Stony Point Arch 457 

Chapter XXIX 
Dedication of Verrazzano Monument 476 

Chapter XXX 
Aeronautical Exhibitions 486 

Chapter XXXI 
General Commemorative Exercises 498 

Chapter XXXII 
Children's Festivals 505 

Chapter XXXIII 
Public Lectures 7 '5 

Chapter XXXIV 
Brooklyn Borough Celebration TIO 

Chapter XXXV 
Official Literary Exercises in Brooklyn 724 

Chapter XXXVI 
Brooklyn Historical Parade 756 

Chapter XXXVII 
Richmond Borough Celebration 7^ 

Chapter XXXVIII 
Richmond Borough Banquet 764 

Chapter XXXIX 
Richmond Borough Historical Exercises 778 

vi Table of Contents 

Chapter XL page 

Bronx Borough Celebration 793 

Chapter XLI 
Bronx Borough Banquet 797 

Chapter XLII 
Queens Borough Celebration 813 

Chapter XLIII 
Queens Borough Historical Exercises 818 

Chapter XLIV 
Music Festivals in New York City 829 

Chapter XLV 
Social Events in New York City 844 

Chapter XL VI 
Public Safety in New York City 874 

Chapter XLVII 
PubHc Health and Convenience 880 

Chapter XLVHI 
Aldermanic Cooperation 886 

Chapter XLIX 
Lower Hudson Ceremonies 890 

Chapter L 
Yonkers Ceremonies gon 

Chapter LI 
Upper Hudson Plan of Celebration g^c 

Chapter LII 
Newburgh Ceremonies g^Q 

Chapter LIII 
Poughkeepsie Ceremonies gjo 

Table of Contents vii 

Chapter LIV page 

Kingston Ceremonies 9^9 

Chapter LV 
Catskill Ceremonies 9°" 

Chapter LVI 
Hudson City Ceremonies 997 

Chapter LVII 
Albany Ceremonies ioi5 

Chapter LVIII 
Troy Ceremonies • • • • I04° 

Chapter LIX 
Cohoes Ceremonies 1084 

Chapter LX 
Hudson River Parks and Scenery 1098 

Chapter LXI 
Presentation of Medals to Governments 1 1 12 

Chapter LXH 
Members of the Commission 1 13" 

Chapter LXHI 
Committees and their Duties 1 14° 

Appendix: An Ode for the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 1 165 

Index 1365 



The Half Moon. From water-color drawing by H. J. Kohler 

Frontispiece, Volume I 

The Clermont. From facsimile built in 1909 Frontispiece, Volume II 

Portrait of Stewart L. Woodford 515 

Portrait of Herman Ridder 515 

Portrait of Isaac N. Seligman 515 

Portrait of Henry W. Sackett 515 

Official Medal 517 

Official Seal 519 

Official Flag 521 

Official Badge 523 

Medal presented to Herman Ridder and Henry W. Sackett 525 

Official Poster 527 

Hudson's Last Voyage. From painting by Hon. John Collier 529 

Launching of the Half Moon at Amsterdam, 1909 531 

The Half Moon, with crew on forecastle 533 

The Half Moon. Near view of bow 535 

The Half Moon. Near view of stern 537 

The Half Moon. Upper deck, looking forward 539 

The Half Moon. Upper deck, looking aft 541 

The Half Moon. 'Tween-deck, view forward showing guns 543 

The Half Moon. 'Tween-deck, showing cook's galley 545 

The Half Moon being lowered from deck of Soestdijk in New York 

Navy Yard, July 23, 1909 547 

The Half Moon afloat in New York Harbor 549 

The Half Moon ramming the Clermont, September 25, 1909 551 

Engrossed Testimonial accompanying the Half Moon 553 

Portrait of Robert Fulton from painting by Benjamin West 555 

The Clermont on the ways 557 

The Clermont. Near view of stern on the ways 559 

Launching of the Clermont 561 

The original Clermont's bell 563 

The Clermont. Near view of paddlewheel and machinery 565 

The Clermont. Inboard view of machinery 567 

The Clermont proceeding with steam and sail. Stern view 569 



The Clermont under way. Bow view 571 

Illuminations. New York City Hall 573 

Illuminations. Washington Arch, New York 575 

Illuminations. Court of Honor, New York 577 

Illuminations. Plaza Hotel, New York 579 

Illuminations. Soldiers and Sailors' Monument, New York 581 

Illuminations. One Hundred and Twenty-fifth Street, New York 583 

Illuminations. The Ryan Scintillator 585 

Illuminations. Official landing and fleet. New York 587 

Illuminations. Warships outlined in light, New York 589 

Illuminations. Fireworks and fleet opposite Grant's Tomb 591 

Illuminations. Three East River Bridges 593 

Illuminations. Soldiers and Sailors' Arch, Brooklyn 595 

Illuminations. Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 597 

Illuminations. Bronx Borough Hall 599 

Illuminations. Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor 601 

Naval Parade at New York. Two general views 603 

Naval Parade at New York. View toward Grant's Tomb 605 

Naval Parade at New York. Clermont and tugs 607 

Naval Parade at New York. Half Moon and tug 609 

Naval Parade at New York. Mayflower and battleships 611 

Naval Parade at New York. View from Riverside Park during saluting. 613 
Naval Parade at New York. Looking northeast near head of line of war- 
ships 615 

Naval Parade at New York. Looking northeast toward Grant's Tomb; 

boats returning 617 

Naval Parade at New York. Official Landing at iioth street 619 

Naval Parade at New York. Reception of Clermont Party at Official 

Landing 621 

Naval Parade at New York. Spectators in Riverside Park, above 

Grant's Tomb 623 

Historical Parade in New York. Forming at iioth street and Central 

Park West 625 

Historical Parade in New York at Court of Honor 627 

Historical Float No. i. History of New York 629 

Historical Float No. 2. The Indian Period 629 

Historical Float No. 3. Legend of Hiawatha 631 

Historical Float No. 4. The Five Nations 631 

Historical Float No. 5. First Sachem of the Iroquois 633 

Historical Float No. 6. Season of Blossoms 633 




Historical Float No. 7. Season of Fruits 635 

Historical Float No. 8. Season of Hunting 635 

Historical Float No. 9. Season of Snows 637 

Historical Float No. 10. Indian War Dance 637 

Historical Float No. 1 1 . Dutch Period 639 

Historical Float No. 12. The Half Moon 639 

Historical Float No. 13. Fate of Henry Hudson 641 

Historical Float No. 14. First Vessel of Manhattan 641 

Historical Float No. 15. Purchase of Manhattan Island 643 

Historical Float No. 16. Bronck's Treaty with the Indians 643 

Historical Float No. 17. Reception of Stuyvesant 645 

Historical Float No. 18. Bowling on Bowling Green 645 

Historical Float No. 19. Gov. Leisler and the Huguenots 647 

Historical Float No. 20. Dutch Doorway 647 

Historical Float No. 21. New Amsterdam becomes New York 649 

Historical Float No. 22. Saint Nicholas 649 

Historical Float No. 23. Colonial Period 651 

Historical Float No. 24. Schuyler and Indians at Court of St. James. . 651 

Historical Float No. 25. Trial of John Peter Zenger 653 

Historical Float No. 26. The Stamp Act 653 

Historical Float No. 27. Colonial Home 655 

Historical Float No. 28. Governor Dongan 655 

Historical Float No. 29. Philipse Manor House 657 

Historical Float No. 30. Exploit of Marinus Willett 657 

Historical Float No. 31. Destruction of Statue of George III 659 

Historical Float No. 32. Publishing the State Constitution 659 

Historical Float No. 33. Storming of Stony Point 661 

Historical Float No. 34. Capture of Andre 661 

Historical Float No. 35. Order of the Cincinnati 663 

Historical Float No. 36. Hamilton's Harangue 663 

Historical Float No. 37. Old Time Punishments 665 

Historical Float No. 38. Washington Taking Oath of Office 665 

Historical Float No. 39. Washington's Coach 667 

Historical Float No. 40. Nathan Hale 667 

Historical Float No. 41. Washington's Farewell to His Officers 669 

Historical Float No. 42. Legend of Rip Van Winkle 669 

Historical Float No. 43. Legend of Sleepy Hollow 671 

Historical Float No. 44. United States and Modern Period 671 

Historical Float No. 45. The Clermont 673 

Historical Float No. 46. Fulton's Ferry 673 



Reception of Lafayette 

Erie Canal Boat 

Old Fire Engine 

Old Broadway Sleigh 

Garibaldi's Home, Staten Island. 
Introduction of Croton Water. . . . 

Statue of Liberty 

Father Knickerbocker Receiving. 

French sailors marching down Central 

Historical Float No. 47. 
Historical Float No. 48. 
Historical Float No. 49. 
Historical Float No. 50. 
Historical Float No. 51. 
Historical Float No. 52. 
Historical Float No. 53. 
Historical Float No. 54. 
Official Banquet, New York. . . 
Military Parade in New York. 

Park West 

Military Parade in New York. British Marines 

Military Parade in New York. West Point Cadets marching down 

Central Park West 

Military Parade in New York. Court of Honor and distinguished guests. 
Military Parade in New York. Marine Band and British Sailors 

emerging from Court of Honor 

Military Parade in New York. British Marines passing Court of 


Military Parade in New York. West Point Band and Cadets passing 

Court of Honor 

Military Parade in New York. Seventh Regiment halted in Central 

Park West 

Military Parade in New York. Birdseye view looking north from 23d 

street and 5th avenue 

Military Parade in New York. Spectators on southeast corner of 5th 

avenue and 23d street 

Military Parade in New York. Spectators on southwest corner of 5th 

avenue and 23d street 

Columbia University Lawn Fete. Scene near the Reception Marquee. 

Columbia University Lawn Fete. Moorish Delegates 

Columbia University Lawn Fete. Iroquois Indians 

Public Health Hospital Tent in New York 

Carnival Float No. i. Music, Art and Literature 





Crowning of Beethoven 

^olian Harp 

Carnival Float No. 2. 
Carnival Float No. 3. 
Carnival Float No. 4. 
Carnival Float No. 5. 
Carnival Float No. 6. 
Carnival Float No. 7. 






















Carnival Float No. 8. 
Carnival Float No. 9. 
Carnival Float No. 10. 
Carnival Float No. 11. 
Carnival Float No. 12. 
Carnival Float No. 13. 
Carnival Float No. 14. 
Carnival Float No. 15. 
Carnival Float No. 16. 
Carnival Float No. 1 7. 
Carnival Float No. 18. 
Carnival Float No. 19. 
Carnival Float No. 20. 
Carnival Float No. 21. 
Carnival Float No. 22. 
Carnival Float No. 23. 
Carnival Float No. 24. 
Carnival Float No. 25. 
Carnival Float No. 26. 
Carnival Float No. 27. 
Carnival Float No. 28. 
Carnival Float No. 29. 
Carnival Float No. 30. 
Carnival Float No. 31. 
Carnival Float No. 32. 
Carnival Float No. 33. 
Carnival Float No. 34. 
Carnival Float No. 35. 
Carnival Float No. 36. 
Carnival Float No. 37. 
Carnival Float No. 38. 
Carnival Float No. 39. 
Carnival Float No. 40. 
Carnival Float No. 41. 
Carnival Float No. 42. 
Carnival Float No. 43. 
Carnival Float No. 44. 
Carnival Float No. 45. 
Carnival Float No. 46. 
Carnival Float No. 47. 


Lohengrin 1 179 

Lorelei 1181 

Death of Fafner 118 1 

Queen of Sheba 1183 

Gotterdammerung 1 183 

Meistersinger 1185 

Walkure 1185 

Tannhauser 1187 

Freischutz 11 87 

Siegfried 1 189 

Humor 1189 

Titania 1191 

Origin of Poetry 1191 

Andreas Hofer 1 193 

Marathon 1 193 

Frost King 1195 

William Tell 1 195 

Nimrod 1197 

Andromeda 1197 

Fritz Reuter 1 199 

Hansa 1199 

Harvesting 1201 

Peace 1201 

Diana 1203 

Europa 1203 

Heidelberg 1205 

Gnomes 1205 

Bavaria 1207 

Sirens 1207 

Medusa 1209 

Elves of Spring 1209 

Good Luck 121 1 

The Jungle 121 1 

Egyptian Art, Music and Literature 12 13 

Father Rhine 1213 

Germania 1215 

Mermaids 1215 

Fairies 1217 

Cinderella 1217 

Orpheus Before Pluto 1219 




Carnival Float No. 48. God of the Alps 1219 

Carioval Float No. 49. Avalanche of Freedom 122 1 

Carnival Float No. 50. Uncle Sam Welcoming the Nations 1 22 1 

Dedications. Tablet to Dutch School Teachers on New York University 

Building, Nev7 York 1223 

Dedications. Tablet marking First Line of Defence in 1776, New York. 1225 

Dedications. Tablet marking site of City Wall Bastion, New York 1227 

Dedications. Indian Dance at Palisades Interstate Park 1229 

Dedications. Hudson Monument, New York 1231 

Dedications. Tablet marking site of Fort Amsterdam 1233 

Dedications. Fort Tryon Monument, New York 1235 

Dedications. Memorial Arch at Stony Point 1237 

Dedications. Verrazzano Monument, New York 1239 

Aeronautics. Aeroplane shed on Governor's Island 1241 

Aeronautics. Soldiers drawing Wright's machine to field, Governor's 

Island 1243 

Aeronautics. Details of Wright's biplane 1245 

Aeronautics. Wright leaving the ground in his machine 1247 

Aeronautics. Wright in flight at sunset, September 29, 1909 1249 

Aeronautics. Wright about to fly, October 4, 1909 1251 

Aeronautics. Glenn H. Curtis in his machine 1253 

Aeronautics. Signal flags used by Commission 1255 

Children's Festivals in Bronx Botanical Garden. "First Stars and 

Stripes" 1257 

Children's Festivals in Central Park, New York. Bohemian Drill 1259 

Children's Festivals in Court of Honor, New York. Colored children 

impersonating Indians 1261 

Children's Festivals in Court of Honor, New York. Two drills 1263 

Children's Festivals in Prospect Park, Brooklyn. Two dances 1265 

Yonkers Ceremonies. Manor Hall Decorated 1267 

Yonkers Ceremonies. Living Flag in Front of High School 1269 

Yonkers Ceremonies. Spectators in Getty Square 1271 

Yonkers Ceremonies. Head of Procession coming through Arch. . . . 1273 

Yonkers Ceremonies. Manor Hall Float coming through Arch 1275 

Yonkers Ceremonies. Gov. Hughes, Mayor Warren and others, re- 
viewing Parade, October 4, 1909 1277 

Yonkers Ceremonies. Illumination of Getty Square 1279 

Newburgh Ceremonies. Arrival of Naval Parade, October I, 1909 1281 

Newburgh Ceremonies. Arrival of Naval Parade. Continuous with 

preceding picture 1283 

Illustrations xv 


Newburgh Ceremonies. Half Moon and Clermont in Bay 1285 

Newburgh Ceremonies. Reception on dock, October i, 1909 1287 

Newburgh Ceremonies. Head of parade in Water Street 1289 

Newburgh Ceremonies. Living Flag 1291 

Newburgh Ceremonies. Illumination of Broadway 1293 

Kingston Ceremonies. Wall Street Decorated 1295 

Kingston Ceremonies. Court of Honor at City Hall 1297 

Kingston Ceremonies. Court of Honor Illuminated 1299 

Kingston Ceremonies. The Strand at Night 1301 

Kingston Ceremonies. Electric Flag 1303 

Catskill Ceremonies. Gov. Hughes speaking at Court House 1305 

Catskill. Greene County Court House from which Gov. Hughes spoke. 1307 

Catskill. Bridge across Catskill Creek 1309 

Hudson Ceremonies. Arrival of Steamboat Robert Fulton 1311 

Hudson Ceremonies. Arrival of Steamboat Onteora 13 13 

Hudson Ceremonies. Scene at River Side 13 13 

Hudson Ceremonies. Marines in Parade 1315 

Hudson Ceremonies. Indians in Parade 13 15 

Hudson. Park and Fountain 1317 

Albany Ceremonies. State Street Looking West 1319 

Albany Ceremonies. Corner of State Street and Broadway 1321 

Albany Ceremonies. Reception of Distinguished Guests at Riverside 

Park 1323 

Albany Ceremonies. Mayor Snyder Giving Address of Welcome at 

Riverside Park 1325 

Albany Ceremonies. Living Flag on Capitol Steps 1327 

Albany Ceremonies. Gov. Hughes, Mayor Snyder and others review- 
ing Parade 1329 

Albany Ceremonies. Holland Hudson-Fulton Society marching down 

State Street 1331 

Troy Ceremonies. Central Court of Honor 1333 

Troy Ceremonies. Gov. Hughes and Children who Escorted Him. . . . 1335 

Troy Ceremonies. Congress Street Bridge on Arrival of Fleet 1337 

Troy Ceremonies. Dutch Windmill in Franklin Square 1339 

Troy Ceremonies. Illuminations. Central Court of Honor and Half 

Moon on Manufacturers National Bank 1341 

Troy Ceremonies. Clermont Court of Honor at Night 1343 

Troy Ceremonies. Half Moon Court of Honor at Night 1343 

Troy Ceremonies. Half Moon and Steamers Clermont, Norwich and 

Trojan 1345 

xvi Illustrations 


Cohoes. City from East Side of Hudson River 1347 

Cohoes. The Falls 1349 

Cohoes. The Old Van Schaick Mansion 1351 

Cohoes. Reformed Dutch Church 1353 

Inwood Hill, New York 1355 

Verplanck's Point 1357 

Hudson River Scenery 1359 

Decoration conferred upon Stewart L. Woodford by Kaiser Wilhelm. . 1361 

Oil portrait of Kaiser Wilhelm presented by him to Herman Ridder. . . 1363 
Plans of the Half Moon: Rigging; Stern Structure; Longitudinal 
Section; Body; Sheer; Half Breadth; Top View; Poop Deck; Upper 

Deck; 'Tween-deck; Hold In pocket in back of volume H 

Plans of Clermont: Sheer; Full Breadth; Body; Stern 

In pocket in back of volume II 

TD.e- wiDSOR -F'aLK )i;. • ceie brti t i or • c( m. m issi on 


Om. SwMWi L. Wae«M 



or. in hb ibun». Cm. Jhm Cnn Wiboo 


Andrew CifiM^ 

Hon.UviP. Monon 

Han.Matau>J CBriw 


Cm. HMMcPorar 

Ccn. Jm. Crini Wilm 




DE-HALVE-MAENE Headqiuneis: Tribune Buildms. Na 154 Nassau St. New York TME-CLERMONT 

cob M*w "HudTti^ 

New York, May 19, 19 10, 

The Hon. James W. Wadsworth, Jr., 
Speaker of the Assembly, 

Albany N. Y. 

I have the honor to transmit herewith to the Legislature of 
the State of New York the Fourth Annual Report of the 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission as required by its 
charter. Chapter 325 of the Laws of 1906. 
Yours respectfully, 

Stewart L. Woodford, 

Henry W. Sackett, Secretary. 


FROM Saturday, September 25, to Monday, October il, 
1909, the State of New York commemorated, under the 
auspices of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 
the 300th anniversary of the discovery of the Hudson River 
by Henry Hudson in 1609 and the looth anniversary of the first 
successful application of steam to navigation upon that River 
by Robert Fulton in 1807. 

As a stimulus to its four years of devoted labor in preparing 
for the Celebration, the Commission had the inspiration of 
two eminent events in human history. 

The first of these, which brought the Hudson River to the Discov- 
knowledge of Europe and opened the adjacent region to^^. ® 
European settlement, was well calculated to appeal to the 
imagination and arouse popular interest. In contemplating 
it the mind instinctively compared conditions at the time of 
Hudson's advent with conditions at present and marveled at 
the change. Three hundred years ago, when civilization was 
hoary upon the banks of the Thames, the Rhine, the Seine, 
the Tiber, the Nile, and the Ganges, the primeval forests of 
the Hudson River gave shelter to no higher culture than the 
middle status of barbarism. Here was a virgin soil, seemingly 
reserved by Destiny in order that Civilization might here 
plant herself anew, and here cultivate in a freer air the insti- 
tutions for which she had qualified herself by hard and painful 
schooling in the Old World. Then came Hudson's little ship 
and then the magic of three centuries of change. And in the 
harbor where Hudson saw only the hollow-log canoes of the 
native Indians, to-day float the treasure-laden argosies of the 
world; where he saw the rude bark habitations of the abo- 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

rigines, now rises the second — soon to be the first — city of 
the world; and upon the banks of the river and in the tributary 
region where 300 years ago the barest necessities of precarious 
human existence were the measure of industry and the simplest 
requirements of personal adornment, the chase, and primitive 
warfare were the measure of art and science, now dwells a 
civilization which rivals that of any other part of the world. 
The contrasts thus presented by conditions at the two extremi- 
ties of the period and the consciousness of the phenomenal 
development of our people in the multifarious departments of 
human activity during the three centuries intervening, could 
not but arouse civic pride and inspire civic enthusiasm. 
Inven- In recalling the founding of New York, one is reminded of 

tion of gj^ Francis Bacon's saving that "as in the arts and sciences the 

Steam . . . . . ■' ^ 1. 11 u • 

Naviga- h^st invention is 01 more consequence than all the improve- 

tion ments afterwards," so "in kingdoms the first foundation or 
plantation is of more noble dignity and merit than all that 
followeth." There is, however, no more delicate, difficult 
and uncertain a task for the historian than that of comparing 
the relative importance of human events. Certainly, the 
second event commemorated in the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
was one which ranks worthily with the first in its importance 
to the world. It is, indeed, impossible to measure the far- 
reaching effect of Robert Fulton's genius, which has nar- 
rowed the ocean in point of time to one-sixth its former dreary 
breadth, has increased the productive power of mankind and 
multiplied the world's commerce, has given to all the navigable 
waters of the earth a value which they did not previously 
possess, and by increasing the neighborliness of nations has 
promoted, to a degree which cannot well be measured, the 
brotherhood of mankind. This last aspect of the results of 
Fulton's genius may well be regarded as its most beneficent. 
While the material and tangible results of increased commerce 
due to steam navigation are conspicuous to the senses, it is not 


extravagant, perhaps, to say that the increased personal inter- 
course of nations is having, and is destined yet to have, the 
greater influence on the history of the world. Buckle, in his 
profound two-volume "Introduction" to his projected "His- 
tory of Civilization in England, " speaking of the French and 
English peoples, said that they have "by the mere force of 
increased contact learned to think more favorably of each 
other and to discard that foolish contempt in which both nations 
indulged. In this, as in all cases, the better one civilized nation 
is acquainted with another, the more it will find to respect 
and imitate. For of all the causes of national hatred, ignorance 
is the most powerful. When you increase the contact, you 
remove the ignorance and thus you diminish the hatred. This 
is the true bond of charity." He then calls attention to the 
inefiicacy of centuries of moralizing in reducing the frequency 
of war, and adds: "But it may be said without the slightest 
exaggeration that every new railroad which is laid down and 
every fresh steamer which crosses the Channel are additional 
guarantees for the preservation of . . . peace ..." In these 
words the writer uttered a truth which is of universal applica- 
tion and which gives a true measure of the value of Fulton's 

Thus the second event commemorated gave a wide range to 
the thoughts, extended the scope of the Celebration, and 
emphasized its international significance. 

Under these stimuli, the Commission arranged its plans with 
certain very definite ends in view. 

The first was to make the Celebration educational, notcelebra- 
commercial. The idea of an Exposition was among the earliest tio^Edu- 
suggestions made to the Commission; but after careful con-uotCom- 
sideration, the proposition was not adopted, and throughout ™ercial 
all of the Commission's plans, the most careful pains were 
taken to avoid anything of a commercial tincture. Nothing 
of an advertising nature was permitted in the great land parades; 

The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

no advertisements were permitted in the official literature; 
no admittance fee was charged to any function upon which 
public moneys were expended; and no public moneys were 
expended upon any personal decorations or souvenirs for the 
members of the Commission. On the contrary it was designed 
that every thing should be as educative as possible and that 
the greatest number of people possible should freely see the 
public spectacles. It was for this reason that the English plan 
of historical pageants within an enclosed space to which 
admission should be charged was deliberately avoided. 
Designed In the educational conception of the Celebration, much 
to Create emphasis was laid on its historical side for the very natural 
torical reason that historical events were being commemorated. But 
Awaken- there were additional reasons for this emphasis. The State 
"^ of New York, as compared with her neighbors on the east and 

south, has heretofore shown questionable modesty in refraining 
from exploiting her own history. A glance at the book-shelves 
of any great public Hbrary will show how industrious the his- 
torians of Massachusetts and Pennsylvania and Virginia have 
been in recording the annals of which they are justly proud 
and how comparatively indifferent our own writers have been 
in this field. And this disparity has resulted in a very general 
ignorance of the full part played by our Colony and State in 
our national history. Furthermore, it has led to a positive 
and unfortunate misconception by many persons of the dignity 
of our State history. Taine, in his History of English Litera- 
ture, has said, referring to the position of "Don Quixote" in 
the literature of Spain, that the best known and best loved book 
in Spanish literature is a satire on Spanish literature. Simi- 
larly one might say of New York history, that for many years, 
the best known — if not the best loved — book of New York 
history was a satire on New York history. The misfortune 
of Irving's "Knickerbocker's History of New York" was not 
so much its satire, which any person with a reasonable sense 


of humor can appreciate, as the period at which it appeared — 
a period barren of any worthy and serious history of New York, 
The result was that many persons derived their impressions 
of the character of the founders of New York from Irving's 
whimsical conceptions. Gen. James Grant Wilson's scholarly 
four-volume Memorial History of New York has done much 
to compensate for past deficiencies with respect to the history 
of the City of New York, but there is yet no monumental 
history of the State of New York, and it must be confessed 
that New York is far from the position of historical eminence 
which she would hold, in the estimation not only of her own 
people but also of the nation at large, if there were a more 
popular familiarity with her annals. The second object of 
the Commission, therefore, was to create an historical awakening 
throughout the State. 

A third object sought to be attained by the educational fea- Assimila- 
tures was to promote the assimilation of our adopted popula- y^jiopted 
tion. Knowledge of the history of a city, or a state, or a nation Popula- 
conduces to love of country, civic pride and loyalty to estab- "°° 
lished institutions. It serves to bind a people together, make 
it more homogeneous and give it stability. And it makes the 
inhabitants better citizens by holding up to their eyes lofty 
traditions to enlist their affections and inspire their imitation. 
With over 26 per cent of the population of the State foreign 
born, and 33 per cent more born here of foreign parents, 
it was felt that such a Celebration as was planned would 
result in great and far-reaching good. Still further to empha- 
size this phase of the Celebration, the people of every nation- 
ality were invited to take part in the parades and festivals, and 
an effort was made to make them feel that the Celebration 
belonged to them as much as to the older inhabitants; that by 
adopting our citizenship they adopted our traditions and insti- 
tutions; and that their pride and loyalty should be as great 
as those of the descendants of the pioneer settlers. 

8 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

It requires but little reflection to perceive the great value of 
acquainting our adopted citizens with the fact that we have a 
body of worthy traditions and attaching them to those tra- 
ditions. The power of tradition has been one of the most 
fundamental and conservative forces of all peoples of all times. 
As a body propelled through space tends to travel in a direct line 
unless diverted by some force other than that which drives it, 
so a people naturally tends to follow the impulses of the past 
and to adhere to tradition unless turned therefrom by other 
influences. Therefore the ingrained history of a nation, 
which in a broad sense we call tradition, serves as a balance 
wheel, tending to restrain sudden and spasmodic departures 
from the normal mode of progress. Historical culture thus 
materially promotes the welfare of the Commonwealth. 
Promo- The Celebration also presented to the Commission a fourth 
i°t°- opportunity of which it availed itself, namely, to promote 
national international friendship. The events primarily celebrated 
and the history of our city and State following upon them 
inevitably suggested the relations which we sustain to the nations 
of the old world. The Netherlands fitted out the ship which 
explored our river and planted the first colony here. England 
furnished the bold navigator who sailed the ship and later she 
cultivated and developed the seedling colony planted by the 
Dutch. Italy, the mother of great explorers, 85 years earlier, 
supplied the navigator who first entered and described the 
lower harbor of New York; and France, whose friendly troops 
camped on our soil to help our forefathers win their independ- 
ence, gave Verrazzano his commission. Irish parents gave 
birth to the steamboat inventor; and a hundred other ties of 
historical tradition and blood transfusion were recalled, binding 
us to every civilized nation on the earth. The occasion was 
propitious, therefore, for strengthening the ties which happily 
exist between them and us; and while the Commission never 
forgot that it represented only the State of New York, yet the 



geographical position of the State as the Golden Gate of the 
east, its representative character as one of the leading States 
of the Union, the preeminence of the Metropolis in its foreign 
financial and commercial relations, and its unsurpassed facili- 
ties for entertaining foreign visitors on land and water, created 
exceptionally favorable conditions for impressing visitors from 
abroad with the best aspects of American life. Therefore 
every civilized nation with which the United States holds 
diplomatic relations was invited to send its representatives 
and every seaboard nation was invited to send in addition 
one or more vessels of its navy. When these guests arrived, 
less care was taken to impress them with our material achieve- 
ment, which was obvious, than to show them the evidences 
of our culture in the arts and graces of civilization and to 
acquaint them personally with our best ideals and our noblest 
institutions. Above all, they were taken as closely to the hearts 
of our people as the most cordial and unreserved hospitality 
could make possible and were made to feel both the respect and 
the affection which we entertain for those many fatherlands 
from which we have inherited so many of our traditions and 
from which so large a part of our population has come. Senator 
Root eloquently summed up this phase of the Celebration when, 
at the Official Banquet in New York City on September 29, 
he said to the foreign representatives: "We are not celebrating 
ourselves. We are not celebrating the greatness and wealth 
of our city . . . We celebrate in Hudson the great race of men 
who made the age of discovery . . . We celebrate in Fulton 
the great race of men whose inventive genius has laid the founda- 
tion for a broader, nobler and more permanent civilization the 
world over . . . Standing at the gateway of the New World, 
we celebrate the immense significance of America to all man- 
kind . . . You who have come to us from abroad, from what- 
soever country you come, find here the children of your own 
fatherland. In all that you find here that is worthy of admira- 

lo The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

tion and commendation, you find in part the work of your own 
brothers . . . This is your celebration as well as ours. " 

It is impossible to read the official expressions made by these 
visitors, not only at the time of the Celebration but also after 
their departure, and not find in the manifest sincerity of their 
sentiments a very full realization of the purpose of the Com- 
mission in inviting them. 

Commis- Hov? the Commission evolved and executed the plan for 
sionTypi- _ .... 

cal of carrying out the purposes above described will appear in detail 

State jjj fj^g following chapters. As to the Commission itself, it may 
be said that it was thoroughly typical of the State and City 
which it represented. Art, literature, science, the learned 
professions, finance, commerce, manufacture, manual occupa- 
tion, and almost every other leading phase of our varied life 
was represented on the Commission by some of its principal 
exponents. Every religion and every political party had its 
participant; and the representatives of the three great continents 
of the old world worked side by side with the descendants of 
the Dutch founders of New Netherland and the early English 
pioneers of New York, 
nnanim- A very remarkable feature of the work of the Commission, in 
Q ° -1 view of the diversity of the interests represented therein, was 
the unanimity of its councils. Although many questions 
arose during its four years' deliberations upon which diverse 
views were at first entertained, and although they were dis- 
cussed with the force and earnestness of minds possessing 
strong convictions, there was never a subject of importance 
upon which, after a free interchange of views, the Trustees did 
not find common ground upon which to reach a substantially 
unanimous conclusion. This unanimity was the more remark- 
able in view of the wide range of interests represented in the 
Commission and in the plan of the Celebration. The Celebration 
was not localized, like an Exposition, in one city with only 
local interests to be consulted. The principal part of the 

Introduction 1 1 

Celebration extended along 200 miles of the Hudson valley, 
from Staten Island on the south to Troy and Cohoes on the 
north, and the various local interests of all intermediate com- 
munities were represented on the Commission by men chosen 
for their force of mind and character. In this respect, as in 
others, the task of the Commission was very unusual, and the 
felicitous harmony which prevailed was manifestly due to the 
unselfish spirit of the members of the Commission, who dedi- 
cated their labors to the public welfare, who had no personal 
ends to attain, and whose only recompense for their valuable 
contributions of time, labor and in many cases money, was to 
be found in the consciousness of a public duty faithfully dis- 
charged and in the satisfaction to be derived from the con- 
templation of successful celebration. Gen. Woodford, the 
President of the Commission, who soon after the Celebration 
started on his mission abroad to present the Gold Medals and 
messages sent by the Commission to the heads of Governments 
represented by naval vessels at the festivities, wrote from 
Italy, in April, 1910: "I have never known a body of men 
like our Commission — one purpose — one effort — not a 
personal ambition." 

Of the Celebration itself, it may be said that taken as a a Fes- 
whole — in character, significance and extent — it was unique, ti^** o* 
It was not a rejoicing such as those which have greeted thegg^y. 
return of troops from victorious wars, when tears of joy were ment 
mingled with tears of sorrow. It was not a demonstration of 
gladness upon the return of a victorious fleet, when the exulta- 
tion of a grateful people carried with it the inseparable regret 
of generous victors over vanquished foes. It was not the 
vaunting demonstration of a political party in the bitter rivalry 
of a partisan campaign. Such occasions have seen parades 
greater in length and numbers than those of 1909. The 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration, on the contrary, was a jubilee of 
happiness. The Nation was at peace with the world. Civil 

12 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

concord blessed our people at home. Material prosperity 
abounded. Even man's evil propensities seemed to be sus- 
pended and the best qualities of human nature to come to the 
surface, for it is a literal fact that during the two weeks of the 
Celebration in New York City, there were fewer homicides, 
fewer suicides, and less crime generally than in any other equal 
period in the year. There were also fewer accidents and a 
lower general death rate than usual. There was seemingly 
nothing to alloy the happiness of the occasion and the people 
practically abandoned themselves for a fortnight to a rational 
festival of patriotic sentiment. 
Value of Upon this Celebration a little over a million dollars was 
Celebra- expended under the direct auspices of the Commission. Of 
Ucal- these funds, the State Government appropriated about 48 per 
culable cent and the New York City Government about 24 per cent. 
The free-will offerings of the inhabitants of New York City 
furnished about 28 per cent. In addition to these funds, 
large amounts were raised and expended under private auspices 
in the various communities throughout the State. No financial 
aid was received from the Federal Government* or from any 
other State.f 

The question may be asked: "Did it pay?" To the 
inquirer who calculates results by the gold-measurer's balance, 
it may be replied that one of the foremost financiers of the 
country is quoted as saying that our increased commerce, due 
to more friendly international relations, will more than com- 
pensate for every dollar expended. That, however, is an 
incidental result. Material gain was not the purpose of the 
Celebration, and it is no more possible to gauge its results by 

* As stated in the following chapters, however, the Federal GoTeroment cordially lent its invalu- 
able aid in inviting foreign governments, in the presence of the United States Navy and Army, in 
entertaining the guests from abroad, in issuing a commemorative postage stamp, and in other ways. 

+ Since the foregoing was written, the New Jersey Committee of the Commission, of which Hon. 
E. C. Stokes is Chairman, has contributed $821.27. 

Introduction 13 

the standard of dollars than it is to measure the value of educa- 
tion by the cost of the public schools or the value of civilization 
by the cost of orderly government. The Hudson-Fulton 
commemoration was a celebration of sentiment ; and sentiment 
— vphat people think — is one of the strongest mainsprings of 
human action. An eminent English jurist says that sentiment 
is more powerful than law, for law is the expression of senti- 
ment and cannot be enforced without its support. And a distin- 
guished French critic, about to write the history of a national 
literature, says that the motive forces of history are to be sought 
in the human sentiments. To cultivate ideals, then, is to 
advance civilization; and who can measure the elevating influ- 
ence of the many exhibitions of the arts and sciences through- 
out the State; of the examples of great men recalled to the 
rising generation in a thousand public schools; and of the ideals 
held up by preachers and orators in hundreds of pulpits and on 
a score of platforms ? Many monuments of bronze and stone 
will record the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, but the most 
enduring monument is that which has been erected in the minds 
of our people, a memorial of a brilliant past and an inspiration 
to a more lustrous future. 


THE Hudson-Fulton Celebration in the State of New York Two 
in 1909 was the result of two separate but closely related jj,^*reie^ 
ideas. The first of these ideas sprang from the approach bration 
of the 300th anniversary of the third and most famous of Hud- 
son's four historic voyages, the realization of the importance of 
that voyage as a factor in the opening of the North American 
Continent to civilization, and the instinctive desire to com- 
memorate the anniversary in a suitable way. In hke manner, 
the second idea sprang from the approach of the looth anni- 
versary of the first practical application of steam to navigation 
by Fulton. One anniversary came in 1909, the other in 1907; 
but as Fulton's demonstration of the practicability of the use 
of steam as a motive power for boats was made upon the river 
which Hudson had explored, the close relation of the two 
anniversaries was quickly perceived and the movements for 
their independent celebrations were merged in the creation of 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. The course of 
events leading up to the union of these two movements was 
as follows: 

The earliest suggestion of a Celebration of the Hudson Earliest 
Ter-centenary appears to have been made by the late Rev. °"Sges- 
J. H. Suydam, of Rhinebeck, N. Y., who, in a letter printed 
in the New York Tribune July 31, 1893, commenting on the 
Columbian celebration, proposed the celebration of the 300th 
anniversary of the discovery of the Hudson River in 1909. 
He inquired: "Will such organizations as the St. Nicholas 
Society or the Holland Society of New York deem this of 
sufficient importance to begin the agitation ? " 

The records of the Holland Society, eight years later, con- 
tain the following minute: 


1 6 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

"At a stated meetingof the Trustees of The Holland Society, June 13, 1901, 
the Secretary (Theodore M. Banta) called attention to the fact that the 300th 
anniversary of the discovery of the Hudson River by Hendrick Hudson will 
occur in the year 1909 — and offered the follovying preamble and resolution 
which were adopted: 

" ' Whereas the three hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the Hudson 
River by a Dutch schip under the command of Captain Hendrick Hudson will 
occur in September, 1909, and it is eminently fitting that the tri-centennial of 
that momentous event in our history should be celebrated in a suitable manner, 

" ' Resolved, That che President of this Society be requested to appoint a 
Committee to take into consideration and report as to the best mode of enlisting 
the sympathy and securing the co-operation of all citizens of the State and of 
the country in a suitable commemoration of the ter-centenary of the discovery of 
the Hudson River.* 

"The President appointed as such a Committee the following gentlemen: 
Augustus Van Wyck, Warner Van Norden, Theodore M. Banta, Robert B. 
Roosevelt, Henry Van Dyke." 

Hudson In November, 1901, a number of citizens of New York City 
Tri-cen- met with a similar object in view, and on June 3, 1902, for- 
Associa- in^lly organized as the Hudson Tri-centennial Association with 
tion Mr. Thomas Powell Fowler as President; Messrs. J. P. Mor- 
gan, James Stillman and J. Edward Simmons as Vice-Presi- 
dents; Mr. Talcott C. Van Santvoord as Treasurer; and 
Captain George A. White as Secretary. This Association 
suggested the construction of a Hudson Memorial Bridge from 
Inwood Hill to Spuyten Duyvil Hill across Spuyten Duyvil 
Creek near its confluence with the Hudson River. Different 
projects had been discussed, but the Association finally decided 
upon the plan for a bridge designed by Mr. A. P. Boiler and 
presented the matter to the Hon. Seth Low, who was Mayor 
of New York in 1902 and 1903. The members of Mayor 
Low's administration regarded the idea of a memorial bridge 
with favor, but no definite action was secured during his 
incumbency, as the Mayor did not wish to commit his suc- 
cessors to a project the cost of which might exceed the debt 

Origin of The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 1 7 

limit. The City did, however, make an appropriation of 

^10,000 for the necessary engineering investigations and the 

Park Department was approached with a view to the provision 

of sufficient land for the construction of the bridge. Since 

then the pro-ject of the Hudson Memorial Bridge has been 

accepted by the municipal authorities as an important link in 

the great Riverside Drive of New York City along the shore 

of the Hudson, although the financial requirements for other 

and more immediately necessary public improvements have, 

as yet, deferred the consummation of the plan. 

In 1902 the suggestion for a ter-centenary celebration was World's 

renewed in another form by Dr. George Frederick Kunz in an ^" ^"^' 

T t ■ • . . gested 

article in the North American Review for September, in which 

he said: "There should be a World's Fair in 1909 on Man- 
hattan Island in honor of the ter-centenary of Henry Hud- 
son's arrival in the Half Moon, as has been suggested by that 
able Dutch-American, Jan Theodore van Gestel." 

Another important step was taken in the evolution of the Hudson 
organization of the Celebration when, on February 15, 1905, '^^'^"'=^'^" 
the late Hon. Robert B. Roosevelt, uncle of the then President joint 
of the United States and the descendant of one of the old Commit- 
Dutch families of New York, invited to his residence at No. 
57 Fifth avenue representatives of the American Scenic and 
Historic Preservation Society, the Empire State Society of the 
Sons of the American Revolution, the Holland Society, the 
Hudson Tri-centennial Association, the Municipal Art Society, 
the National Arts Club, the New York Society of the Order of 
the Founders and Patriots of America, and the Saint Nicholas 
Society, for the purpose of organizing themselves into a Joint 
or General Committee on the Tri-centennial Celebration of 
the Discovery of the Hudson River by Henry Hudson. This 
committee organized with the Hon. Robert B. Roosevelt as 
President, Mr. Theodore M. Banta as Vice-President, Col. 

1 8 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Henry W. Sackett as Secretary and Mr. Warner Van Norden 
as Treasurer. 

The Committee asked the Hon. George B. McClellan, then 
Mayor of New York, and the late Hon. Francis W. Higgins, 
then Governor of the State, officially to name a committee of 
citizens who should act jointly in arranging for a Hudson 
celebration; and those officials selected 150 gentlemen to 
compose the Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee. 

The first preliminary meeting of this Committee was held in 
the Governor's room of the City Hall on November 16, 1905, 
when the Hon. Robert B. Roosevelt was elected Temporary 
Chairman, and Col. Henry W. Sackett, Temporary Secretary. 
A second preliminary meeting was held at the same place 
November 24, 1905. On December 5, 1905, at the same place, 
a permanent organization was effected by the election of the 
following officers: 

President, Gen. Stewart L. Woodford. 

Vice-Presidents, Hon. Robert B. Roosevelt, Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie, Major-General Frederick D. Grant, U. S. A., Mr. 
Morris K. Jesup, Hon. Levi P. Morton, Mr. William Rocke- 
feller, Mr. William B. Van Rensselaer and Hon. Andrew D. 

Treasurer, Mr. J. P. Morgan. 

Secretary, Col. Henry W. Sackett. 

Assistant Secretary, Mr. Edward Hagaman Hall. 

The necessary working committees were also appointed. 
Hudson At the meeting of the Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Commit- 
Tn-cen- ^.^g j^^y December 5, 1905, the following letter was received 
Associa- from the Hudson Tri-Centennial Association: 

•y^jj.jj_ New York, November 20, 1905. 

draws To the Plan and Scope Committee, Hendrick Hudson Celebration: 

Gentlemen.— In pursuance of the request of the officially appointed Joint 
State and City Committee on the Hendrick Hudson Tri-centennial Anniversary, 
on September 9, 1909, the association which was formed by a few public- 

Origin of The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 19 

spirited citizens in 1902 to further the creation of an appropriate memorial of 
the historic event, so fraught with the destiny of the "new world," respectfully 
begs to report as follows: 

First. — That they regarded their organization simply as a preliminary one 
to incite the public interest for a celebration worthy of the occasion and the 
city of New York, and to advocate the idea that the occasion was one for a 
great civic memorial, which should not only add to the adornment of the city, 
but also be of a utilitarian character in the line of the development of Riverside 
Drive, the pride of our city -"nd matchless in any city in the world. 

Second. — That they have succeeded in creating great public interest, not 
only for an appropriate celebration, but also for the character of the permanent 
memorial proposed. 

Third. — That they have interested the city authorities in the proposition, 
which has culminated in an appropriation by the Board of Estimate and Appor- 
tionment to have the surveys and preliminary design prepared with cost of 
construction. This work has been accomplished, and the report of the Com- 
missioner of Bridges is now before the Board of Estimate. 

Fourth. — The association, believing that they have gone as far as an informal 
body could go in furtherance of so important a matter, take pleasure in giving 
way, for the large work which must now be done, to the officially appointed 
joint committees of the State and City, trusting that what they have accom- 
plished in a preliminary way will have the approval of their successors, and 
their active and immediate support before the city authorities in the permanent 
memorial proposed. 

Fifth. — As a matter of record, the association submits herewith a report 
made to it by a sub-committee, April, 1903, which had its unanimous approval. 

Sixth. — While the association regards its organized work as finished, its 
members will be glad to aid their successors, who have ofiScially taken up this 
work, in any way in their power. 

Respectfully submitted, 

T. P. Fowler, 
J. PiERPONT Morgan, 
J. Edward Simmons, 
James Stillman. 

This courteous letter of withdrawal from an organization 
which had already done so much for the celebration and had 
paved the way for a great public improvement was accepted 
with the Commission's high appreciation. 

The next step was to elicit suggestions concerning the form 

20 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

of the celebration in 1909, and in order that the people might 
ofFer their views on the subject, the Hudson Ter-centenary 
Joint Committee held three public hearings in the Governor's 
room of the New York City Hall on December 29, 1905, 
January 19, and January 26, 1906. At these hearings many 
valuable ideas were offered. 
Fulton During the course of these meetings it developed that there 
''•*T<^°i' '^^s ^ committee in existence, appointed by the Mayor of 
bration New York, to arrange for the celebration of the 1 00th anni- 
<;ommit- yersary of the first practical application of steam to navigation 
by Robert Fulton. That committee, entitled the Fulton Cen- 
tennial Celebration Committee, was appointed in response to 
the request of the New York Board of Trade and Transporta- 
tion, made through its special committee consisting of Hon. 
William McCarroll, then President of the New York Board of 
Trade and Transportation, and now one of the Public Service 
Commissioners of the Second District; Mr. Frank S. Gardner, 
Secretary of the Board of Trade, and Mr. Aaron Vanderbilt, 
Chairman of the Committee on Maritime Affairs. At their 
suggestion, Mayor McClellan invited a number of gentlemen to 
meet at his office in the City Hall on July 13, 1905, to concert 
measures for celebrating in 1907 the centennial anniversary of 
the first trip of the Clermont on the Hudson River. The 
Mayor opened the meeting and asked Hon. Oscar S. Straus to 
act as Temporary Chairman. At the same meeting, Mr. 
McCarroll was elected Permanent Chairman and Mr. James 
H. Kennedy Permanent Secretary. The necessary committees 
were appointed, Mr. Aaron Vanderbilt being Chairman of the 
Plan and Scope Committee. 
Hudson The Fulton Centennial Celebration Committee went to work 
f° " ' actively and was formulating plans for its celebration, when it 
united realized, as did the Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee, 
that two celebrations so closely related in their significance and 
so near each other in point of time might be combined to the 

Origin of The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 21 

advantage of both. With this common feeUng, the officers of 
the two organizations conferred informally, and on January 24, 
1906, the President of the Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Com- 
mittee wrote to the Mayor as follows: 

The Hon. George B. McClellan, 

Mayor of the City of New York, 

City Hall, New York: 

Dear Sir. — We have learned from the Secretary of the Committee appointed 
by you to arrange for the celebration in 1907 of the Centennial Anniversary of 
the first steam navigation of the Hudson river by Robert Fulton, that such 
Committee is to make its report to you on Thursday morning of this week, 
respecting the form of such celebration. 

In discussing the matter with other members of the Hudson Ter-centenary 
Joint Committee, appointed by you and the Governor of the State of New York, 
it has occurred to us to suggest to you the propriety of merging these two com- 
mittees for the purpose of celebrating both events in 1909. 

Our reasons for this are briefly these: 

These two events in the history of the Hudson River are so intimately related 
that their commemoration can with great propriety be combined in one cele- 
bration. Not only are the two events mutually related by their connection 
with the Hudson River, but an interesting coincidence of dates adds to the 
propriety of celebrating in 1909 the centennial of the beginning of steam navi- 
gation, for it was in 1809 that the Legislature of the State granted to Fulton 
the exclusive privilege of navigating the river — out of which action grew the 
famous case of Gibbons and Ogden, establishing the right of free navigation. 

We believe that the union of these two observances will strengthen each. 
It will not only allow the municipality and the various civic interests concerned 
to focus their energies on one great observance, but will more effectually con- 
centrate upon itself the public attention of the world. 

If the suggestion which we have made meets with your approval, and it 
should prove acceptable to the members of the Committee appointed by you 
for the Fulton Celebration, we believe that it would be a conclusion which 
would not only be cordially received by all the members of the Hudson Ter- 
centenary Committee, but would serve in every way the best public interests. 

Yours truly, 

Stewart L. Woodford, 

Henry W. Sackett, 


22 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

On January 25, 1906, a committee of the Fulton Committee 
consisting of Mr. McCarroll, Rear Admiral George W. Melville, 
U. S. N., Mr. Aaron Vanderbilt, Mr. L. T. Romaine, Mr. 
Colgate Hoyt and Mr. James H. Kennedy called on the Mayor, 
and made a similar recommendation. 

The Mayor approving of the suggestions, steps vpere at 
once taken to secure a charter to combine both movements. 

These steps were effective in securing the enactment of 
Chapter 325 of the Laws of 1906 creating the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Commission which became a law by the Gover- 
nor's signature April 27, 1906. (See next chapter.) 
Robert In order to prevent a confusion of organizations, it may be 
jjQjjy. added that while the events before recorded were taking place 
ment As- still another body, entitled the Robert Fulton Monument Asso- 
aocia ion (.j^j.}qj^^ ^3g formed by a number of leading and influential 
citizens of New York. This association effected a temporary 
organization in January, 1906, with Major-General Frederick 
D. Grant, U. S. A., as Temporary President, and in May 
effected a permanent organization with Mr. Cornelius Vander- 
bilt as President, the late Samuel L. Clemens ("Mark Twain") 
as First Vice-President, Mr. Hugh Gordon Miller as Second 
Vice-President, Mr. Richard Delafield as Treasurer, Mr. W. H. 
Fletcher as Secretary and Mr. H. W. Dearborn as Assistant 
Secretary. The specific object for which this Association was 
formed was the erection of a monument to Robert Fulton, and 
in 1907 it secured an act of the Legislature (Chap. 676) author- 
izing the City of New York to enter into an agreement with 
the Association in reference to the filling in and improvement 
of the land under water and the upland on the Hudson River 
opposite Riverside Park, New York, bounded by 11 6th street, 
the Hudson River Railroad, 114th street and the pierhead line, 
"for a water gate and monument to Robert Fulton, the inventor 
of steam navigation." The four grandchildren of Robert 
Fulton gave their consent to the removal of the inventor's 

Origin of The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 23 

body from Trinity Churchyard to the proposed monument 
and the Association planned to lay the corner-stone of the 
monument in 1907. In the expectation that the monument 
would be ready in 1909 and therefore an object of great interest 
in the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, the Hudson-Fulton Cele- 
bration Commission appointed a committee with Mr. Charles 
R. Lamb as Chairman to confer with the Robert Fulton Monu- 
ment Association with a view to friendly cooperation and to 
giving the Robert Fulton Monument suitable prominence in 
the ceremonies of 1 909. On February 1 5, 1 908, the President of 
this Commission addressed a communication to Mr. Robert 
Fulton Cutting of the Fulton Association, asking him to out- 
line how that Association felt about participating with this 
Commission in the ceremonies in 1909, and received from 
Mr. Vanderbilt, President of that Association, under date of 
March 2, 1908, a reply in which the latter said in part: 

"As you know, it will be necessary for us to eventually apply to the public 
for the funds necessary to erect the same" — (the water gate and tomb). "We 
feel that as the purposes of the two Associations are so different in character 
that it would be well to keep them distinct so that there may be no confusion 
on the part of the public at large in making their contributions. . . You 
will readily appreciate that in a public matter of this kind where no personal 
interests are involved, that it is both the intention and desire of all to act in the 
most perfect harmony and accord, but as you request in your letter a candid 
expression as to the relation of the two Associations, we, after careful con- 
sideration, feel that because of the different methods proposed of honoring 
the memory of Robert Fulton and the uncertainty as to just when we can carry 
out what we have undertaken to accomplish, that it would be better for the 
two Associations to act independently of each other." 

In deference to the foregoing expression, there was no further 
effort on the part of this Commission to coordinate its program 
with that of the Robert Fulton Monument Association. 



Law and' I "HE legislative matters of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

tion ^" M. Commission were in charge of the Committee of Law and 

Commit- Legislation, of which the Hon. William Winton Goodrich, 

®® Presiding Justice of the Appellate Division of the Supreme 

Court for the Second Department of the State of New York, 

was Chairman up to the time of his death November 21, 1906, 

and of which Mr. Francis Lynde Stetson has been Chairman 

since that date. The first task of this Committee was the 

drafting of the Charter of the Commission. 

On Friday, February 16, 1906, Gen. Stewart L. Woodford, 
President of the Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee, Judge 
Goodrich, the Hon. Charles S. Francis, the Hon. James M. 
Beck and Mr. Herman Ridder called on Gov. Higgins at Albany 
and laid before him the proposed Charter and on February 19 
the Governor sent it to the Legislature with the following 
special message: 

Executive Chamber, 

Albany, February 19, 1906. 
To the Legislature: 

Gov.Hig- During the past year historical societies and public-spirited citizens have 

8*°* been looking forward to some action on the part of the State and City of New 

to the '^ ^°^ ^^^ appropriate celebration of the three hundredth anniversary of 

Legisla- '^^ discovery of the Hudson River by Henry Hudson in the year 1609 and of 

ture the centennial anniversary of the first use of steam in the navigation of the 

Hudson River by Robert Fulton in the year 1807. These two events in the 

history of the Hudson River are of such interest to the State of New York, 

and to the United States, that it seems fitting that proper celebration of each 

should be had. 


Incorporation, Legislation and Legal Matters 25 

Having in view such official action, I acceded to the request of many gentle- 
men interested in the plan to name a Committee of distinguished citizens, 
with whom a Committee named by the Mayor of the City of New York should 
co-operate to formulate plans for a celebration of the Ter-centenary of the 
discovery of the Hudson. 

It has been suggested by this Committee, after long and careful considera- 
tion, that both events might, with propriety, be celebrated together in the year 
/ 1909, and that the union of these two observances would strengthen each and 
would more effectually concentrate upon the affair the attention of the world. 

The Committee now acting has no official status and is wholly an informal 
and unofficial body. In order to give it official standing and to provide it 
with sufficient funds for preliminary expenses, I recommend to the Legisla- 
ture the consideration of a bill entitled, "An Act to establish the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission, and to prescribe the powers and duties thereof, 
and making an appropriation therefor," a copy of which is herewith transmitted 
for your consideration. 

Frank W. Higgins. 

Upon the receipt of the message, the Hon. John Raines in- 
troduced the bill in the Senate and the Hon. Sherman Moreland 
in the Assembly. 

In due time the bill was enacted and became Chapter 325 Charter 
of the Laws of 1906 by the Governor's signature on April 27. ^*lf. 

It reads as follows: sion 


To establish the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission and to prescribe 
the powers and duties thereof and making an appropriation therefor. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, 
do enact as follows: 

Section i. Grover Cleveland, Levi P. Morton, David B. Hill, Frank S. 
Black, Benjamin B. Odell, Junior, Stewart L. Woodford, Robert B. Roose- 
velt, Andrew Carnegie, Frederick D. Grant, Morris K. Jesup, William Rocke- 
feller, William B. Van Rensselaer, Andrew D. White, J. Pierpont Morgan, 
Henry W. Sackett, Edward Hagaman Hall, Herbert Adams, R. B. Aldcroftt, 
Junior, John G. Agar, B. Altman, Louis Annin Ames, John E. Andrus, James 
K. Apgar, John D. Archbold, John Jacob Astor, Theodore M. Banta, Franklin 
Bartlett, James C. Bayles, James M. Beck, August Belmont, William Berri, 
Cornelius N. Bliss, E. W. Bloomingdale, Reginald Pelham Bolton, Thomas W. 
Bradley, George V. Brower, E. Parmly Brown, Henry K. Bush-Brown, William 

26 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

L. Bull, E. H. Butler, Nicholas Murray Butler, J. Rider Cady, J. H. Callanan, 
Henry W. Cannon, Joseph H. Choate, Caspar Purdon Clarke, George C. 
Clausen, A. T. Clearwater, Thomas Clyde, E. C. Converse, Walter Cook, 
John H. Coyne, E. D. Cummings, William J. Curtis, Paul D. Cravath, Charles 
de Kay, James de la Montayne, Chauncey M. Depew, Edward DeWitt, Wil- 
liam Draper, Charles A. DuBois, John C. Eames, George Ehret, Smith Ely, 
Arthur English, John M. Farley, J. Sloat Fassett, Barr Ferree, StU3rvesant 
Fish, Theodore Fitch, Winchester Fitch, J. J. Fitzgerald, Thomas Powell 
Fowler, Austen G. Fox, Charles S. Francis, Henry C. Frick, Frank S. Gardner, 
Garret J. Garretson, Theodore P. Gilman, Robert Walton Goelet, William W. 
Goodrich, George J. Gould, George F. Gregory, Henry E. Gregory, W. L. 
Guillaudeu, Abner S. Haight, Benjamin F. Hamilton, William S. Hawk, James 
A. Hearn, Peter Cooper Hewitt, Warren Higley, Michael H. Hirschberg, 
Samuel Verplanck Hoffman, Willis Holly, Colgate Hoyt, LeRoy Hubbard, 
Thomas H. Hubbard, T. D. Huntting, August F. Jaccaci, William Jay, Hugh 
Kelly, James H. Kennedy, John H. Ketcham, Horatio C. King, Albert E. 
Kleinert, George F. Kunz, John LaFarge, Charles R. Lamb, Frederick S. 
Lamb, Homer Lee, Charles W. Lefler, Julius Lehrenkrauss, Henry M. Leip- 
ziger, Clarence Lexow, Gustav Lindenthal, Walter Seth Logan, Charles H. 
Loring, Seth Low, William A. Marble, George E. Matthews, William Mc- 
Carroll, Donald McDonald, William J. McKay, St. Clair McKelway, George 
W. Melville, John G. Milburn, Frank D. Millet, A. L. Mills, Ogden Mills, 
C. H. Niehaus, Ludwig Nissen, Jacob W. Miller, W. R. O'Donovan, Eben 
E. Olcott, William Church Osborn, Percy B. O'Sullivan, Orrel A. Parker, 
John E. Parsons, Samuel Parsons, Junior, Samuel H. Parsons, Sereno E 
Payne, George Foster Peabody, R. E. Peary, Bayard L. Peck, Gordon H. 
Peck, Howland Pell, George W. Perkins, N. Taylor Phillips, Thomas C. 
Piatt, George A. Plimpton, Eugene H. Porter, Horace Porter, Henry C. Pot- 
ter, Cornelius A. Pugsley, Louis C. Raegener, Herman Ridder, Charles F. 
Roe, Carl J. Roehr, Louis T. Romaine, Thomas F. Ryan, George Henry 
Sargent, Herbert L. Satterlee, Charles A. Schermerhorn, Jacob Gould Schur- 
man, Gustav H. Schwab, Isaac N. Seligman, Louis Seligsburg, Joseph H. 
Senner, Frederick W. Seward, George F. Seward, William F. Sheehan, J 
Edward Simmons, John W. Simpson, E. V. Skinner, Charles Stewart Smith, 
Nelson S. Spencer, John H. Starin, Isaac Stern, Louis Stern, Francis Lynde 
Stetson, Louis Stewart, James Stillman, Oscar S. Straus, Theodore Sutro, 
Henry R. Towne, Irving Townsend, Spencer Trask, C. Y. Turner, Albert 
Ulmann, Aaron Vanderbilt, Alfred G. Vanderbilt, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Henry 
Van Dyke, Warner Van Norden, Mistress Anson P. Atterbuiy, Miss A. T. 
Van Santvoord, J. Leonard Varick, E. B. Vreeland, Charles G. F. Wahle, 
Samuel B, Ward, W. L. Ward, William C. Warren, Edward Wells, Junior, 

Incorporation, Legislation and Legal Matters 27 

Charles W. Wetmore, Edmund Wetmore, J. Du Pratt White, Fred C. Whitney, 
William R. Willcox, James Grant Wilson, Charles B. Wolffram, Timothy L. 
Woodruff, W. E. Woolley, and James A. Wright, who were named by the 
Governor of the State of New York, or by the Mayor of the City of New York 
as members of the Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee and of the Fulton 
Centennial Committee, and all such persons as are or may hereafter be asso- 
ciated with them, by the appointment of the Governor or of the said Mayor, 
shall be and are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate by the name 
of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, which corporation shall be 
a public corporation, with all the powers specified in the eleventh section of 
the general corporation law, except as otherwise provided by this act. It 
shall have no capital stock. 

§ 2. The object of said corporation shall be the public celebration or 
commemoration ot the ter-centenary of the discovery of the Hudson river by 
Henry Hudson in the year sixteen hundred and nine, and of the first use of 
steam in the navigation of said river by Robert Fulton in the year eighteen 
hundred and seven, in such manner and form, either permanent or temporary, 
as may be found appropriate by said Commission. 

§ 3. The said Commission shall have power to acquire, hold and possess 
for the purposes of its incorporation real or personal estate within the State 
of New York in fee or for a term of years or any easement therein, by gift, 
devise, bequest, grant, lease or purchase; and in case such Commission should 
be unable to agree with the owners thereof for the purchase or lease of any 
real estate required for the purposes of its incorporation, it shall have the right 
to acquire the same, by condemnation, in the manner provided by the con- 
demnation law, being chapter twenty-three of the code of civil procedure; 
provided, however, that no real property shall be acquired by condemnation 
within the city of New York until after the approval of the board of estimate 
and apportionment of that city. 

§ 4. The affairs and business of said Commission shall be conducted by 
a board of not less than twenty-five nor more than one hundred trustees, a 
quorum of whom for the transaction of business shall be fixed by the by-laws. 
The trustees for the first year shall be Grover Cleveland, Levi P. Morton, 
David B. Hill, Frank S. Black, Benjamin B. Odell, Junior, Stewart L. Wood- 
ford, Robert B. Roosevelt, Andrew Carnegie, Frederick D. Grant, Morris K. 
Jesup, William Rockefeller, William B. Van Rensselaer, Andrew D. White, 
J. Pierpont Morgan, Henry W. Sackett, Edward Hagaman Hall, John G. 
Agar, James M. Beck, J. Rider Cady, Henry W. Cannon, Joseph H. Choate, 
Paul D. Cravath, William J. Curtis, J. Sloat Fassett, Stuyvesant Fish, Theodore 
Fitch, Thomas Powell Fowler, Charles S. Francis, William W. Goodrich, 
George J. Gould, Warren Higley, August F. Jaccaci, William Jay, James H. 

28 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Kennedy, Horatio C. King, George Frederick Kunz, John LaFarge, Henry 
M. Leipziger, Seth Low, William McCarroll, William J. McKay, John G. 
Milburn, Frank D. Millet, Ogden Mills, Eben E. Olcott, John E. Parsons, 
Sereno E. Payne, Bayard L. Peck, N. Taylor Phillips, Eugene H. Porter, 
Horace Porter, Cornelius A. Pugsley, Louis C. Raegener, Herman Ridder, 
Jacob Gould Schurman, Isaac N. Seligman, Frederick W. Seward, J. Edward 
Simmons, Charles Stewart Smith, Nelson S. Spencer, Francis Lynde Stetson, 
James Stillman, Oscar S. Straus, Spencer Trask, A. G. Vanderbilt, Cornelius 
Vanderbilt, Henry Van Dyke, Samuel B. Ward, and James Grant Wilson. 
Such trustees shall make the by-laws of the commission providing among other 
things for the election of their successors within thirteen months from the passage 
of this act, and for the election of officers, as therein specified, to hold office 
until the succeeding annual election of trustees, and until their successors are 
elected, and for the filling of vacancies in any office. They shall continue to 
hold office until the succeeding election of trustees to the number and in the 
manner provided by the said by-laws. 

§ 5. None of the trustees or members of said Commission, except one or 
more assistants to the Secretary, shall receive any compensation for services, 
nor shall any of them be pecuniarily interested directly or indirectly in any 
contract relating to the affairs of said Commission; nor shall said Commission 
make any dividend or division of its property among its members, managers 
or officers; nor shall any member of the Commission nor any trustee be liable 
individually for any of its debts or liabilities. 

§ 5. Said Commission shall annually make to the Legislature a statement 
of its affairs, and from time to time report to the Legislature such recommenda- 
tions as are pertinent to the objects for which it is created, and may act jointly 
or otherwise with any persons appointed by any other State for purposes similar 
to those intended to be accomplished by this act. 

§ 7. Whenever the Commission shall report to the Legislature that the 
purposes for which the Commission is created have been attained and all its 
debts and obligations have been paid, its remaining real and personal property 
shall be disposed of as the Legislature may direct. 

§ 8. The Commission shall have power to receive subscriptions from par- 
ties who may desire to contribute to the object of the said Commission. 

§ 9. The sum of twenty-five thousand dollars, or so much thereof as may 
be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury, not 
otherwise appropriated, for the purposes of this act. Such money shall be paid 
by the Treasurer on the warrant of the Comptroller issued upon a requisition 
signed by the President and Secretary of the Commission, accompanied by an 
estimate of the expenses for the payment of which money so drawn is to be 
applied. No indebtedness nor obligation shall be incurred under this act in 

Incorporation, Legislation and Legal Matters 2g 

excess of the appropriations herein or hereafter made, and such sums as may 
be provided for said Commission by the city of New York for the purposes of 
this act. The Commission shall, as requested by the Governor, from time to 
time render to him reports of its proceedings. 

§ 10. The city of New York may provide for the said Commission such 
sums of money as the city shall deem expedient and in such manner as it shall 
deem proper for the purpose of carrying out the objects of the Commission. 

§ II. The duration of the corporation shall be ten years. 

§ 12. This act shall take effect immediately. 

The next legislation was sought with a view to giving effect Mayors 

to the policy of the Commission to make the Celebration one ^^^ 
.... . . . Presi- 

of statewide participation and particularly to enlist the interest dents of 

of the communities along the whole Hudson river valley. Villages 

With this end in view, Chapter 217 of the Laws of 1908, which 

became a law May 6, was enacted. It reads as follows: 

To increase the number of members and Trustees of the Hudson-Fulton Cele- 
bration Commission. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, 
do enact as follows: 

Section i. The members and Trustees of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission, as designated by chapter three hundred and twenty-five of the 
laws of nineteen hundred and six, are increased in number by adding to and 
including as such members and Trustees by virtue of their office the persons 
severally and respectively, who from time to time and for the time being, shall 
hold municipal office as follows in the following cities of the state, and in the 
following villages upon the Hudson river: The Mayors of the cities of Albany, 
Amsterdam, Auburn, Binghamton, Buffalo, Cohoes, Corning, Cortland, Dun- 
kirk, Elmira, Fulton, Geneva, Glens Falls, Gloversville, Hornell, Hudson, 
Ithaca, Jamestown, Johnstown, Kingston, Little Falls, Lockport, Middletown, 
Mount Vernon, Newburgh, New Rochelle, New York, Niagara Falls, North 
Tonawanda, Ogdensburg, Olean, Oneida, Oswego, Plattsburg, Poughkeepsie, 
Rensselaer, Rochester, Rome, Schenectady, Syracuse, Tonawanda, Troy, 
Utica, Watertown, Watervliet, Yonkers, and of any city which may hereafter 
be incorporated, all of whom shall be members and Trustees of the Commis- 
sion, and also the Presidents of the villages of Athens, Castleton, Catskill, 

30 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Cold Spring, Corinth, Cornwall, Coxsackie, Croton-on-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry, 
Fishkill, Fishkill Landing, Fort Edward, Green Island, Hastings-on-Hudson, 
Haverstraw, Irvington, Matteawan, Mechanicville, North Tarrytown, Nyack, 
Ossining, Peekskill, Piermont, Red Hook, Rhinebeck, Sandy Hill, Saugerties, 
Schuylerville, South Glens Falls, South Nyack, Stillwater, Tartytown, Tivoli, 
Upper Nyack, Victory Mills, Wappingers Falls, Waterford, and West Haver- 
straw, who shall be members of the Commission. 
§ 2. This act shall take effect immediately. 

Appro- During the first two years of its existence, the Commission 
r'^the"^ used but half of the ^25,000 appropriated in 1906 for prelim- 
State in inary expenses. The Commission therefore asked the Legisla- 
^'°* ture of 1908 to re-appropriate the unexpended ^12,500 and to 
appropriate 1^150,000 more in order that it might begin the physi- 
cal preparations for the Celebration. The Legislature responded 
by embodying in the act known as the "Supply Bill," but form- 
ally entitled "An act making appropriations for certain expenses 
of government and supplying deficiencies in former appropria- 
tions," which became Chapter 466 of the Laws of 1908 by the 
Governor's signature May 22, the following appropriation: 

"The sum of twelve thousand five hundred dollars (re. ^12,500) being the 
unexpended balance of an appropriation made by chapter three hundred and 
twenty-five of the laws of igo6 for the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commis- 
sion is hereby reappropriated for the same purpose, and the further sum of 
one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) is hereby appropriated and made 
immediately available for the same purpose and the further sum of fifty thou- 
sand dollars ($50,000) which is hereby appropriated and made available on 
and after January ist, 1909." 

Board of At the beginning of 1909 it appeared desirable to add to the 

Trustees BQ^f J gf Trustees without displacing any of those whose 

Enlarged • 1 1 . 1 1 • t> / 

services had been so valuable m the past, a number of gentle- 
men whose counsel and cooperation were greatly desired. It 
was also desired to add to the Commission certain members of 
the Legislature who could not be appointed by the Governor 
or Mayor on account of section 7 of article III of the Constitu- 
tion which forbids any member of the Legislature to receive 

Incorporation, Legislation and Legal Matters 31 

any civil appointment within the State from the Governor or 
from any City Government during the time for which he shall 
have been elected. To meet these requirements the Legis- 
lature enacted Chapter 277 of the Laws of 1909 which became 
a law May 3 and which reads as follows: 

To increase the number of the members and Trustees of the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Commission. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, 
do enact as follows: 

Section I. The members and Trustees of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission as designated by the acts, chapter three hundred and twenty-five 
of the laws of nineteen hundred and six, and chapter two hundred and seven- 
teen of the laws of nineteen hundred and eight, are and shall be increased in 
number by adding to and including as such members and Trustees, such 
persons, not exceeding fifty in all, as from time to time shall be elected by the 
Trustees of such Commission at any regular or special meeting of such Trustees. 

§ 2. This act shall take effect immediately. 

The next act of the Legislature in regard to the Commission Appro- 
was Chapter 448 of the Laws of 1909, which became a law May ?"^!|°° 
22, appropriating ^300,000 more for the Celebration. The act state in 

reads as follows: ^^°^ 


To amend an act, entitled "An act to establish the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission, and to prescribe the powers and duties thereof, and making 
an appropriation therefor,'' which became a law April twenty-seven, nine- 
teen hundred and six, being chapter three hundred and twenty-five of 
the laws of nineteen hundred and six. 

The People of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, 
Jo enact as follows: 

Section I. Section nine of the act, entitled "An act to establish the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission, and to prescribe the powers and duties thereof, 
and making an appropriation therefor," being chapter three hundred and 
twenty-five of the laws of nineteen hundred and six, is hereby amended so as 
to read as follows. 

32 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

§ 9. The sum of three hundred thousand dollars (^300,000) in addition 
to the moneys heretofore appropriated to said Commission, or so much thereof 
as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury, 
not otherwise appropriated, for the purposes of this act. Such money shall 
be paid by the Treasurer on the warrant of the Comptroller issued upon a 
requisition signed by the President and Secretary of the Commission, accom- 
panied by an estimate of the expenses for the payment of which money so drawn 
is to be applied, of which appropriation one hundred thousand dollars (;{lioo,ooo) 
is to be appropriated and expended by the Commission for the purposes of the 
celebration upon the Hudson river at and northerly of the city of Newburgh 
No portion of the foregoing appropriation nor of the sums heretofore appro- 
priated which shall be allocated by the Commission to any locality shall be by 
said locality expended for the purpose of a permanent local monument or memo- 
rial to commemorate said anniversary; but all moneys remaining unexpended 
in the hands of the local committee at the conclusion of the celebration, shall 
be paid over to the Treasurer of the Commission, and the total amount remain- 
ing unexpended in the treasury of the Commission shall be applied to such 
permanent monument or memorial, subject to the approval of the Legisla- 
ture, as said Commission shall recommend to the Legislature of nineteen 
hundred and ten, and of the foregoing sum above appropriated, twenty-five 
thousand dollars (fo5,ooo) shall be reserved and expended by the Commis- 
sion upon plans and also through vouchers to be approved by the President 
pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the Assembly for such of the 
expenses, exclusive of traveling expenses, as shall be necessarily incurred in 
the participation by the Governor, his staff, the elective state officers and the 
members of the Legislature, in their attendance upon the invitation of the 
Commission at said celebration, and the exercises connected therewith. No 
indebtedness nor obligation shall be incurred under this act in excess of the 
appropriations herein or hereafter made, and such sums as may be provided 
for said Commission by the city of New York, for the purposes of this act. 
The Commission shall as requested by the Governor, from time to time render 
him reports of its proceedings. 

§ 2. This act shall take effect immediately. 

Appro- In the Supply Bill now before the Legislature of 19 10,* there 
b"^h°° ^^^ ^^^ following items: 

State in 

* This bill became a law by the Governor's signature June 18, 19 10, as 
Chapter 513 of the Laws of 1910. 

Incorporation, Legislation and Legal Matters 33 

"For the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, the sum of twenty-five 
thousand dollars ($25,000), in addition to the moneys heretofore appropriated 
to the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, established by and under the 
act, chapter three hundred twenty-five of the laws of nineteen hundred six, 
or so much thereof as may be necessary, for the purpose of defraying the expenses 
and discharging the existing indebtedness of the Hudson-Fulton Commission. 
Such money shall be paid by the Treasurer on the warrant of the Comptroller, 
issued upon requisition signed by the President or the Acting President and the 
Secretary of the Commission, accompanied by a statement of the expenses 
for the payment of which the money so drawn is to be applied." 

The same bill also makes provision, under the head of 
"Legislative and department printing," "for printing 7,000 
additional copies of the final report of the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Commission, ordered by concurrent resolution 
April twenty-second, 1910." 

The foregoing comprises all the State Legislation bearing 
on the Celebration. 

An important act of the government of the City of New York Appro- 
was the resolution adopted by the Board of Estimate and Appor-^"^^*^ 
tionment on April 2, 1909, as follows: York City 

" Resolved, that the resolution adopted by the Board of Aldermen, March 
9, 1909, requesting an issue of |)300,ooo Special Revenue Bonds, the proceeds 
whereof to be used by and expended under the direction of his Honor, the Mayor, 
and such Committees of the Board of Aldermen as may be appointed in the 
premises, for the purpose of meeting the expense contingent to the part that 
the City of New York may take in the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, to begin 
on Saturday, September 25, 1909, be and the same is hereby approved of and 
concurred in by the Board of Estimate and Apportionment to the extent of 
two hundred and fifty thousand dollars (;g250,ooo), and for the purpose of 
providing means therefor, the Comptroller be and is hereby authorized, pur- 
suant to the provisions of subdivision 8 of section 188 of the Greater New 
York Charter, to issue Special Revenue Bonds of the City of New York, to an 
amount not exceeding two hundred and fifty thousand dollars (^50,000), 
redeemable from the tax levy of the year succeeding the year of their issue; 
the proceeds of said issue of Special Revenue Bonds to be disbursed only upon 
claims duly audited in the Department of Finance of the City of New York." 

Another part of the legal business of the Commission was Commit- 
performed by the Committee on Contracts, of which the Hon. ^j^f^^^^ 

34 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

M. Linn Bruce, formerly Lieutenant-Governor of the State of 
New York and later Justice of the Supreme Court of the First 
District of New York, is Chairman. The order of procedure 
followed in making the more important contracts of the Com- 
mission was for the various Committees to make the prelimi- 
nary business arrangements for the undertakings committed 
to their charge and to report to the Contract Committee forms 
of contracts or the substance of contracts covering those arrange- 
ments. The Contract Committee then passed upon the forms 
of contracts submitted or the necessary contracts were drafted. 
The contracts, having been made in due form, were then 
executed in behalf of the Commission by the Executive Officers. 
Work of A third phase of the legal work of the Commission was the 
Counsel adjustment of claims against the Commission presented after 
the Celebration. These claims were of two classes: One 
class was for accidents, of which there was the remarkably 
small number of three. One of these accidents was the destruc- 
tion of an instrument belonging to a musician from the United 
States Navy by an uncontrollable horse ridden by one of the 
aides during a parade in the Bronx. Another was for injury 
due to falling from a float during a parade in Brooklyn. A 
third claim by a spectator for alleged damage to clothing from 
a torch was not satisfactorily proven and was not allowed. 
The other class of claims involved questions of moneys alleged 
to be due for materials furnished or services rendered about 
which there were differences of opinion between the Commission 
and the claimants. All of this difficult legal work was per- 
formed gratuitously for the Commission by the firm of Messrs 
Amend & Amend, Counsellors at Law, of No. iig Nassau 
street, New York City. In recognition of this service, the 
Trustees, on May 4, 1910, adopted a resolution formally thank- 
ing Messrs. Amend & Amend for their public spirit and their 
generous contribution of time and professional skill. It was 
also voted to present silver medals to the members of the firm. 




'HE first formal meeting of the Trustees named in the Adoption 
Charter of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission °^^J 

was held in the Governors' Room of the City Hall, in New- 
York, on May 4, 1906, when an organization was effected by 
the adoption of the By-laws. The By-laws, as amended by 
the insertion of article V on June 27, 1906, and the changing 
of section 2 of article I on May 4, 1910, are as follows: 


Article I. 

Section l. Office. The oflSce and place of business of the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Commission shall be in the City of New York, where all meetings 
shall be held unless otherwise ordered by the Trustees. 

§ 2. Trustees' Meetings. After May 4, 19 10, there shall be a meeting of 
the Board of Trustees in the month of May each year after the Annual Meeting 
of the Commission at a time and place to be fixed by the President or Board of 

(The foregoing section originally provided for regular monthly meetings of the Trustees on 
the fourth Wednesday of each month, except that when that date fell on a holiday, the 
meeting was to be held on the following day. On May 4, 1910, when the need for monthly 
meetings was passed, the section was modified so as to read as above.) 

§ 3. Annual Meeting. The Annual Meeting of the members of the Commis- 
sion for the election of Trustees and for the transaction of such other business 
as may come before it shall be held on the first Wednesday after the first Monday 
of May, each year, at 3 p. m. 

§ 4. Other Meetings. Other meetings of the Trustees or Commission may 
be held upon the call of the President, and must be called by him upon the 
written request of ten Trustees. 

§ 5. Quorum. At meetings of the Trustees fifteen shall constitute a quorum, 
and at meetings of the Commission, the members who are present shall con- 
stitute a quorum. 


36 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

§ 6. Notices. Notices of meetings of the Trustees shall be sent to each 
Trustee at least two days before the time of meeting. 

Article II. 

Section I. Officers. The officers of the Commission shall be a President, 
fifteen Vice-Presidents, a Secretary and a Treasurer, all of whom shall be 
Trustees, and shall be elected annually at the meeting of the Trustees in May, 
and shall hold office for one year, and until others are elected in their stead. 
There may be one or more Assistant Secretaries who shall be appointed by and 
hold office at the pleasure of the Trustees. 

§ 2. Trustees. The number of Trustees shall be 100, who shall be elected 
annually by the persons named and designated in the first section of the Charter. 
The Trustees named in the Charter may appoint additional Trustees to hold 
office until the election in 1907, but the whole number of Trustees shall not at 
any time exceed 100. 

§ 3. Vacancies. Vacancies in the Board of Trustees or Officers may be 
filled for the unexpired term by a majority vote of the Trustees present at any 
duly called meeting. When a Trustee shall have absented himself from three 
successive meetings, the Trustees may, in their discretion, declare the office 
vacant, and elect a Trustee for the unexpired term. 

§ 4. President. The President shall preside at all meetings of the Trustees 
and of the Commission; he shall appoint all committees; and be Chairman of 
the Executive Committee and ex-officio a member of all standing committees 
except when otherwise expressly relieved from such service, and he shall have 
a general supervision of the affairs of the Commission. 

§ 5. Vice-Presidents. In the absence of the President or his inability to 
act, one of the Vice-Presidents, to be designated by him in writing, shall per- 
form his duties and possess his powers. If he make no designation, it shall 
be made by the Trustees. 

§ 6. Treasurer. The Treasurer shall receive, collect and hold subject to 
the order of the Board of Trustees all moneys, securities and deeds belonging 
or due to the Commission, pay all bills when approved by the Trustees or the 
Executive Committee, deposit all money of the Commission in some depository 
to be approved by the Trustees, and render a report of the finances at each 
meeting of the Board of Trustees and at the Annual Meeting of the Commission. 
Money shall be drawn only on the check of the Treasurer, countersigned by 
the President or Secretary. 

§ 7. Secretary. The Secretary shall keep the records of the Commission, 
of the Board of Trustees and of Committees, issue all notices, and perform 
the other duties ordinarily incident to that office, and when directed by the 
Trustees, affix the seal of the Commission. 

Organization and System of the Commission 37 

§ 8. Assistant Secretaries. The Assistant Secretaries shall perform such 
duties as may be assigned to them. 

Article III. 

Section I. Order of Business. The order of business of meetings of the 
Commission shall be as follows, unless otherwise ordered: I, Roll call; 2, Read- 
ing of minutes of the meetings not previously read; 3, Election of Trustees; 
4, Report of Treasurer; 5, Reports of Committees; 6, Communications; 
7, Miscellaneous business. 

§ 2. Reports, Resolutions and Votes. At meetings of the Commission and 
Board of Trustees reports and resolutions shall be in writing. The yeas and 
nays shall be called on all resolutions authorizing the expenditure of money, 
and on all other questions, when requested by one member. 

Article IV. 

Executive Committee. There shall be an Executive Committee which shall 
consist of the OflScers of the Commission and twenty-five other Trustees. It 
shall have general management of the affairs of the Commission, subject to 
the approval of the Trustees, and shall meet at least once a month. Seven 
of its number shall constitute a quorum. It shall elect one of its number as 
Vice-Chairman who shall preside in the absence of the Chairman, and who 
shall perform such other duties as may be conferred upon him by such Com- 
mittee, not inconsistent with these By-Laws. It shall appoint such sub-com- 
mittees and confer such powers thereon as it may deem advisable. A special 
meeting of the Executive Committee must be called by the Chairman upon 
the written request of five members, the purpose of such meeting to be stated 
in the call. 

Article V. 

Seal. The Seal of the Commission shall be circular in form, two and one- 
fourth inches in diameter. Its design shall be as follows: In the foreground, 
a classical, draped, female figure symbolizing the genius of the Hudson River, 
standing upon the prow of a boat, supporting under her right hand a shield 
bearing the name and date "Henry Hudson, 1609," and under her left hand a 
similar shield bearing the name and date "Robert Fulton, 1807; " upon the 
prow of the boat the date " 1909; " in the middle distance the Hudson River, 
and upon it, above the respective shields, Hudson's ship the Half Moon and 
Fulton's steamboat the Clermont; in the background, the Palisades; and in 
the border surrounding the whole, the words and date: "Seal of the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission, 1906." 

38 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Article VI. 
Amendments. Amendments to these By-laws may be proposed in writing 
at any meeting of the Trustees. If twenty-five of the Trustees be present any 
amendment may be adopted by unanimous consent; otherwise it shall be post- 
poned until a subsequent meeting, in which case the Secretary shall, with the 
notice of the next meeting, send a copy of the proposed amendment, stating 
that it will be brought up for action at such meeting, when it may be passed 
by a majority vote. 

Election At the same meeting. May 4, 1906, the following officers 
of Offi- 1 1 

were elected: 


President: Gen. Stewart L. Woodford. 

Vice-Presidents: Hon. Robert B. Roosevelt, Mr. Andrew 
Carnegie, Major-Gen. Frederick D. Grant, U. S. A., Mr. 
Morris K. Jesup, Hon. Levi P. Morton, Mr. William Rocke- 
feller, Mr. William B. Van Rensselaer, Hon. Andrew D. 
White (to whom were added May 23, 1906) Hon. Grover 
Cleveland, Gen. Horace Porter, Hon. Joseph H. Choate, Mr. 
J. P- Morgan, Hon. Oscar S. Straus, Hon. Seth Low, and Mr. 
Herman Ridder. 

Secretary: Col. Henry W. Sackett. 

Assistant Secretary: Mr. Edward Hagaman Hall. 

On May 23, Mr. Isaac N. Seligman was elected Treasurer. 

With the exception of changes among the Vice-Presidents, 
due to two declinations and six deaths, the official personnel 
of the Commission has remained unchanged. Mr. Rockefeller 
being unable to accept his election, the Hon. William W. Good- 
rich was chosen in his place, and after the death of Judge Good- 
rich, November 21, 1906, Mr. Francis Lynde Stetson was chosen 
to fill the vacancy. The Hon. Frederick W. Seward succeeded 
Mr. Roosevelt who died June 14, 1906; Mr. John E. Parsons 
succeeded Mr. Jesup who died January 22, 1908; Rear Admiral 
Joseph B. Coghlan, U. S. N., succeeded Mr. Cleveland who 
died June 25, 1908, and upon his own death, December 5, 1908, 
was succeeded by Gen. James Grant Wilson; the Hon. Alton 

Organization and System of the Commission 39 

B. Parker succeeded Mr. White who resigned in February, 1909; 
and the Hon. Morgan J. O'Brien succeeded Mr. Van Rens- 
selaer who died September 25, 1909. 

Mr. Ridder was the Presiding Vice-President and Acting 
President during Gen. Woodford's absences abroad; and since 
the departure of Mr. Ridder for Europe, May 10, 1910, Gen. 
Wilson has been Acting President. The present official list 
will be found in Chapter LXII following. 

At the close of the Celebration, the Commission expressed Services 

by resolution their high appreciation of Gen. Woodford's serv- ° V'' 

ices as President of the Commission and further honored him ford, 

by delegating him to present the official gold medals and ^^' ^^" 

accompanying messages to the heads of the Governments col. 

represented at the Celebration by naval vessels. A full account Sackett 
... . Recog- 

of these proceedings will be found in Chapter LXI following, ^^ed 

The duties of Mr. Ridder as Acting President during Gen. 
Woodford's absences, as Chairman of the Finance Committee 
and as Chairman of the Historical and Carnival Parades Com- 
mittees; and those of Col. Henry W. Sackett as Secretary of 
the Commission were particularly arduous. In recognition of 
their services, a voluntary committee of the Trustees, consist- 
ing of the Hon. Seth Low, Chairman, the Hon. William Berri, 
Dr. George F. Kunz, Mr. John E. Parsons, and Mr. Francis 
Lynde Stetson, with the cooperation of seventy-five others, 
had gold medals, three inches in diameter, struck from dies 
especially made for the purpose from the designs for the 
medallion of the official badge, and presented to Mr. Ridder and 
Col. Sackett on March 11, 1910. In their letter accompanying 
the medal to Mr. Ridder, the Committee said that they hoped 
he would accept it, "not only as a souvenir of the Celebration, 
but as an evidence of their high appreciation of the great service 
rendered by you to the Commission .. . It is clear that your long 
and public-spirited labor of love for the City of New York in 
helping so superbly, as Acting-President of the Hudson-Fulton 

40 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Celebration Commission, to carry to success that Celebration, 
has won for you a host of friends, whose admiration for your 
courage, your energy, your enthusiasm and your faith in the 
success of the enterprise, is only second to their high personal 
regard for you as a man." In their letter to Col. Sackett they 
repeated the wish that he accept the medal "not only as a 
souvenir of the Celebration, but as an evidence of their high 
appreciation of the great service rendered by you to the Com- 
mission," and added: "Your long and public-spirited labor 
of love for the City of New York in helping to carry to success 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration has won for you a host of 
friends. Your associates of the Commission fully appreciate 
the unique contribution which you made to the success of the 
Celebration. They understand, in an imperfect way, what it 
means to give, as you have given, many months of your time to 
the patient handling of one perplexing question after another. 
It has been to them at all times a source of satisfaction to know 
that the work of the Secretary of the Commission has been in 
hands so entirely competent and safe; and most of them are 
your debtors for much personal courtesy and consideration." 
On May 4, 19 10, the Board of Trustees formally endorsed the 
sentiments of the Committee as expressing those of the Com- 
mission and the proceedings attending the presentation of the 
testimonials were ordered to be embodied in the Official 
Member- Beginning with 212 Charter members, the membership of 
th'^Com *^^ Commission was increased to 805 at the time of the Cele- 
mission bration. With the exception of the ex-officio members created 
by Chapter 217 of the Laws of 1908 (see page 30 preceding), 
the election of 50 members by the Trustees pursuant to Chapter 
277 of the Laws of 1909 (see page 32 preceding) and a few 
appointments made voluntarily by the Governor and Mayor of 
New York, additions to the Commission were made by the 
Governor and Mayor upon recommendations made to them by 

Organization and System of the Commission 41 

formal resolutions adopted by the Trustees. Nominations for 
this purpose were presented to the Trustees through the Com- 
mittee on Nominations, of which Mr. Theodore Fitch is Chair- 
man. Generally the Governor appointed those who lived 
outside of New York City and the Mayor those who lived 
within the city limits, although this distinction was not always 

The Commission also had the cooperation of a large number 
of coadjutors who were not members of the Commission but 
whose assistance was invaluable in carrying out the plans for 
the Celebration. Prominent among them may be mentioned 
the five Foreign Correspondent Councillors elected May 27, 

1908, and the thirty or more Hononory Foreign Councillors 
elected June 23, 1909, all of whom were residents of The 
Netherlands. The former were elected in recognition of their 
services and research in connection with the designing and 
building of the Half Moon (see Chapter VII). The latter, 
headed by His Royal Highness, Prince Henry of the Nether- 
lands, constituted the Netherlands Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission, which, under Royal auspices, built and presented 
the Half Moon to the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission 
of the State of New York. (For the names of these Councillors 
see Chapter LXII. For further particulars in regard to the 
Half Moon, see Chapter XIV.) 

In New York City, the direct and active interest of about citizens' 
three thousand citizens was enlisted by the appointment of''"™™''' 
Borough Citizens' Committees by the Mayor. On April 13, 

1909, the Mayor appointed the Brooklyn Citizens' Committee 
of which Col. Willis L. Ogden is Chairman; on April 16 the 
Manhattan Citizens' Committee of which the Hon. Joseph 
H. Choate is Chairman; on May 19, the Richmond Citizens' 
Committee of which Mr. Eugene Lamb Richards, Jr., is Chair- 
man; on June 11, the Bronx Citizens' Committee, of which 
Hon. John J. Brady is Chairman; and on August 6, the 

42 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Queens Citizens' Committee, of which Mr. Louis WindmuUer 

is Chairman. 

A Citizens' Committee in every city and principal village 

along the Hudson river north of New York also rendered 

valuable assistance. 

Coopera- Besides the cooperation of these organized citizens' Commit- 

tion of ^^ ^YiQ Commission had the moral and material support of a 

Hotels, 11- 

Rail- large number of public-spirited individuals and busmess men, 

roads Among the latter, the hotel men of New York City and the 
Others representatives of the railroads tributary to New York and the 
Hudson River are entitled to our particular gratitude. Further 
reference is made in Chapter XH to the collaboration of the 
New York hotels. The response of the railroads to the Com- 
mission's requests and needs was equally cordial and generous. 
In reducing their rates, in arranging special train service, in 
distributing our posters and information booklets, and in other 
evidences of their interest given through Hon. George W. 
Perkins, they manifested an earnest desire to serve the public 
and to aid this Commission which is most heartily appreciated. 
Appoint- When the Commission first organized, only a few committees, 

ment of ^^^ those composed chiefly of members of the Board of Trustees, 


tees were formed, to carry on the necessary preliminary work. As 

soon, however, as the main outlines of the plan of the Cele- 
bration were definitely decided upon, as described in Chapter V 
following, a complete system of 5 1 committees, covering every 
phase of the Celebration and enlisting the active assistance of 
every member of the Commission as it was then constituted, 
was formed. These committees were announced at a meeting 
of the full Commission held at the City Hall of New York on 
November 30, 1908. From that date onward, the work of pre- 
paring for the Celebration was prosecuted with the utmost vigor. 
Head- The Headquarters of the Commission from the organization 

l"^'*®''^ of the Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee to the present 
sistants time have been in the Tribune Building, No. 1 54 Nassau street. 

Organization and System of the Commission 43 

New York City. So long as It was possible the executive busi- 
ness was transacted in the offices of the Secretary and Assistant 
Secretary which were placed at the disposal of the Commission 
gratuitously, and a meeting-room for the Trustees adjoining 
thereto rented by the city pursuant to resolution of the Sinking 
Fund Commissioners adopted June 20, 1906. Meetings of the 
full Commission were held in the City Hall. During the few 
months immediately preceding the Celebration, six additional 
offices were taken, one after another, as the pressure of work 
increased, for the accommodation of the bureau of information, 
accountants, assistants to the Secretary, and stenographers. 
At the height of the work in the last month of preparation, the 
Headquarters staff, besides the Secretary and Assistant Sec- 
retary, consisted of Mr. A. H. Stoddard, Captain of Pageantry; 
Mr. George N. Moran, Assistant to the Secretary for publicity; 
Dr. Edmund B. Taber, Assistant to the Secretary for publicity; 
Mr. David T. Wells, Assistant to the Secretary for parade 
arrangements; and Mr. Chester DeWitt Pugsley, volunteer 
Assistant to the Secretary; two accountants, two information 
clerks, twelve stenographers, six office boys and one telephone 
girl. Mr. John B. Creighton, Assistant to the Secretary for 
Brooklyn affairs; Mr. Clarence E. Leonard, Assistant to the 
Secretary for the Lower Hudson affairs; and Mr. William 
Wortman, Assistant to the Secretary for Upper Hudson affairs, 
had their offices in Brooklyn, Yonkers and Hudson, respectively. 
On December i, 1908, when the Commission had under con- 
sideration the proposition to have a pageant on the English 
plan, Mr. William Parry, who had assisted Mr. Frank Las- 
celles in the recent Quebec pageants, was retained as General 
Executive Assistant, and so continued until the plan was finally 

The small office accommodations at Headquarters were made 
possible by the fact that many of the Chairmen of Committees 
conducted their business in their private offices, while others 

44 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

engaged offices more conveniently located for their respective 

affairs; and the small Headquarters staff was made possible 

by the fact that the Chairmen of many committees were so 

fortunate as to have the assistance of volunteer Secretaries and 

aides. Where such volunteer assistance has been reported to 

the Secretary's office the names of these generous helpers will 

be mentioned in the following chapters. It is a matter of much 

regret, however, that the names of many are not recorded in 

the archives of the Secretary. 

Publicity As Stated in the Introduction, a remarkable unanimity pre- 

. . °^' vailed in the councils of the Commission. This was partly due 
nunity . . _ . ■ -^ 

to the Studied openness with which the business was transacted. 
From the beginning of the Commission, full minutes of all 
transactions of the six meetings of the full Commission and of 
the 56 meetings of the Trustees were printed and sent to every 
member of the Commission and to the principal public libraries. 
These official minutes^ which now number nearly 1,800 pages, 
contain not only a record of all formal actions, but also a succinct 
paraphrase of all important discussions and full reports of all 
financial receipts and disbursements. The work of the Com- 
mission was further unified by the practice of the principal 
Executive Officers and some Committee Chairmen of inter- 
changing copies of their more important correspondence. 
Newspaper reporters were also admitted to the meetings of 
the Commission and the public was taken fully into its 



rE financial affairs of the Commission were under the 
immediate care of the Ways and Means Committee and 
the Auditing Committee. 

The chief responsibility of the Ways and Means Committee, 
of which Mr. Herman Ridder is Chairman, was the raising of 
funds. The moneys of the Commission were derived from three 
sources — appropriations by the State of New York, an appro- 
priation by the City of New York, and voluntary subscriptions, 
the amounts of which will appear in the tabulated statements 

An interesting fact concerning the Subscription Fund, amount- Volim- 
ing to more than a quarter of a million dollars, was that it was ^^^7 ^"'*' 
formed entirely by voluntary contributions. No solicitors ortions 
agents were employed to raise this fund and no commissions 
or percentages were paid in any form, direct or indirect. The 
contributions, about i,8oo in number and ranging in amounts 
from two cents to $10,000, were evoked chiefly by letters appeal- 
ing to the civic pride and patriotism of those to whom the 
letters were addressed. The generous response to these appeals 
was one of the finest evidences of public spirit and the genuine 
popular interest in the Celebration that the commemoration 
afforded. These subscriptions are acknowledged individually 
on pages 1680-1692 of the Official Minutes. 

The system of disbursements, accounting and audit was as System 

through as could be arranged in view of the temporary character ° '^" 
o ° r y burse- 

of the corporation. The order of procedure in general was as ments 
follows: First, the Chairmen made estimates of the moneys 
required for the parts of the celebration committed to their 
respective committees, and in Trustees' meeting asked for the 


46 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

necessary appropriations. When obligations were contracted, 
the bills were first approved by the Chairman of the Committee 
incurring them and forwarded to headquarters. There they 
received a preliminary examination by the Assistant Secretary 
and then were forwarded to the accountants. By the latter, 
the bills were copied upon voucher forms. They were then 
examined and signed by each member of the Auditing Com- 
mittee, consisting of the Hon. N. Taylor Phillips, Chairman, 
Hon. Warren Higley and Hon. William McCarroU; and later 
by the President and the Secretary of the Commission. Prior 
to the Celebration, all accounts except certain weekly pay- 
rolls for construction of the floats for the parades were pre- 
sented at the monthly Trustees' meetings for approval before 
payment, and the weekly payrolls were submitted at the next 
ensuing Trustees' meeting. After the Celebration, when a 
great mass of bills from all sources was presented almost 
simultaneously, they were paid, by authority of a special 
resolution, as fast as they could be audited in the manner 
before described and were submitted to the Trustees after- 
wards. Approved accounts payable from State and Sub- 
scription funds were paid by checks signed by the Treasurer* 
Mr. Isaac N. Seligman, and countersigned by the President or 
Acting President. Approved accounts payable from the City 
Fund were forwarded to the Department of Finance of the City 
of New York and paid direct by the warrant of the City Comp- 
troller. All accounts were printed in the Official Minutes 
of the Commission. 
Services The financial transactions of the Commission were greatly 

'^}!^^' facilitated by the accommodation extended to it by the banking 

Seligman . ^ . 

Recog- house of J. & W. Seligman & Co. of which the Treasurer of 

nized jj^g Commission, Mr. Isaac N. Seligman, is a member. By 

their courtesy, accounts were paid as soon as approved; and 

later, accounts payable from State funds were collated from 

time to time and forwarded to the State Comptroller at Albany, 

Financial System and Statement 47 

with a requisition for reimbursement signed by the President 
and Secretary of the Commission. 

At the meeting of the Trustees on December 8, 1909, the 
President of the Commission said with reference to Mr. Selig- 
man: "To Mr. Seligman, our Treasurer, we owe a large debt 
of appreciation and gratitude. He accepted the great respon- 
sibility of the Treasurership with the same generous spirit with 
which he has cooperated in other public affairs of a public 
and philanthropic nature and his reputation in the financial 
world has been a source of strength to the Commission. His 
firm, in advancing large sums of money for the immediate 
requirements of the Commission, has been of inestimable help 
in facilitating the transaction of the Commission's business 

On February 2, 1910, the Trustees authorized the Auditing Auditing 
Committee to select an Auditing Company, subject to the °* ^'^' 

=> r y • 1 ri counts 

approval of the Governor of the State representmg the State 
Funds, the Mayor of New York representing the City Fund, 
and Mr. J. P. Morgan representing the Subscription Fund, 
to make the final audit of the accounts of the Commission; 
and with the approval of Governor Hughes, Mayor Gaynor 
and Mr. Morgan the Audit Company of New York was chosen. 
Their report, as of April 30, 1910, is given on the following 
pages. In Exhibits A to F, both inclusive, it will be noticed 
that certain transfers of funds from one account to another are 
recorded. Thus, in Exhibit A, a balance of ^148.73 which the 
Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee had on hand at the 
time of the incorporation of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission, was transferred to the State Fund account next 
following. This amount therefore appears in the receipts 
and disbursements of both accounts. Similarly, in the receipts 
mentioned in Exhibit D appears ^42,530.58 "transferred from 
Subscription Fund. " This is due to the fact that in the book- 

48 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

keeping, accounts were temporarily classified under Chapter 
448 of the Laws of 1909 amounting to more than the appro- 
priation made by that law. Later a selection of accounts 
coming within the appropriation was forwarded to the State 
Comptroller for reimbursement and the excess over the appro- 
priation was paid from the Subscription Fund account. In 
the disbursements under Exhibit E is an item of ;^i 14,522.75 
transferred from the City Fund to Subscription Fund. This 
item represents accounts temporarily paid out of the Sub- 
scription Fund and reimbursed by the City. As these transfers, 
in all amounting to ;^i57,202.o6, appear on both sides of the 
accounts, the net results will be found in the Recapitulation in 
Exhibit G in which the transfers are deducted. 

The following report of the Audit Company shows an excess 
of disbursements over receipts amounting to ^21,576.15, which 
amount has been advanced by the Commission's bankers. 
In addition to this liability, the Commission, according to a 
statement made by Mr. Ridder to the Trustees on May 4, 
1910, has unpaid accounts amounting to from 1^30,000 to 
^^535,000. The Commission has on hand some assets in the 
shape of parade paraphernalia but its merchantable value is 

Following is the official audit of accounts of the Hudson 
Tercentenary Joint Committee and its successor the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission, from December 5, 1905, to 
April 30, 1910, as made by the Audit Company of New York. 


of Audit i*S Broadway 

Company The Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 
154 Nassau Street, 

New yoi-k City: 
Dear Sirs: 

Agreeably to your request, we have made an examination of the books and accounts of THE 
HUDSON-FULTON CELEBRATION COMMISSION, for the period from December 5, 
1905, to April 30, 1910. 
The results of this examination are presented, attached hereto, in seven EihibitSj as follows: 

Financial System and Statement 49 

Exhibit "A" — Summary of receipts and disbursements, Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee, 
as of April 30, 1910. 

Exhibit "B" — Summary of receipts and disbursements of the State Fund (Chapter 325 of the 
Laws of 1906) as of April 30, 1910. 

Exhibit "C" — Summary of receipts and disbursements of the State Fund (Chapter 466 of the 
Laws of 1908) as of April 30, 1910. 

Exhibit "D" — Summary of receipts and disbursements of the State Fund (Chapter 448 of the 
Laws of 1909) as of April 30, 1910. 

Exhibit "E" — Summary of receipts and disbursements of the City Fund as of April 30 

Exhibit "F" — Summary of the receipts and disbursements of the Subscription Fund as of April 
30, 1910. 

Exhibit ^*G^* — Recapitulation of receipts and disbursements of all funds as of April 30, 

We found receipted vouchers and canceled checks for disbursements, as shown by the books, 
from the three State Funds and the Subscription Fund. The disbursements from the City Fund 
were made by the City and reported to the Committee. The unexpended balance in this Fund, 
as shown by the books, is in agreement with the City's records. The Hudson Ter-centenary 
Joint Committee Fund is shown as reported to you by that Committee. 

The account with J. & W. Seligman, as shown by the books, has been reconciled with the 
statement received from that depository. 

Very truly yours, 
A. W. Dunning The Audit Company of New York 

President. G. H. Bowers 

New York, May 9, 1910. Secretary. 





General Subscriptions (1,830 00 

Special Contributions 97 '^ 

$1,927 16 


Salaries $99° ^S 

Stenography, Typewriting and Mimeographing 3^^ ^5 

Printing and Stationery 3^4 *4 

Postage 6i 25 

Office Supplies and Expense 35 ^^ 

Press Clippings 9 *3 

Transferred to State Fund, Chapter 325, Laws of 1906 14^ 73 

$1,927 16 

50 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


1906) AS OF APRIL 30, I9IO 

State Treasurer of New York in accordance with provisions of Chapter 325 of 

the Laws of 1906 $12,500 00 

Interest on Bank Balances 373 29 

Advanced by J. & W. Seligman & Company 50 

Transferred from Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee 148 73 



Printing and Stationery 

Office Furniture and Fixtures 


Office Supplies and Expense 

Stenography, Typewriting and Mimeographing 

Traveling Expense 

Telephone and Telegraph 

Messenger Service 

Press Clippings 


Traveling Expense — Construction of Floats 

Labor — Construction of Floats 


State of New York — Bank Interest 

fl3,022 52 

$9,392 30 


604 86 

329 00 

206 39 

142 22 

IDS 64 


39 15 

30 34 

Ji 57 

461 so 

3'7 30 

12 65 

373 ^9 

$13,022 52 


1908) AS OF APRIL 30, I9IO 

State Treasurer of New York in accordance with provisions 

of Chapter 466 of the Laws of 1908 $162,500 00 

Less — Unexpended balance with State Treasurer 02 

$162,499 98 


Salaries $10,818 76 

Printing and Stationery 3 813 22 

Postage i_lj, 50 

Financial System and Statement 51 

General Office Expense $282 72 

Stenography, Typewriting and Mimeographing '»8i9 48 

Office Furniture and Fixtures 345 38 

Traveling Expense 127 lo 

Telephone and Telegraph 415 10 

Carfare and Messenger Service 106 58 

Publicity and Press Clippings 4i°92 45 

Auditing 123 75 

Express and Cartage 179 98 

Badges, Flags and Posters 818 13 

Brooklyn Committee I1446 87 

Naval Parade Committee — Steamer "Clermont" 6,149 7^ 

Children's Festival 8 50 

Aeronautic Committee i,n6 31 

Art and Historical Exhibits: 

Metropolitan Museum of Art $S>°°° °° 

Brooklyn Institute of Art and Science 248 00 

Bronx Botanical Garden 350 00 

5>S98 00 

Music Festival 100 00 

Upper Hudson Committee — General Expense 9 24 

Invitation Committee 1,110 ir 

Banquet Committee 65 00 

Hudson River Scenery Committee 85 26 

Bronx Committee 21 50 

Reception Committee — General Expense 18 40 

Decorations and Reviewing Stands n 5° 

Medals 72 5° 

General Commemorative Exercises Committee 3^ ^4 

Manhattan Citizens' Committee 57 7° 

Public Health and Convenience ')3^^ 47 

Office Rent ii34i <» 

Cost of Floats: 

Salaries $i6,33° 5^ 

General Expense 4fiS^ '• 

Refitting Workshop 36^^ 

Watchmen 2,281 93 

Construction — Labor and Material 62,833 25 

Construction of Viaducts 4>343 53 

Costumes 3,061 85 

Trucks 4>575 «> 

Rental 1.5°° °° 

Covering 1,078 88 

Designs 4>9°° °° 

Mechanical Effects 250 00 

Banners 375 ** 

Insurance 3' 5° 

■ >o6,455 57 

52 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Lower Hudson Committee $1,070 90 

New York Lake Champlain Ter-centenary 6,000 00 

Labor — Refitting of Buildings 4,066 67 

Materials — Refitting of Buildings 1,108 37 

$162,499 98 



1909) AS OF APRIL 30, I9IO 

State Treasurer of New York in accordance with the pro- 
visions of Chapter 448 of the Laws of 1909 $300,000 00 

Less — Unexpended balance with State Treasurer 1,893 59 

$297,106 41 

Interest on money deposited 715 

Transferred from "Subscription Fund" 42,530 58 

$339,644 14 


Salaries $2,688 93 

Printing and Stationery 1,026 21 

Postage 1,699 IS 

General Office Expense 793 40 

Stenography, Typewriting and Mimeographing ipo6 43 

Traveling Expense 17 65 

Telephone and Telegraph 113 70 

Carfare and Messenger Service 163 55 

Publicity and Press Clippings 4,945 79 

Auditing 89 25 

Express and Cartage 20 ji 

Badges, Flags and Posters 1^0 40 

Brooklyn Committee 3,740 73 

Steamer " Clermont " 8,160 00 

Children's Festival 68 50 

Aeronautic Committee 8,350 78 

Art and Historical Exhibits: 

Metropolitan Museum of Art $S,ooo 00 

American Museum of Natural History joo 00 

New York Botanical Garden 162 17 

Miscellaneous Expense 153 85 

5,816 02 

Music Festival 7 yjo et 

Financial System and Statement 53 

Upper Hudson Committee: 

General Expense $hS^ '4 

Newburgh 3'>833 69 

Albany 17.999 86 

Catskill hS°° °° 

Kingston 6,999 9^ 

Hudson 7»999 ^9 

Fougbkeepsie 9i5oo 00 

Troy 15,000 00 

196,401 94 

Invitation Committee 34 62 

Banquet Committee 4,065 22 

Bronx Committee 2,290 50 

Reception Conunittee: 

General $170 33 

West Point 813 95 

984 28 

Interest en money advanced 2,420 68 

Medals 2,410 00 

General Commemorative Exercises Committee 22 96 

Public Health and Convenience 'S>7*4 9^ 

Office Rent 7I9 34 

Half Moon Committee 3 95 

Illuminations 12,382 00 

Military Parade 1,064 00 

Aquatic Spoits 995 7° 

Dedication Committee 14 54 

Public Safety Committee 190 00 

Cornwall Committee '>*44 ^3 

Queens Committee 2,508 50 

Stony Point Committee 1,000 00 

Legislative Committee 12,106 48 

Lower Hudson Committee 22,812 35 

Carnival and Historical Parade: 

Standard Bearers $3,642 00 

Illuminations 1,018 00 

Torches, Reflectors, Etc 3,500 00 

Collations 1,165 50 

Saddle Horses 295 00 

Stenographing 9^ 3° 

Salaries 1,126 98 

Music 32,208 00 

Miscellaneous and General Expense 17>(>^S 9^ 


Refitting Workshop $30 00 

Watchmen 2,203 90 

Construction i9>34o 50 

Construction of Viaducts 653 00 

Costumes 7>S63 5' 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Trucks |i,295 95 

Covering 94 7^ 

Designs 5*^ °® 

Banners 410 00 

Properties 4,686 25 

Bracing 850 00 

Horse Blankets 1,075 63 

Care of Properties at Workshop 41*19 3° 

$42,922 82 

$103,596 56 
$339,644 14 




City of New York in accordance with appropriation author- 
ized April 2, 1909 $250,000 00 

Less — Unexpended balance with City Comptroller 2,060 52 

$247,939 48 


Printing and Stationery $124 00 

Naval Parade Committee: 

Stenography and Typewriting $50 00 

Postage 55 50 

Carfare and Messenger Service 21 85 

Badges, Flags and Posters 870 75 

Clerk Hire 230 00 

Printing and Stationery 244 40 

Stands, Decorations and Games 6,596 42 

Music 543 00 

Collations i ,908 46 

Services of Naval Architect and Tugs 2,802 33 

Telephone and Telegraph 10 33 

Miscellaneous Expense 187 04 

i3)5*o 08 

Children's Festival Committee: 

Stenography and Typewriting $160 00 

Clerk Hire 52 80 

Postage 63 10 

Printing and Stationery. 2,174 09 

Rent of OfBce and Furniture 165 25 

Illumination 103 25 

Financial System and Statement 55 

Stereopticon Screens and Views $3>374 3° 

Suits, Models and Material SA^9 '4 

Cab Hire 287 50 

Instruction and Superintendence 1,90* 00 

Badges, Flags and Posters 6,1 1 1 02 

$19,822 45 

Decorations and Reviewing Stands 37,276 zj 

Illumination 60,410 i j 

Clermont Committee — Payroll, Supplies and Repairs 1,606 55 

Aldermanic Committee: 

Printing and Stationery $221 25 

Postage 71 00 

292 25 

OflSce Rent 365 00 

Transferred to "Subscription Fund" 114,522 75 

8147.939 48 




General Subscriptions $261,386 97 

Proceeds from Banquet 6,375 68 

Proceeds from Sale of Medals *>5S8 28 

Badges, Flags and Posters 2,158 38 

Royalty on Official Program 2,000 00 

Interest on Money on Deposit 537 87 

Proceeds from Sale of Office Furniture, Lumber, etc 222 42 

Transferred from City Fund 114,522 75 

$389,762 35 

Advanced by J. & W. Seligman & Company 21,576 15 

$411,338 50 


Salaries $5,584 18 

Printing and Stationery 3.378 92 

Postage 286 39 

General Office Expense 1,677 S6 

Stenography, Typewriting and Mimeographing 3>3'3 54 

Office Furniture and Fixtures n 00 

Traveling Expense 21 75 

Telegraph and Telephone 273 66 

Carfare and Messenger Service 47 25 

Publicity and Press Clippings 7,201 92 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


Express and Cartage 

Badges, Flags and Posters 

Brooklyn Committee 

Naval Parade Committee 

Steamer " Clermont " 

Children's Festival 

Aeronautic Committee 

Art and Historical Exhibits: 

Metropolitan Museum of Art $5,ooo oo 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Science 748 50 

New York Botanical Garden 487 63 

New York University 350 00 

American Museum of Natural History 500 00 

Printing and Miscellaneous Expense Jfii^ *3 

Music Festival 

Invitation Committee 

Banquet Committee 

Bronx Citizens' Committee 

Reception Committee 

Decorating and Reviewing Stands 

Interest on Money Advanced 


General Commemorative Exercises Committee 

Public Health and Convenience 

Half Moon Committee 

Military Parade 

Aquatic Sports 

Dedication Committee 

Public Safety Committee 

Cornwall Committee 

Queens Committee 

Stony Point Committee 

Lower Hudson Committee 

Richmond Citizens' Committee 

Manhattan Citizens' Committee 

Hudson River Scenery Committee 

Aldermanic Committee 

Ways and Means Committee 

Souvenir Program 

Hudson Monument 


Presentation to Governments 

Carnival and Historical Parade: 

General Expense $40,376 49 

R™"s 2,333 33 

Care of Properties 4,087 81 

Music 276 00 

%,35' S5 

20 48 

8,636 44 

1,082 37 

47,016 59 
4,034 38 

i9.*37 15 
14,126 07 

10,122 96 

8,942 75 

125 03 

9,414 65 

1.817 65 

34,526 72 

44.494 *7 

5M 99 

257 16 

25 50 

7.568 55 

935 °7 

14.953 95 

10,220 65 

940 12 

4,894 69 

1,255 00 

1,069 85 

•35 47 
1,016 48 

4.751 3^ 
281 40 
144 50 
632 75 

1,187 21 

1,149 03 

8 63 

376 00 

2,144 50 

Financial System and Statement 57 


Construction $3,832 50 

Costumes 20,657 35 

Trucks 83 00 

824,572 85 

$71,646 48 

Upper Hudson: 

Newburgh $166 90 

General Expense 1,171 10 

1,338 00 

Office Rents 205 09 

Transferred to State Fund, Chapter 448, Laws of 1909 42,530 58 

$411,338 50 




Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee $1,927 16 

State Fund, Chapter 325, Laws 1906 13,022 52 

State Fund, Chapter 466, Laws 1908 1*2,499 9^ 

State Fund, Chapter 448, Laws 1909 339,*44 '4 

City Fund 247,939 48 

Subscription Fund 389,762 35 

Gloss Total Receipts $1,154,795 63 

Less — Transfers between Funds 157,202 06 

Net Total Receipts ?997.5M 57 


Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee $1,927 16 

State Fund, Chapter 325, Laws 1906 13,022 52 

State Fund, Chapter 466, Laws 1908 162,499 9* 

State Fund, Chapter 448, Laws 1909 339>644 H 

City Fund 247,939 48 

Subscription Fund 4"i338 S° 

Gross Total Disbursements $','76,371 7* 

Less — Transfers between Funds '57,202 06 

Net Total Disbursements l.ol9>'*9 72 

Balance — Overdraft advanced by J. & W. Seligman & Company $2',576 15 


Public ' I 'HE first question which arose in the formal deliberations 
Hew''^^^ 1 concerning the Celebration was as to the form which the 
Celebration should take. At the first meeting of the 
Executive Committee of the Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Com- 
mittee, held December i6, 1905, after a preliminary discussion 
of various ideas, it was decided to hold public hearings with a 
view to eliciting public opinion on the subject. Such hearings 
were therefore held in the City Hall, New York, on December 
29, 1905, January 19, and January 26, 1906. At these hearings 
the plan of a World's Fair had its earnest advocates, but the 
suggestion elicited no public enthusiasm in the City of New 
York, in or near which the exposition would naturally be held ; 
and the Commission felt that however excellent the reasons 
might have been for holding the long series of notable exposi- 
tions by which the great historical anniversaries of the country 
had been commemorated in other cities since 1876, and how- 
ever valuable those expositions might have been to the com- 
munities in which they were held and to the country at large, 
the form of a celebration in or near New York must be shaped 
by powerful local considerations. One of those considerations 
was that the Metropolis of the country was in itself a vast 
exposition. In it was concentrated the best of everything that 
the country could produce; and these products could be seen 
to better advantage in the shops of the manufacturers and 
dealers than in a conventional exposition. In the next place, 
the transportation facilities of the city at that time, with only 
two bridges across the East River, no tunnels under either the 
East or North Rivers, and only a single subway line, were so 
inadequate that it was thought to be very injudicious to attract 


Evolution of Plan of Celebration 59 

hither a large concourse of people who could not be accommo- 
dated for any protracted period with convenience and safety 
either to the visitors or the visited. 

By the time of the incorporation of the Hudson-Fulton World's 
Celebration Commission, therefore, the idea of a World's Fair EUmi. 
had definitely been eliminated, and with the appointment of nated 
the Plan and Scope Committee on May 17, 1906, the ground 
was cleared for the formulation of a plan on original lines. 
The Chairman of the Plan and Scope Committee is the Hon. 
Frederick W. Seward, whose wide experience as Assistant 
Secretary of State and Acting Secretary of State in the adminis- 
trations of Presidents Lincoln, Johnson and Hayes, in various 
diplomatic missions, in the New York Legislature and on the 
Yorktown Centennial Commission, was reflected in the broad 
conception of the plan of celebration finally adopted. The 
fundamental idea of this plan, as already stated in the Intro- 
duction to this Report, was that of a great non-commercial and 
educational commemoration, designed to instruct our own 
people in their history and to increase their civic pride; and 
also to cement more firmly our friendly international relations. 
An outUne of this plan was presented in the preliminary report 
of the Plan and Scope Committee, June 13, 1906. The report 
closed with the announcement that the Committee by no means 
desired to have it considered final or exhaustive, but would 
gladly welcome and consider any suggestion that might be 
offered for its modification or improvement. In response to 
this invitation, many suggestions were received from other 
committees and members of the Commission, as well as from 
different organizations and public spirited private citizens. All 
these were carefully considered and discussed by the Plan and 
Scope Committee and the Trustees. Several proved valuable 
and useful. While preserving the main outline of plan, there 
were yet many details involving questions of feasibility and 
cost, as well as of taste and propriety. In the debates over 

6o The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

them, some differences of opinion were revealed; but the gen- 
eral desire for success and harmony speedily reconciled them 
all; so that during the ensuing months the plan was gradually 
perfected and its scope widely enlarged, until it ultimately took 
the shape in which it was finally adopted. It then received 
the approval and cordial co-operation of the State, National 
and City Governments. 
A Two The plan as first submitted in June, 1906, contemplated a 
Celebra- Celebration extending, in time, over a period of one week, and 
tion in geographical extent, throughout the Hudson Valley. It was 
thought at first that the naval vessels could go north only as 
far as Haverstraw Bay, but it was recommended that the 
replicas of the Half Moon and Clermont, with an escorting 
fleet, "proceed up the river as far as Albany, stopping opposite 
the riverside villages and cities and forming the center of local 
demonstrations. This," continued the report, "will permit not 
only the population bordering the historic river, but also our 
fellow citizens residing in the adjacent inland towns, to par- 
ticipate in the commemoration." 

During the following year it was found that some of the 
naval vessels could navigate as far as Newburgh, and the 
report of the Plan and Scope Committee of June 26, 1907, was 
modified accordingly. The report also provided for com- 
memorative exercises "in all the universities, colleges, and 
institutions of learning throughout the State of New York." 

As public interest in the Celebration increased and the 
details of the plan developed, it became apparent that the 
concentration of the whole celebration into one week would 
seriously interfere with its success, particularly in the places 
north of New York City; for the events in New York would 
draw many residents of the State to that city and would prevent 
as full a participation in local celebrations elsewhere as might 
otherwise be possible. At the request, therefore, of the repre- 
sentatives of the Upper Hudson communities, the period of 

Evolution of Plan of Celebration 6i 

the Celebration was extended to two weeks, the second week 
being devoted chiefly but not exclusively to celebrations north 
of New York City. The details of the events at and north of 
Newburgh were developed by the Upper Hudson Committee, 
whose work will be more particularly described in Chapters 
LI to LIX following. 

It was first intended to have the Celebration begin on Monday 
September 20, 1909. This would have brought a celebration 
of one or two weeks' duration wholly within the ter-centenary 
of the period of Hudson's presence in New York waters, which 
extended from September 2 to October 4, 1609. In arriving at 
this date the Commission had the assurance of Forecaster 
Emery of the United States Weather Bureau of New York to 
the effect that, contrary to popular belief, the records for a 
number of years showed that rain had been less frequent 
during equinoctial week than during the week before, and 
that there had been even less rain in the week following the 
equinox. After conference, however, with those conversant 
with the currents of summer travel, it was decided to commence 
the Celebration on Saturday, September 25, with a view to 
accommodating those returning from their summer outings. 
The weather of the week following the equinox fully justified 
Mr. Emery's record of previous years, for, with the exception 
of a rainstorm Monday, September 27, and early on the morning 
of Tuesday, September 28, which delayed the starting of the 
Historical Parade in New York, the weather was delightful. 

The program of the Celebration in its final shape was as 
follows : 

Calendar of Events. Outline 

of Daily 

Saturday, September 25, 1909. Events 

Naval Rendezvous. Formal recognition of the presence of American and 
Foreign Naval Vessels and OfEcial Guests. 

Inaugural Naval Parade. 10:30 A. M., formation of Escort Squadron with 
Half Moon and Clermont in Kill van Kull; naval parade to Stapleton, S. I.; 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

of Daily 

interchange of civilities between fleet afloat and Richmond Borough Citizens' 
Committee; ll a. m., naval parade to point off the Bay Ridge shore, Brooklyn; 
exchange of civilities vyith Brooklyn Citizens' Committee; naval parade to point 
off Governor's Island; i p. m., parade of Escort Fleet and merchant fleet up 
the Hudson River encircling the fleet of war vessels; and passing in review 
before the Water Gate at lioth street. 

Official Reception of Half Moon and Clermont. Forma! reception of the 
replicas of the Half Moon and Clermont at the Water Gate at I loth street 
upon their arrival about 4 P. M. 

Evening Naval Parade. In evening, repetition of the Inaugural Naval 

Illuminations. In evening, illumination of the warfleet; illumination, lasting 
two weeks, of public buildings of New York; the great East River bridges, 
the line of march for the land parades, the most notable public monuments, 
private buildings, club houses, etc.; illumination of Grant's Tomb by search- 
lights; chromatic illuminations on river bank near 155th street. 

Religious Observances. Religious observances by those accustomed to 
worship on the seventh day of the week. 

Sunday, September 26. 

Religious Observances. Religious observances by those accustomed to 
worship on the first day of the week. 

Concerts. 4 P. M., organ recital in Great Hall of the College of the City of 
New York; 8.15 p. m., concert by Irish citizens in Carnegie Hall, New York; 
concert in Hippodrome by United German Singers of New York. 

Monday, September 27. 

Decorations. General decorations of public and private buildings. 

Exhibitions. See pages 69-71. 

Aeronautics. Beginning of aeronautical exhibitions by Wilbur Wright and 
Glenn H. Curtiss. 

Dedications. Dedication Interstate Palisades Park at li a. m., at Alpine 
Landing, N. J.; dedication of monument to Henry Hudson on Spu3rten Duyvil 
Hill in Bronx Borough at 2 P. M. 

Governor's Island Reception. From 4 to 6 P. M., reception of official guests 
at the Headquarters of the Department of the East of the United States Army 
on Governor's Island. 

Official Reception. At 8.30 P. M., official reception and literary exercises 
at the Metropolitan Opera House for the Delegates from Foreign Governments, 

Evolution of Plan of Celebration 63 

the Diplomatic Corps and the representatives of the United States Govern- Outline 
ment. Music by the New York Banks Glee Club. o* Da"y 

Music Festivals. In the evening, music festivals as follows: In Brooklyn 
Borough, at the Thirteenth Regiment Armory by the United German Singers, 
and in the Academy of Music a special concert by the Apollo Club; in Queens 
Borough, at the Astoria Scheutzen Park by the United German Singers of Long 
Island; in Richmond Borough, at the Happy Land Park, South Beach, by the 
United German Singers of Staten Island; and in Bronx Borough, at Crotona 
Park by the German Singing Societies and a chorus of school children. 

Richmond Borough. On Staten Island an historical parade at Stony Brook, 
and ceremonies on the site of the first church on Staten Island founded by the 
Waldensians commemorating the first permanent settlement of the Island. 

Tuesday, September 28. 

Historical Pageant. Starting at I p. m., great historical pageant in New York 
City, forming at Central Park West and iioth street, and proceeding down 
Central Park West to 59th street, thence to Fifth avenue, and thence to Wash- 
ington Square, passing in review at the Court of Honor on Fifth avenue between 
40th and 42d streets. 

Music Festivals. Music festivals in the Metropolitan Opera House by the 
German Liederkranz, and at Carnegie Hall by the Arion Society at 8.15 p. m. 

Brooklyn Literary Exercises. In evening, literary exercises in Brooklyn 
Borough in the Brooklyn Academy of Music. 

Bronx Borough Banquet. In the Bronx in the evening a banquet to the 
guests of the Borough. 

Wednesday, September 29. 

General Commemorative Exercises. Commemorative exercises by univer- 
sities, colleges, schools, museums and learned and patriotic societies throughout 
the whole State; in New York City, under the auspices of the Board of Educa- 
tion, special exercises in every elementary school, and in the evening illustrated 
lectures in 70 centers; similar observances in the Parochial, Settlement, Cor- 
poration, and private schools throughout the city; exercises in Albany in the 
Assembly Chamber of the Capitol at 8 p. m. 

Dedications. Dedications of monuments, tablets, parks, and other memorials 
throughout the State. (For certain dedications in New York City and else- 
where, see pages 72-73.) 

Aquatic Sports. On the river opposite New York, pulling races between the 
crews of foreign and American warships, and interstate contests between Naval 
Reserve crews. At Yonkers on the same day, motor boat races for classes 
32 feet and under. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

of Daily 

Bronx Borough Day. In the Borough of the Bronx military, civic and his- 
torical parade with floats and moving tableaux representing the principal 
events in the history of the City and the Borough. Route of parade along 
Washington Avenue from East 163d street to East 187th street. 

Children's Festivals in Richmond Borough. Children's festivals in vari- 
ous parts of the Borough of Richmond. In the evening illustrated 
lectures in Tottenville, Stapleton, New Brighton, Port Richmond and other 

FFest Point Reception. Reception of official guests at the West Point Mili- 
tary Academy. Luncheon in the Memorial Hall, inspection of buildings and 
review of Cadet Corps. 

Official Banquet. In the evening, official banquet in the new Banquet 
Hall of the Hotel Astor, New York City. 

Half Moon and Clermont. The Half Moon and Clermont, accompanied 
by an Honorary Escort Squadron, proceed to Yonkers, and leave Yonkers at 
6 p. M. for Tarrytown. 

Thursday, September 30. 

Military Parade. In Manhattan Borough, I P. M., military parade partici- 
pated in by the Federal Troops of the Department of the East, the National 
Guard of the State of New York within the limits of New York City, the United 
States Navy and Marine Corps, the Naval Reserve, the veteran organizations, 
and the marines and sailors from foreign warships. Route the same as that 
given for the historical parade of Tuesday, September 28. 

Aquatic Sports. At New York, motor boat races in five classes, one special 
and four 32-foot and under. 

Richmond Borough Banquet. In the evening, banquet in the Ferry Terminal 
Building at St. George, Staten Island. 

Brooklyn Borough Reception. In Brooklyn, international reception and ball 
in the Academy of Music. 

Half Moon and Clermont. Arrival of these vessels with their escort at Ossin- 
ing at 6 a. m.; departure about 4 P. M., proceeding along the west shore near 
Haverstraw, and thence to Peekskill. 

Cornwall. Commemorative exercises in the public schools of Cornwall. 

Friday, October 1. 
Naval Parade. Naval parade from New York to Newburgh starting 
between 7.30 a. m., and 9.30 a. m., the slower squadrons starting first, so that 
all might arrive together at Newburgh at about 12.30 p. m. The Half Moon 
and Clermont, and escort, leaving Peekskill at 7 a. m. and proceeding to 
Cornwall, joining the Naval Parade upon arrival in Newburgh Bay. 

Evolution of Plan of Celebration 65 

Brooklyn Historical Pageant. Historical pageant of 54 floats in Brooklyn, Outline 
proceeding from the Memorial Arch at the entrance to Prospect Park by way °* Daily 
of the Eastern Parkway to Buffalo avenue. 

Cornwall. Ceremonies at Cornwall; arrival of the Half Moon and Clermont; 
civic and historical parade with floats representing the progress of the Hudson; 
an Indian camp on the shore; musical salute to Naval Parade; children's 
festival in Palmer's Park with tableaux, etc.; day fireworks and night fireworks. 

Newburgh Ceremonies. Reception of fleet in Newburgh Bay with salute; 
ceremonies near Ramsdell Dock; landing of sailors and marines at southern 
end of city; parade to reviewing stand at the Court House; reception and 
luncheon to ofiicial guests; complimentary "shore dinner" for 5,000 paraders. 
In evening, illumination of city and vessels in the bay, and fireworks displays. 

Saturday, October 2. 

Children's Festivals. Children's day in public parks of Greater New York; 
children's pageants and festivals, consisting of historical plays, folk-dances and 
various other forms of instructive amusements in costume to the accompaniment 
of appropriate music. 

Bronx Borough. In the afternoon, an athletic meet at Crotona Park Athletic 

Carnival Parade. In Manhattan Borough, in the evening, great carnival 
parade over the same route as that followed by the historical parade of Septem- 
ber 28 and the military parade of September 30. 

Richmond Borough Pageant. On Staten Island, a pageant, including 25 of 
the floats which took part in the Manhattan historical parade and about 5,000 
persons. Line of march, Morning Star road to Innes street, thence by way 
of Nicholas avenue, Harrison avenue. Post avenue, Richmond avenue, Carey 
avenue, Bement avenue, Hyatt street. Central avenue, Arrietta street, GrifFen 
street, and Bay street to Stapleton Park or Vanderbilt avenue. 

Yonkers. Amateur rowing and canoe races beginning at i P. M. 

Stony Point. Formal exercises at the Stony Point Battlefield State Reserva- 
tion at 12.15 P. M., with the cooperation of the American Scenic and Historic 
Preservation Society, official custodian, participated in by the Governor, 
prominent citizens, and military and civic organizations; dedication of the 
Memorial Arch erected by the Daughters of the Revolution. 

Newburgh. In the morning the farewell to the fleet, a portion returning to 
New York and as many as practicable accompanying the Half Moon and Cler- 
mont, proceeding to Poughkeepsie. Thereafter races for motor boats in four 


66 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Outline Poughkeepsie. Reception of the fleet escorting the Half Moon and Cler- 

of Daily niont; regatta and aquatic sports; illuminations and fireworks. 

Sunday, October 3. 

New York. At 8.15 P. M., sacred concert in Carnegie Hall by the People's 
Choral Union and instrumentalists from Walter Damrosch's New York 
Symphony Society under the leadership of Frank Damrosch. 

Yonkers. Special religious services in all the churches. 

Poughkeepsie. In the morning special religious services in all the churches; 
in the afternoon, joint services in Eastman Park, vrith male chorus of joo voices. 

Kingston. Religious services in all the churches in the morning, and in the 
Sunday schools in the afternoon. 

Catskill. Religious services in Catskill and throughout Greene County, 
with special observances and Autumn decorations. 

Hudson. Religious ceremonies. 

Monday, October 4. 

Yonkers. Parade of historical floats and military and civic organizations 
of Mount Vernon, New Rochelle and Yonkers, together with firemen and local 
industries of Yonkers, reviewed by Governor Hughes. Reception to former 
residents and visitors in the evening. 

Poughkeepsie. Great military, civic, industrial and historical parade, 
including twenty beautiful floats. In the evening, banquet and reception in 
honor of Governor Hughes. 

Kingston. Exercises in the public schools and entertainment of the guests 
of the city. 

Catskill. Special exercises in East Side Public School, with distribution of 

Hudson. Children's festivals. 

Tuesday, October 5. 

Lower Hudson. In Yonkers in the evening an automobile parade. During 
the day, parade of the floats from Hastings through Dobbs Ferry and Irving- 
ton to Tarrytown and North Tarrytown, accompanied by local organizations 
and fire companies. 

Poughkeepsie. Farewell to the fleet. In Poughkepsie the whole week 
devoted to Old Home Week reunions. 

Kingston. 8 A. M., arrival of naval squadron with Half Moon, Clermont 
and historical floats; 9 a. m., reception of naval visitors; 1 1 a. m., parade of 
local and visiting military and civic organizations from Ulster, Delaware, 

Evolution of Plan of Celebration 67 

Otsego and Sullivan Counties; 12 m., address by Governor Hughes; I p. m.. Outline 
luncheon to city guests ; 4 P. m., unveiling of monument to Sir Thomas °* Daily 
Chambers, Lord of the Manor of Fox Hall and one of the founders of Kingston; 
5 P. M., unveiling of tablet in the Industrial Home; 8 p. m., pyrotechnic 
or electrical display; 9 p. m., reception to Governor Hughes and distinguished 

Catskill. Special exercises in West Side Public School, follovyed by out- 
door tableaux. 

Hudson. Children's festival continued. 

Wednesday, October 6. 

Queens Borough Day. Ceremonies in Queens Borough with music and 
fireworks in all five wards. 

Lower Hudson. In Yonkers, in the afternoon a parade participated in by 
all the departments of the city government, and in the evening the official 
banquet of the Yonkers Committee with invited guests. On the west side of 
the Lower Hudson a parade of the floats at Nyack, joined in by participants 
from Piermont, Grand View, South and Upper Nyack, accompanied by local 
organizations, fire companies and schools. 

Catskill. 9 A. M., arrival of Half Moon and Clermont with naval escort; 
reception by official committee, also by delegation of Red Men in canoes, bear- 
ing gifts of corn, etc.; 9.30-1 1, band concerts; 10.30, reception of naval 
visitors by Catskill Committee; 12 m., address by Governor Hughes; i p. M., 
luncheon to guests; 2 p. m., parade of local and visiting military, fire, 
fraternal and other civic organizations; 3.30, special excursion for officers and 
men of Half Moon to haunts of Rip Van Winkle in Catskill Mountains, under 
auspices of Holland Society; 4-5, band concerts; 8 p. M.; fireworks and 
electrical display; 9.30 p. m., reception to Governor and guests. 

Hudson. Children's festivals in daytime and fireworks in evening. 

Thursday, October 7. 
Lower Hudson. At Yonkers, in the evening, concerts by singing societies 
and bands. During the forenoon a parade at Ossining, commencing at Scar- 
borough, and joined in by participants from Briar Cliff and Croton-on-Hudson, 
with civic organizations, fire companies, etc.; in the afternoon, a water parade 
of the floats, manned by participants from Haverstraw, West Haverstraw and 
Stony Point off" Haverstraw within a short distance of the shore. Also a land 
parade at Haverstraw, participated in by organizations from Haverstraw, 
West Haverstraw, Stony Point, Tuxedo, Ramapo, Sloatsburg, SufFern, Spring 
Valley, Nanuet and Pearl River. 

68 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Outline Hudson. 9 a. m., departure of Committee to meet flotilla; 10 A. M., reception 

° ^' y of flotilla at city, with salutes, etc.; 11 a. m., land parade followed by luncheon 
to official guests; 4 p. m., unveiling of fountain; 7 p. M., official banquet at 
Hudson Theatre; illumination of fleet. During afternoon and evening recep- 
tion in D. A. R. Chapter House. 

Albany. 10 A. M., school children's festival and exercises; 2 P. M., aquatic 
sports on Hudson River in front of city; 3 p. M., grand decorated automobile 
parade on streets of the city; 8 P. M., "Fraternal Night," with an illuminated 
night parade, participated in by the various fraternal organizations of Albany 
with visiting organizations from other cities. During the week a military 
tournament participated in by all branches of the service in the United States 

Friday, October 8. 

Lower Hudson. In Yonkers, in the afternoon, literary competitions for 
prizes in the schools, and in the evening a great parade of labor organizations. 
During the day, parade of the floats at Peekskill, with industrial and other 
organizations, fire companies, schools, etc., joined in by Montrose, Crugers and 
nearby villages. 

Hudson. 9 A. M., departure of flotilla. Old home reunions throughout 

Albany. 9 A. M., naval parade to receive the Half Moon and Clermont; 
formal welcome at Riverside Park by Governor Hughes, Mayor Snyder and 
other officials; i p. m., Hudson-Fulton welcome parade; 8 P. m., display of 
fireworks in Beaver Park. 

Saturday, October 9. 

Brooklyn Carnival Parade. Close of festivities in Brooklyn Borough by 
grand carnival parade of the German, Austrian and Swiss Societies on the 
Eastern Parkway in the evening. 

Lower Hudson. At Yonkers, aquatic and field sports during the day, and 
in the evening a carnival ending with fireworks. Water parade of the floats 
at Cold Spring with local participants, joined in by representatives from Brews- 
ter, Carmel and other villages, including participants from Garrisons, High- 
land Falls and West Point. 

Albany. 8 A. M., naval parade to escort the Half Moon and Clermont 
leaving the city for Troy; 8 to 1 1 P. m., pyrotechnics at Grand View to denote 
the end of the celebration as a whole. 

Troy. Arrival of the fleet from Albany, being met by the entire flotilla of the 
city of Troy; saluted by the Federal authorities at the Watervliet Arsenal. 
In Troy an elaborate land parade. 

Evolution of Plan of Celebration 69 

Sunday, October lO. 
Albany. Hudson-Fulton Sunday with religious services in all churches. Outline 
Cohoes. 10.30 A. M., special services in all churches; 12.30 p. m., great out- ™ Daily 
door meeting for children on Canvass street, with addresses by noted speakers, 
songs, etc.; 7.30 p. m., union historical service in the Reformed Dutch Church 
on Mohawk street. 


Monday, October II. 
Cohoes. 2 P. M., arrival of fleet from Troy; genera! review of the boats; 
8 p. M., military and historical parade with floats representing the Half Moon, 
the Clermont and an Indian wigwam and an old Dutch homestead; 9.30 P. M., 
illuminated parade on the Hudson River with display of fireworks. 


Exhibitions, either arranged with the direct cooperation and financial Art, His- 
assistance of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission or having received t°"cal 
its official sanction. Admission free except when otherwise stated. Scientific 

American Geographical Society. 15 West 8ist street. Special exhibition j;jjiibi. 
of books and maps relating to Henry Hudson and Robert Fulton. Open tions 
from September 25 to October 9, from 9 A. m. to 5 p. m. 

American Museum of Natural History. Located in the blocks bounded by 
Central Park West, Columbus avenue, 77th street and 8ist street. A special 
exhibit representing the Indians of New York, also an ethnological exhibit 
mainly devoted to the Iroquois Indians of New York State; on week days 
from 9 A. M. to 5 P. M.; on Sundays from I to 5 P. M.; from September 25 until 
December I. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Located at No. 29 West 39th 
street. Special exhibition relating to Fulton and steam navigation; from 9 
A. M. to 5.30 P. M. every day except Sundays and holidays. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Situated on the Eastern Parkway, 
Brooklyn, near the north entrance to Prospect Park. Special exhibition 
relating to past and present life of Indians on Long Island, from September 
I to December 31. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Children's Museum. Situated in 
Bedford Park, Brooklyn avenue. Special exhibition illustrative of the fauna 
of Long Island. 

Brooklyn Parks. Labeling of the different species of trees native of the 
Hudson River Valley in Prospect Park, from the Plaza to the Willink entrance; 
in Bedford Park; in Highland Park, and in Tompkins Park. 

City History Club of New York. Headquarters at No. 23 West 44th street. 

70 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Art, His- Exhibition of pictures, maps, and drawings illustrating the early history of 
torical Ne^ York. 

^. .„ Colleee of the City of New York. Situated at St. Nicholas avenue and 

Scientific ■'_,.,..., ... 

Ezhibi- '^'i9^^ street. Exhibition of charts, views, manuscripts and relics representing 

tions old New York. 

Fraunces' Tavern. Located at the corner of Pearl and Broad streets. New 
York City. Exhibition by the Sons of the Revolution of portraits, historical 
relics and other objects covering the period of the American Revolution. 

Long Island Historical Society. Corner of Pierrepont and Clinton streets, 
Brooklyn. Exhibition of books, manuscripts, maps and relics of the periods 
of Hudson and Fulton. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art. Located in Central Park at Fifth avenue and 
82d street. Loan exhibition of paintings by Dutch artists, contemporaries of 
Hudson; also of paintings, furniture, silver, pewter, pottery and glass made in 
this country or used here from about 1625 to 1815, the year of Fulton's death. 
Exhibition for two months beginning September 20. Open on Saturday 
from 10 A. M. to 10 P. M.; Sunday from i p. m. to 5 p. m.; other days from 10 
A. M. to 5 p. M.; free every day except on Monday and Friday. 

National Arts Club. Located at No. 15 Gramercy Park. Exhibition under 
the joint auspices of the National Arts Club and the American Scenic and 
Historic Preservation Society, comprising paintings, drawings, early engrav- 
ings, or other pictorial or art objects illustrating Aboriginal, Colonial, Revolu- 
tionary, Nineteenth Century, and Twentieth Century New York. Open one 
month from September 20. 

New York Aquarium. Located in Battery Park. The largest aquarium in 
the world. Tanks containing fish indigenous to the Hudson River so marked. 

New York Botanical Garden. Located in Bronx Park. Native trees of 
the Hudson Valley growing within the Botanical Garden labeled with the letter 
"H," standing for Hudson. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. Located at No. 226 
West 58th street. Exhibition of books, manuscripts and paintings. 

New York Historical Society. Located at No. 170 Central Park West. 
Official Robert Fulton Exhibition of the Celebration, consisting of portraits, 
miniatures, manuscripts and relics relating particularly to Robert Fulton. 

New York Public Library. At Lenox branch. Fifth avenue and 70th street. 
An exhibition of views, prints, maps, books, manuscripts and other objects 
of interest relating to the Hudson River and Valley and to early steam naviga- 
tion on the river. At each of the forty-one circulation branches throughout 
the city, exhibitions of pictures and views of appropriate interest. Lists of 
books in each particular branch that are of interest in this connection, and 
books likely to be called for by readers who are interested in this subject. 

Evolution of Plan of Celebration 71 

New York Zoological Park. Situated in Bronx Park. Mammals, birds and Art, His- 
reptiles most prominent in the valley of the Hudson in i6og specially indicated torical 
by the official flag of the Commission. Park open daily from 9 until half an . .„ 
hour before sunset. Admission fee of 25 cents on Mondays and Thursdays. Ej^ibj. 
Band concerts on Sunday afternoons. tions 

Reformed Dutch Church. Exhibition in chapel of the Reformed Protestant 
Dutch Church of St. Nicholas, at Fifth avenue and 48th street, comprising 
articles connected with the long history of the church which was organized in 

Fan Cortlandt Mansion. Located in Van Cortlandt Park. Exhibition of 
portraits, autographs, maps and relics illustrating the colonial and early Ameri- 
can periods of American history, under auspices of the Colonial Dames of the 
State of New York. Open on week days from 10 a. m. to 5 p. m., and on Sun- 
days from 2 P. M. to 5 P. M. 

Washington s Headquarters. Located at i6oth street and Edgecomb avenue. 
New York. Special loan collection of Colonial and other relics under the 
auspices of the Daughters of the American Revolution of the State of New York 
and the Washington's Headquarters Association. 

Commemorative Exercises. 

Special rehgious, patriotic and literary exercises with the official recog- Com- 
nition of the Commission as follows: memo- 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. At Brooklyn Academy of Music, ^t"«_ 
Friday evening, September 24. Literary exercises and music. 

At the Central Museum, Tuesday evening, September 28, illustrated lecture 
on the "Hudson-Fulton Anniversary." 

City Hall, New York. On Wednesday afternoon, September 29, at 2.30 
o'clock, patriotic exercises under the auspices of the National Society of Patriotic 
Women of America and the State Committee of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 

College of the City of New York. Wednesday, September 29, papers on 
Hudson's discovery, early cartography and steam navigation; presentation of 
bronze bust of Fulton; students' procession through the historically named 
gates of the campus, followed by speeches; special literary and musical exer- 
cises in the Great Hall. 

Columbia University. Sunday, September 26, 4 P. m., religious ceremonies 
in St. Paul's Chapel. Wednesday, September 29, 8 P. M., lectures. Thursday, 
September 30, in the afternoon, students' games. Sunday, October 3, at 
4.30 p. M. final exercises. 

Cooper Union. (New York.) Wednesday, September 29, 4 P. M., illus- 
trated lecture on Robert Fulton and his achievements. 

72 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Com- Cornell University. (Ithaca.) Tuesday, September 28, addresses on 

memo- geographic conceptions of America in 1609, and the economic and political 
p, . conditions of Europe at the same period. Wednesday, September 29, address 
on Hudson's discovery. Thursday, September 30, address on steam naviga- 
tion. Exhibitions of maps, models, pictures, etc., relating to Hudson and 
Fulton periods. 

Fishkill-on-Hudson. Tuesday, October 5, ceremonies by the Rombout- 
Brett Association, commemorating the discovery of the Hudson River in 1609, 
and the building of the Roger Brett and Catharyna Rombout Manor House 
in 1709. 

Hobart College. (Geneva.) Tuesday, September 28, addresses on indus- 
trial inventions, etc. Thursday, September 30, address on the relation of 
mechanical inventions to democracy. 

New York Public Schools. Wednesday, September 29, under the auspices 
of the Board of Education, special exercises in every elementary public school 
in New York City. In the evening free public lectures at 70 different centers. 

New York University. Wednesday, September 29, lectures on the litera- 
ture of the first two centuries of New York; conditions determining New York's 
greatness; political and educational history of New York; Fulton and steam 
navigation; the physiography of the Hudson Valley, etc. Dedication of a 
bust of Robert Fulton in the Hall of Fame. Also exercises in connection with 
the University schools in Washington Square. 

Reformed Dutch Church. (New York.) Special commemorative services 
at 1 1 A. M. and 8 p. m., on Sunday, September 26, in its churches at Second 
avenue and 7th street. Fifth avenue and 29th street. Fifth avenue and 48th 
street and West End avenue and 77th street. 

Union Theological Seminary. (New York.) Special exercises on Wed- 
nesday, September 29, in the Adams Chapel. 

IFest Point. Commencing about a week before the Celebration, commem- 
orative exercises in the Children's School with exhibition of Indian and Dutch 
relics and illustrative material. On Wednesday, September 29, reception 
to oiBcial Guests of the Commission. Exhibition of historic maps, books, 
prints, etc., in the Library. Dress parade in the afternoon. Friday, October 
I, artillery salutes to Naval Parade. Flags displayed from Fort Putnam and 
Constitution Island. Small flags on West Point and Constitution Island to 
indicate where famous Revolutionary chain was fastened. 

Dedica- Dedications. 

tions of T- . . 

Memori- ^^ dedication of the following parks and memorials with the oflScial recog- 

als nition of the Commission. 

Evolution of Plan of Celebration 73 

Cornwall. On Wednesday, September 29, a playground. Dedica- 

Hudson. On Thursday, October 7, a fountain. ^°^^ °\ 

Kingston. On Tuesday, October 5, a monument to Sir Thomas Chambers, . 
Lord of the Manor of Fox Hall, and one of the founders of Kingston, and a 
tablet in the Industrial Home. 

Newburgh. On September 29, replica of an equestrian statue of Gen. 
Anthony Wayne. 

New York: City fTall Bastion Tablet. On Wednesday, September 
29, by the Society of Colonial Wars in the State of New York, a tablet 
at No. 48 Wall street. New York, marking the site of a bastion in the old 
city wall. 

New York: Fort Amsterdam Tablet. On Wednesday, September 29, by 
the New York Society of the Order of the Founders and Patriots of America, 
a tablet on the United States Custom House, marking the site of Fort Amster- 
dam and its successors. 

New York: Fort Tryon Tablet. On Wednesday, September 29, by the 
American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, a monument erected 
through the generosity of Mr. Cornelius K. G. Billings on the site of Fort 
Tryon, on Fort Washington avenue. 

New York: Hudson Monument. On Monday, September 27, at 2 P. M., 
the Henry Hudson Monument, erected by private subscriptions on Spuyten 
Duyvil Hill. 

New York: Ferrazzano Bust. On Wednesday, October 6, by the Verraz- 
zano Monument Committee, a bust of Verrazzano, the Italian navigator, in 
Battery Park. 

New York: Washington Heights Tablet. On Wednesday, September 29, 
by the Washington Heights Chapter, D. A. R., a tablet at 147th street and 
Broadway, marking the site of the "first line of defense" on Washington 
Heights in 1776. 

New York: Washington Heights Tablet. On Wednesday, September 29, 
by the Mary Washington Colonial Chapter, D. A. R., a tablet at Broadway 
and 159th street, marking the site of "the second line of defense" on Washing- 
ton Heights in 1776. 

Palisades Interstate Park. On Monday, September 27, dedication of the 
Palisades Interstate Park, by the Commissioners of the Park, at Alpine Landing, 
New Jersey. 

Stony Point Arch. On Saturday, October 2, during the ceremonies at 
Stony Point Battlefield State Reservation, the Memorial Arch erected by the 
New York State Society of the Daughters of the Revolution. 

74 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Social Affairs. 
Social The following events accorded ofEcial recognition by the Commission: 

Afiairs Explorers' Club Dinner. On Thursday evening, September 30, the 

Explorers' Club dinner at the Hotel Astor. 

German-American Banquet. German-American banquet, at Waldorf-Astor 
Hotel, Thursday evening, October 7. 

Harlem Banquet. Tuesday, • September 28, commemorative banquet by 
Harlemites in Harlem Casino, 8 P. M. 

Holland Society Banquet. September 22, at Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, ban- 
quet by the Holland Society. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art Reception. Reception at the opening of the 
Exhibition of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, on Monday, September 20. 

Naval Reception at Columbia University. On Saturday afternoon, October 
2, fete champStre in honor of the Naval Guests of the Commission on the 
grounds of Columbia University. 

Netherlands Banquet. Banquet of the Netherlands Chamber of Commerce 
in America and the Netherland Club of New York, at Hotel St. Regis, Thurs- 
day evening, September 23. 

Pilgrim Society Banquet. October 4 at Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, banquet 
by the Pilgrims. 


THE principal official insignia and publications of the Com- 
mission were the Official Seal, Official Medal, Official 
Badge, Official Flag, Official Poster, Official Program 
(general), Official Souvenir Program of Historical Parade, 
Official Souvenir Program of Carnival Parade, Official Souve- 
nir Postal Cards, and the elaborate and very valuable catalogues 
issued by the museums in connection with the art, historical and 
scientific exhibitions. The postage stamp issued by the United 
States Government at the solicitation of the Commission, and the 
lithographic reproductions in colors of Kohler's watercolor draw- 
ing of the Half Moon, given to the Commission by distinguished 
Hollanders for presentation to the public schools, may also be men- 
tioned among these memorials of permanent educational value. 

The Official Seal, used only by the Commission to attest Official 
official documents, is circular in form, two and one-fourth 
inches in diameter. In the foreground is a classical, draped 
female figure, symbolizing the genius of the Hudson River, 
standing upon the prow of a boat supporting under her right 
hand a shield bearing the name and date "Henry Hudson, 
1609," and under her left hand a similar shield bearing the 
name and date "Robert Fulton, 1807." Upon the prow of the 
boat is the date " 1909. " In the middle distance is the Hudson 
River, and upon it, above the respective shields, Hudson's ship, 
the Half Moon, and Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont. In the 
background are the Palisades of the Hudson River. And in 
the border surrounding the whole are the words and date: 
"Seal of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission 1906." 

The Official Medal of the Commission was issued under the offidal 
supervision of the Medal Committee of which Mr. Henry W. ^*^^ 


76 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Official Cannon is Chairman, and Edward D. Adams, LL.D., is Vice- 
Chairman. During the temporary absence of both Mr. Cannon 
and Dr. Adams, Mr. Archer M. Huntington was Vice-Chair- 
man. In pubHshing the Medal, the Commission had the 
valuable cooperation of the American Numismatic Society, 
whose official imprint the Medal bears. Studies for this 
medal were begun by the Numismatic Society's Committee on 
Publication of Medals in the spring of 1908 and the essential 
elements of the design were then submitted to Mr. Emil Fuchs* 
of London who undertook the composition and sculpture. 
When completed, Mr. Fuchs' design was submitted to the 
Commission, and adopted as the official commemorative 
Medal of the Celebration. For the following description of 
the Medal we are indebted to Dr. Adams: 

The Hudson design represents Henry Hudson and a group 
of sailors on the "Half Moon," watching the hoisting of some 
heavy article from outside the ship. As the log of the vessel 
refers to sending for fresh water and the return of a boat with an 
abundance of fresh fish, the incident may well have occasioned 
the interest portrayed on the medal. In the background is a 
faint suggestion of the high banks of the Hudson River. In a 
panel at the bottom is seen the vessel with her Dutch name. 

* Emil Fuchs, the sculptor, painter and medallist, of Austrian birth, a resident of London during 
the past ten years, and a visitor to New York during the past three winter seasons, has received 
the highest recognition for his various productions. 

As a medailleur he has been best known in this country by the two medals he modeled for the 
Hispanic Society of America, and by the medal made by him for The American Numismatic Society 
to commemorate its Fiftieth Anniversary. His exquisite marble, in low relief, entitled " Chansons 
Religieuses," was much admired when exhibited in New York three years ago. 

In England he has designed, by royal command, the portrait medals known by the following 
titles: Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, Queen Alexandra, Prince and Princess of Wales, Princess 
Henry of Battenberg; also the Coronation Medal (a popular edition, in several sizes, which reached 
an issue of 980,000), Science, Art and Music Medal, and the South African War Medal. 

By similar direction he designed the portrait of King Edward VII, now in use on the postage 
stamps of Great Britain. 

Mr. Fuchs has also designed and executed, among other works, the portrait medals of Field 
Marshal Lord Roberts, Admiral Lord Charles Beresford, Governor-General of Canada, Earl Grey, 
Field Marshal Sir George White (defender of Ladysmith). 

Official Insignia and Publications 77 

HALVE MAENE. Encircling the upper margin is the legend, Official 

Or\ — r\ Medal 


A. D. MDCix. In the circles dividing the legend, are an astrolabe, 
jack-stafF and sextant. On the lower left, the American | 
NUMISMATIC SOCIETY, bclow a circle bearing the seal of that 
Society; and on the right, below a similar circle containing the 
seal of the Commission, HUDSON-FULTON | celebration comm: 
The artist's name, E. Fuchs, is inscribed below the coil of rope. 
The Fulton design is classical in its characteristic features- 
It shows a parapet extending across the field from which rise 
two columns with fluted bases; from each end of the parapet 
sculptured bands follow the curve of the rim until they join the 
columns; in the opening at the left is a view of New York as 
seen from the Hudson in 1807, and at the right the sky-line 
of the city as seen to-day from the Jersey shore. Between the 
columns hangs a portrait of the inventor, below which Robert 
FULTON I 1765 1815 — the dates of his birth and death. 
Seated in front of the columns are three draped figures; that 
in the center, facing, represents the genius of Steam Naviga- 
tion, and holds in her lap a model of the "Clermont." At 
the right is the figure of History, with a scroll across her lap 
and in her right hand a pen. At the left is that of Commerce, 
resting her right hand on an anchor. In exergue in three lines, 


1807. The name of the artist, E. Fuchs, appears on the step 
below the feet of History. 

To give variety to the design, one side of the medal, the 
Fulton, was treated in a classical manner befitting the education 
and character of the engineer, while the other side was given 
an aspect of dramatic action, as appropriate to the daring 
navigator and discoverer whose career ended in a tragedy of 
mutiny and mysterious death. 

The details of the design required great care to assure his- 
torical accuracy. Eminent astronomers were consulted, col- 

78 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Official lections of instruments used in navigation were examined, and 
® the identification of those in use three hundred years ago was 

verified by approved records and authorities. The artist made 
several visits to Holland and obtained official sanction for his 
representation of the "Half Moon" and the costumes of her 
navigator and sailors. Engravings and paintings of about 
1609 were studied, and a copy made of the form and rigging of 
the vessel selected as the type of the original " Half Moon " as 
now reproduced. A plaster model of the interior of the vessel 
was obtained from the marine architect who designed the 
replica now afloat on the great river. 

The spelling of the names as they were written in 1609 was 
a detail requiring much investigation. 

Heinrick was replaced by Henry, on the evidence that 
Captain Hudson was an Englishman, that his name was writ- 
ten Henry three times in the contract for his employment by 
the Dutch East India Company, and was similarly signed to 
that paper, notwithstanding the facts that the document was 
prepared by a Dutch lawyer, written in the Dutch language, 
and executed in Amsterdam. 

The proper spelling of the name of the vessel was not so 
readily determined. The publications of Holland spelled the 
name "Halve Maen," but it was admitted that the ancient 
form and that undoubtedly used when Captain Hudson sailed 
from Amsterdam was "Halve Maen^." Having the highest 
naval authority for this latter form of spelling, the dies for the 
medal were prepared accordingly. When about to strike the 
first medals, papers were received from Holland illustrating 
the floating of the new "Half Moon" in Amsterdam, and 
describing the details of her construction and shipment to New 
York. In all these accounts her name was spelled "Halve 
Maen." Although in great haste to make a timely issue, the 
striking of the medals was immediately stopped, awaiting a 
cable answer to the inquiry as to how the name was spelled upon 

Official Insignia and Publications 79 

the ship sent here. The cable answer from the Dutch authority Official 
was reassuring, as he not only reasserted his previous state- 
ment in favor of the final " e" as the form prevailing in 1609, 
but gave the information that the name would not be upon 
the ship at all. Upon the arrival of the "Half Moon" a careful 
inspection was made and it was found, as is sometimes done 
in other departments of human activities, that the old adage 
" When in doubt, do nothing" had apparently been availed of, 
as, sure enough, the stern was decorated with a design of a 
new or crescent moon, but without any text in ancient or 
modern form to assure us, notwithstanding any possible doubts, 
that the design really represented the "Half Moon." 

There were likewise difficulties in representing accurately 
the shape of the " Clermont." The best evidence was obtained 
from the pictures of the port of New York of one hundred 
years ago, available in various museums; and an important 
print of that period was used in making the design for the 
medal. The Clermont Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Cele- 
bration Commission had much difficulty in determining the 
appearance and mechanical details of the successful "Cler- 
mont." Research among old records brought to light from 
time to time unexpected information, so that several changes 
were made in the location of the paddle-wheel, the smoke- 
stack and the number of masts and their rigging. The plaster 
design of the medal, even after its delivery to the die-makers 
was twice altered as changes were successively made by the 
Committee in charge of the construction of the replica of the 

In portraiture the medal is limited to the bust of Robert 
Fulton, reproduced by the kind permission of his grandson, 
from the painting by the American artist, Benjamin West, now 
in the possession of Robert Fulton Ludlow. 

In the case of Henry Hudson it was concluded after most 
diligent search and inquiry at the British Museum and at the 

8o The Hudson- Fulton Celebration 

Official museums of Holland, as well as, of course, at the offices of the 
Medal English Muscovy Company and of the Dutch East India 
Company, former employers of Hudson, that no authentic 
portrait of Henry Hudson exists. While it would have been 
easy to appropriate a type of an English seaman of that date 
for an imaginative portrait, it was thought best, in the interest 
of permanent historical records, as such a medal must neces- 
sarily be, not to introduce into the design anything that required 
the explanation that it really was not what it pretended to be. 
The absence of any portrait of Hudson is undoubtedly due to 
the tragedy of his last voyage and the long concealment of 
his death. 

The physical features of the Hudson River, probably nearly 
as they were when viewed by the explorers, are outlined in 
the background of the " Half Moon " as now seen looking up 
the river from the vicinity of Grant's Tomb. 

The Fulton design includes the sky-line of New York as recently 
seen from the Jersey side of the river, and a view of lower Man- 
hattan island from the river, taken from a print of about 1807. 
The Medal Committee of the Commission was appointed to 
arrange for the striking of the official commemorative medal, 
to arrange for the presentation of such copies as are to be given 
to distinguished rulers, and to attend to the sale of copies to 
be otherwise disposed of to the members of the Commission or 
the public. 

By official announcement regarding its Official Medal the 
Commission authorized the issue of nine varieties of this medal, 
all from the same design, but intended by their size and metal 
for various purposes. The most important in artistic and 
intrinsic value were Hmited in issue, and designed for presen- 
tation to the distinguished guests of the Commission; others 
were limited in edition and issue to the members of the Com- 
mission and Citizens' Committees upon their individual sub- 
scription therefor. Souvenir medals of different sizes and 
metals were provided for the Official Aides, the guests at the 

Official Insignia and Publications 


official banquet, the sailors of all the visiting fleets, and as Official 
prizes for school children and sporting events. Medal 

Other issues were prepared for public sale, subject to a 
royalty to the Commission; one, the four-inch bronze medal, 
selling at $2 each, was deemed entitled to appreciation as a 
work of art, of historical interest, and a worthy and enduring 
souvenir of an occasion of unusual importance. The other 
issues to the public were designed as pocket pieces or for per- 
sonal decoration, and to be sold at 25 cents and 10 cents each. 
The official schedule of these issues as finally made, and all of 
the same design, is as follows: 









4 inches 


and Principal 


Public Sale. 

3 inches 

Heads of 

Nations and 

the American 

Num. Soc. (2). 

The American 



2^ inches 

Committees and 
Official Aides. 

Official Ban- 
quet and 
Aquatic Games. 

2 inches 

Other Guests 


Aquatic Games. 

Public Sale. 

ij inches 

Aquatic Games. 

Awards of 

Merit for 

Public Schools. 

Aquatic Games. 

ij inches 

Aquatic Games. 

Visiting Sailors 


Public Sale. 

Under the terms of the agreement with the Commission, the 
Numismatic Society prepared the original dies, three inches in 

82 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Official diameter, and struck therefrom for the members of that Society 
Medal only, two examples in native gold from California, and one 
hundred examples in solid sterling silver numbered from one 
upwards. The dies were then delivered to the Commission 
to be used only for striking such medals in native Alaskan 
gold as might be required for presentation to the head of each 
nation represented in the Hudson-Fulton Celebration by one 
or more of its naval vessels. After such use these dies are to 
be deposited in the Museum of the Numismatic Society. 

The one hundred numbered silver medals from these three- 
inch dies were oflFered by circular of July 27, 1909, to the mem- 
bers of the Society and were promptly taken. 

To protect the design from infringement, and thereby to 
enhance the value of the medals and augment the royalty on 
its sale accruing to the Commission, application was made for 
a patent under the laws of the United States, which was duly 
issued, September 7, 1909, and all the rights thereunder were 
vested in the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

By reason of the importance and distinctive character of 
each design, neither supplementing the other, and because the 
events commemorated occurred two hundred years apart, the 
faces of the medal do not properly come under the customary 
designation of obverse and reverse. There is no reverse to 
describe or illustrate the obverse; each side is complete by 
itself. Chronologically the Hudson side would be the obverse 
and the Fulton side the reverse. Practically this technical 
relation will change according to the artistic tastes or sympathies 
of the observer. In order to facilitate the exhibition and exami- 
nation of each side, from time to time, as may be desired, 
some of the cases prepared by the Commission for the presenta- 
tion examples have been made to hang or stand, so that the 
medal may be reversed in position. 

The medallic art is as old as that of Numismatics, and the 
examples that have been preserved, in gold, silver, bronze and 
iron, equal, if they do not excel in artistic value, the best speci- 

Official Insignia and Publications 83 

mens of ancient coinage with which the world is familiar. As Official 
in sculpture and painting, there have been periods of decadence ^ 
and renascence. Its finest examples have been produced under 
the fostering care and generous encouragement of patrons of 
art in those countries where the fine arts have been most 
developed. As a record of important events in all branches 
of human endeavor, the medal, because of its enduring 
materials, the difficulties of its execution, and the convenience 
of its preservation, has been recognized as one of the most 
reliable records of historical interests, and one of the favorite 
forms of expression of public sentiment. 

This medal, like the famous Waterloo* medal in England, 
prepared by the Royal Mint, but never struck, marks a develop- 
ment of the medallic art in this country that by the accuracy of 
its historical detail, the balance and grace of its composition, 
and the delicate refinement of its low relief, establishes an 
example highly creditable to the efforts of the American 
Numismatic Society for a better and wider appreciation 
of the glyptic art in its application to coinage and medals. 

To the foregoing description by Dr. Adams may be added the 
statement that all the medals except those struck in gold for 
presentation to the heads of governments were made by the 
Whitehead & Hoag Company of New York City and Newark, 
N. J. The gold medals presented to the heads of Governments 
which sent naval vessels to the Celebration were executed by 
Tiffany & Co. of New York City. The Board of Trustees on 
October 13, 1909, directed that all the dies for the medals 
should be deposited in the Museum of the American Numis- 
matic Society. Sets of the Medals were presented to the 
American Numismatic Society, New York; British Museum, 
London, England; Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 
New York ; Congressional Library, Washington, D. C. ; Met- 

* By Pistnicci, the Italian designer of the St. George and dragon gold coins of Great 

84 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

ropolitan Museum of Art, New York; New York Historical 
Society, New York; New York Public Library, New York; 
New York State Library, Albany; Rijks Museum, Amsterdam, 
The Netherlands; Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C; 
United States Military Academy, West Point; United States 
Mint, Philadelphia, Pa., and United States Naval Academy, 
Annapolis, Md. 
Official Matters relating to the Official Badge, Official Flag and 
Badge Official Poster were in the hands of the Committee on Badges, 
Flag and Poster, of which Mr. August F. Jaccaci is Chairman 
and Mr. Louis Annin Ames is Vice-Chairman. 

The Official Badge was designed by Mr. Chester Beach of 
New York and was issued with variations as to metal and ribbon 
to distinguish its use by Commissioners, Official Guests, 
Official Aides and Members of Citizens' Committees. 

The Commissioners' Badge consisted of a solid sterling silver 
medallion, about one and a half inches in diameter, suspended 
from an orange, white and blue ribbon (the colors under which 
Hudson sailed), which in turn was suspended from a silver 
bar bearing the word "Commissioner," and all of which was 
backed by a broad blue ribbon about six inches long. The 
medallion represented on the obverse profile portraits of Hud- 
son and Fulton, surrounded by the legend: "Henry Hudson. 
1609. Robert Fulton. 1807," and the date of the Celebra- 
tion, " 1909. " The portrait of Hudson was, of course, imagin- 
ary, as no actual portrait of the explorer is known to exist. 
Upon the reverse of the medallion was represented a standing, 
draped, female figure, wearing a winged cap, and holding in 
her extended right hand a model of the Half Moon ship, while 
in her extended left hand she held a model of the Clermont 
steamboat. This figure represented the Spirit of Progress 
and was modeled after the central figure in Mr. Blashfield's 
design for the Official Poster, mentioned hereafter. In the 
background were represented some of the buildings of New 
York City. Surrounding all were the words: "Hudson- 

Official Insignia and Publications 85 

Fulton Celebration. N. Y. " When in action as a Committee- official 
man, the wearer removed the blue back ribbon and substituted ^^^S^ 
a white ribbon, indicating that for the time being he was 
acting authoritatively as a member of a committee. The 
title of his Committee was indicated by a celluloid button 
bearing its name. A Chairman was indicated by gold fringe 
on his white and blue back ribbons. This badge, including 
both the white and the blue back ribbons, enclosed in a leather 
pocket case stamped in gold "Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission. Commissioner," was furnished to Commis- 
sioners at a cost of $2.75 each, sent by registered mail. The 
Committee button cost 10 cents additional. 

The Badge of the Official Guests was identical with the 
Commissioners' Badge, except that upon the bar was the word 
"Guest," and the back ribbon was of a golden yellow color 
instead of blue. These badges were furnished to the Official 
Guests gratuitously. 

The medallion and bar of the Badge for Official Aides was 
of solid green bronze and upon the bar was the word "Aide." 
The orange, white and blue front ribbon was the same as on 
the Commissioners' Badge, but there was no back ribbon. 
The case was stamped in gold "Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission. Aide." This badge was sent to Aides by regis- 
tered mail, in leather case, at a cost of ^^5 1.60, or in leatherette 
case at a cost of ^1.35. 

The medallion and bar of the Badge for Citizens' Commit- 
tees were of solid, government finish, bronze. Upon the bar 
were the words "Citizens' Committee." The orange, white 
and blue front ribbon was the same as on the Commissioners* 
Badge, but there was no back ribbon. The case was stamped 
in gold "Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. Citizens' 
Committee." This badge, in leatherette case, was sent by 
registered mail at a cost of ^1.30. The badges were manu- 
factured by the Medallic Art Company, of New York, and were 
protected by copyright. 

86 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Official In accordance with a resolution of the Trustees, Commission 
^"*se badges were sent to the five Foreign Correspondent Councillors 
of the Commission, namely. Dr. A. Bredius, Director of the 
Mauritshuys Museum, The Hague; Hon. C. G. Hooft, Direc- 
tor of the Fodor Museum, Amsterdam; Hon. D. Hudig, 
Assistant in Naval Drawings, etc., Rotterdam; Dr. W. Martin, 
Professor at the University, Leiden; and Dr. E. W. Moes, 
Curator of Prints at the Rijks Museum, Amsterdam. Two 
badges each were sent to the Worcester, Mass., Museum, the 
Chicago Art Institute, the Smithsonian Institution, the Brook- 
lyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, and the Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts. One set of dies was sent to the American Numis- 
matic Society, one set to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
and one set to the New York Historical Society, all of New 
York City. 
Official The Official Flag was designed by Mr. Frank D. Millet and 
Flag Mr. C. Y. Turner, with the collaboration of Mr. Jaccaci and 
Mr. Ames, Chairman and Vice-Chairman respectively of the 
Committee on Badges, Flag and Poster. It consisted of a 
horizontal tricolor of orange, white and light blue (reading 
from the top downward) — the colors being those of the Dutch 
flag in 1609. In the center of the white stripe were the plain 
red initials H. F., standing for Hudson and Fulton, surrounded 
by a green wreath. The design was protected by patent, but 
any reputable manufacturer who would agree to comply with 
the specifications prepared by the Committee, prescribing the 
design, colors, grade of materials and retail price, was per- 
mitted without charge to make and sell the flag. It is esti- 
mated that between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000 flags of this 
design were sold by the entire trade. 

The Official Colors — orange, white and light blue — 

were also used extensively and gave the keynote to the color 

schemes of the Celebration generally. 

Official The Official Poster was designed by Mr. E. H. Blashfield. 

Poster It was 19 by 26 inches in size and was copyrighted. It repre- 

Official Insignia and Publications 87 

sented in the center the personification of the Spirit of Progress Official 
— a draped, standing, female figure, wearing a winged hat^"®*^ 
and holding in her right hand a model of the Half Moon and 
in her left hand a model of the Clermont. At her right stands 
an ideal figure of Henry Hudson, holding a globe in his right 
hand, while his left hand, holding his hat, rests on the hilt of 
his sword. From his belt protrude the butts of two pistols. 
On the opposite side stands a figure representing Robert 
Fulton, whose crossed hands, one of which holds his beaver 
hat, rest on the head of a cane. Above the figures is the 
legend: "Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 1609, 1807," the dates 
being above the figures of Hudson and Fulton respectively. 
At the bottom are the dates of the Celebration: "September 25 
to October g, 1909." 

These posters, to the number of 77,814, were printed and 
distributed free. Of these, 66,494 were furnished with paste- 
board tubes for protection. The railroads received 52,896. 
Of the remainder, Mr. Ames distributed 3,338; Mr. Simon 
Brentano, of Brentano's, 2,000; and Mr. P. T. Wall, of the 
Shippers and Travelers' Exchange, 1,000. Every request for 
one poster or more was acted upon and all details of the dis- 
tribution were attended to by Mr. Jaccaci. The correspond- 
ence involved reached many thousands of letters received and 
as many sent, and about 4,000 postal cards. Four thousand 
five hundred posters were mailed from Mr. Jaccaci's office. 
After the 77,814 copies had been distributed hundreds of 
requests for posters were received from schools, colleges, 
libraries, etc., but on account of the cost and difficulty of 
distribution no more were printed. 

In the summer of 1909 an arrangement was made with the 
Sackett & Wilhelms Company, of No. 73 Fifth avenue. New 
York, to print the poster design in reduced form on envelopes 
for public sale at the rate of $-^ per thousand, the printers to 
pay the Commission a royalty of 10 per cent; also to reproduce 
the design in colors, 2 by 2f inches in size, upon pasters and 


88 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

tags, and in black halftone process on blotters, pasters and 
tags, for public sale, paying to the Commission a similar roy- 
alty on all sales. 
Official Pursuant to resolution of the Board of Trustees, the Com- 
mittee on Memorials, of which Mr. Tunis G. Bergen is Chair- 
man, made arrangements in the summer of 1909 with Redfield 
Brothers, Inc., No. 311 West Forty-third street. New York, for 
the printing and pubhc sale of Official Programs and Souvenirs 
as follows: 

Official Program: 9 J by 12 inches in size, 32 pages and cover, 
illustrated; retail price, 25 cents; royalty to the Commission, 
3J cents a copy on all copies sold over 30,000 in number. 

Historical Pageant Souvenir: 7 by 10 inches in size, 64 pages 
and cover, printed in colors, illustrating the 54 floats of the 
Historical Parade with an historical sketch of each incident 
portrayed; cover inlaid with pictures of Half Moon in colors, 
and embossed; bound with silk cord; retail price, 50 cents a 
copy; royalty to Commission, 6 J cents a copy on all copies 
sold over 26,000 in number. 

Carnival Pageant Souvenir: 4J by 6^ inches in size, 64 pages 
illustrating the 50 floats in the Carnival Parade with a descrip- 
tion of each subject portrayed; retail price, lO cents a copy; 
royalty to Commission, i cent a copy on all copies sold over 
55,000 in number. 

Souvenir Post-cards: 72 in number, representing the His- 
torical and Carnival floats, Henry Hudson, the Half Moon, 
Robert Fulton, the Clermont and the official poster design; 
printed in 10 colors; price ^^25 a thousand; royalty to Com- 
mission $1.75 a thousand on all cards sold over 150,000 in 

These publications were edited by the Secretary and Assistant 
Secretary of the Commission and were copyrighted. Advertise- 
ments in them were expressly prohibited. The sale of these 
publications was a great disappointment and after the Celebra- 
tion the publisher asked to be relieved from paying any royalties 

Official Insignia and Publications 89 

to the Commission, with the result that the Commission com- 
promised by accepting ;^2,ooo. 

In response to representations made to the Postmaster- Corn- 
General of the United States, the Hon. Frank H. Hitchcock, by™®P*°" 

■' rative 

the Hon. William S. Bennett, the Hon. Herbert Parsons, and Postage 
the Hon. J. Van Vechten Olcott, Members of Congress from Stamp 
the State of New York, in behalf of the Commission, the United 
States Government issued a commemorative postage stamp of 
the denomination of two cents. The design, executed by the 
artists of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, was based 
upon suggestions made, upon invitation of the Postmaster- 
General, by Dr. George Frederick Kunz and the Assistant 
Secretary of the Commission. The stamp was oblong in 
shape, and seven-eighths of an inch by one and three-fourths 
inches in size, being one of the largest postage stamps ever 
issued by the Government. In the border at the top of the 
design were the words *' Hudson-Fulton Celebration" with 
the dates "1609" and "1909." Below this inscription in a 
curved line appeared the words "U. S. Postage." At the 
bottom on each side was a prominent Arabic numeral "2" 
with the words "Two cents" in a panel between the figures. 
In the center was engraved a picture showing the Palisades of 
the Hudson River in the background, with the Half Moon 
sailing up the river and the Clermont steaming in the opposite 
direction. In the foreground was an Indian in a canoe, and 
in the distance, just discernible, a canoe with four other Indians. 
In its entirety, the design commemorated the Hudson River 
and the three stages of the science of navigation — aboriginal 
navigation, sail navigation ushered in by Hudson and steam 
navigation ushered in by Fulton. At the Postoffice Depart- 
ment in Washington the stamp was regarded as one of the most 
artistic ever issued by the Government. Fifty millions of 
stamps were printed, and the sale began on the opening day 
of the Celebration, Satuiday, September 25, 1909. 

90 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Half Among the conspicuous manifestations of the generous 

Moon interest taken by Hollanders in the Celebration was the presenta- 

tion of a thousand beautiful colored pictures of the Half Moon to 

the Commission by Messrs. J. T. Cremer, J. P. Van Eeghen 

and R. Van Rees, as indicated in the following letter: 

"Amsterdam, 6th September, 1909. 
"To the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, New York: 

"The undersigned have the honor to inform your Committee that they 
intend, through your kind intermission, to present to the schools of New York: 
"One thousand reproductions of a water color drawing representing the 
'Halve Maen' sailing up the Hudson River. 

"As citizens of Amsterdam and Honorary Foreign Councillors of your Com- 
mission, they wish herewith to assist in keeping before the coming generations 
of Americans, the memorable fact that your glorious river was discovered and 
New Amsterdam founded by men bent on discovery, who hailed from Amster- 
dam and sailed under the colors of Amsterdam, of the Orange ' Prinsenvlag,' 
of the Netherlands tri-color with the badge of the Amsterdam Chamber of 
the ' Oost Indische Compagnie ' and with the ' Geus ' on the jackstafF. 

" They kindly request you to distribute for them these reproductions, which 
they intend bringing along with them on the 'Nieuw Amsterdam,* leaving 
Rotterdam on the nth inst. The original was handed by the editor to the 
member of your Commission, Mr. Tunis G. Bergen, who was so kind as to 
visit us 

"We are gentlemen, 

"Yours very sincerely, 
"J. T. Cremer, 
"Representative of the government of the Netherlands 
at the Hudson-Fulton Celebration; Vice-President of 
the Netherlands Hudson-Fulton Commission. 

"J. P. Van Eeghen, 
"Chairman of the Amsterdam Chamber of Commerce; 
Vice-President of the Netherlands Hudson-Fulton 

"R. Van Rees, 
'Treasurer of the Netherlands Hudson-Fulton Com- 

Official Insignia and Publications 91 

These pictures, 19 by 26 inches in size, were reproductions Half 
of a water color painting by Mr. H. J. Kohler of The Nether- ^°°°^^^ 
lands, the original of which was presented to the Commission 
as stated in the above letter. In accordance with a resolution 
of the Trustees adopted May 4, 1910, the pictures were sent 
by the Commission on May 17, 1910, for distribution among 
the public schools of the following named cities and villages 
along the Hudson River: 

Cities: Albany, Cohoes, Glens Falls, Hudson, Kingston, 
Newburgh, New York, Poughkeepsie, Rensselaer, Troy, 
Watervliet and Yonkers. 

Villages: Athens, Castleton, Catskill, Cold Spring, Corinth, 
Cornwall, Coxsackie, Croton-on-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry, Fish- 
kill, Fishkill Landing, Fort Edward, Green Island, Hastings- 
on-Hudson, Haverstraw, Hudson Falls, Irvington, Matteawan, 
Mechanicville, North Tarrytown, Nyack, Ossining, Peekskill, 
Piermont, Red Hook, Rhinebeck, Saugerties, Schuylerville, 
South Glens Falls, South Nyack, Stillwater, Tarrytown, 
Tivoli, Upper Nyack, Victory Mills, Wappingers Falls, Water- 
ford and West Haverstraw. 

The pictures for the schools in the City of New York were 
sent direct to the headquarters of the Board of Education. 
Those for other cities and for villages were sent to a repre- 
sentative of the Commission in each place. 




MONG the active preparations in the year before the 
Celebration, none involved objects of greater popu- 
lar interest than the building of the facsimiles of Hud- 
son's ship, the Half Moon, and Fulton's steamboat, the 
Contem- The building of the Half Moon, either in Holland or America, 
plated ^as contemplated from the very outset, as appears from the 
first minutes of the first meeting of the Executive Committee of the 
Hudson Tercentenary Joint Committee on December i6, 
1905, at which it was "recommended as an instructive and 
picturesque feature of the water celebration that a facsimile 
of the Half Moon be built, in Holland if possible, otherwise 
in America, and that it should arrive in the harbor and proceed 
up to Albany and return, duplicating the anchorages of the 
original ship, with local demonstrations en route." In the 
summer of 1906, the Assistant Secretary of the Commission, 
by whom the foregoing recommendation was made, visited 
Holland and made researches in the museums and libraries 
with a view to preparing authentic data for the construction 
of the vessel if it should be determined upon. On November 
26, 1906, the late Rear Admiral Joseph B. Coghlan, U. S. N., 
then Chairman of the Naval Parade Committee, recommended 
that plans be secured for building the Half Moon and Cler- 
mont so as to permit estimates to be made of the time and cost 
of construction, but the preparations for building the Half 
Moon on the American side of the ocean were eventually dis- 
continued as the result of the very agreeable intimation that 
the people of Holland would like to contribute the Half Moon 

to the Celebration. 


The Building of the Half Moon 93 

On January 17, 1908, Jonkheer R. de Marees van Swinderen, interest 
then Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the °* ^°*" 
Netherlands to the United States, called in his personal capacity 
at the office of the Secretary of the Commission in order to 
express the great interest which the people of Holland took in 
the approaching Commemoration and to inform himself 
concerning the plans of the Commission before returning to 
his own country. The Minister was given very full infor- 
mation concerning the Commission's plans and in the informal 
discussion which ensued and in which, it was inferred, he desired 
to elicit some suggestion as to an acceptable form of participa- 
tion, the building of the Half Moon was suggested and met with 
his favor. A few weeks later, Jonkheer van Swinderen returned 
to the Netherlands and became Her Majesty's Secretary of State 
for Foreign Affairs, in which official position, the event showed, he 
forwarded the plan for building the Half Moon in Holland and 
presenting it to the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

Meanwhile, on January 22, 1908, Mr. Tunis G. Bergen, 
with a view to fostering the feeling of international good will 
and promoting cooperation, proposed the election of five 
distinguished Hollanders as Foreign Correspondent Councillors, 
and on May 27 they were elected. (For their names, see Chap- 
ter LXn.) This cooperation was further promoted by Mr. 
Bergen and Mr. August F. Jaccaci, members of the Commis- 
sion, by correspondence and personal visits to Holland. 

The interest of the Hollanders crystallized into definite form 
at a meeting of a small number of prominent citizens held in 
the Hague, April 11, 1908, upon the invitation of Vice Admiral 
A. G. Ellis, Adjutant Extraordinary of Her Majesty the 
Queen, Baron M. Mackay, Minister of State, and the Hon. 
J. C. de Marez Oyens, ex-Minister of Water Department, Com- 
merce and Industry. The result of this meeting was the for- 
mation of the Netherlands Hudson-Fulton Celebration Com- 
mission with His Royal Highness, the Prince of the Nether- 


94 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

lands, Duke of Mecklenburg, as Patron, and the decision to 

build the Half Moon. (The members of this Commission, 

whose names are given in Chapter LXII following, were 

elected Honorary Foreign Councillors of the New York 

State Commission on June 23, 1909.) 

Dutch The generous purpose of the Netherlands Commission was 

Ofie"^ communicated to the New York Commission in the following 
Half , " 

letters : 

The Hague, ^pril the iSth, 1908. 

To Mr. Edward Hagaman Hall, Assistant Secretary to the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Committee: 

Dear Sir. — As you may know there is a Committee in formation in Holland, 
whose object is to make their countrymen participate in the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration next year, by presenting a model of the " Halve Maan " (the 
vessel used by Hudson in 1609) to the American Central Committee. As 
you may know there is no model of that ship existing and now the Dutch 
should very much like ro have a drawing representing the idea your Com- 
mittee has formed of what the "Halve Maan" has been and some information 

We should be very well able to carry out our own idea of the vessel by con- 
structing a ship of 80 tons burden after another model of the period, but we 
are afraid that in doing so we might disappoint the American people, who, 
no doubt, have formed an idea of their own as to what the Hudson vessel was 
like. Therefore we should be very much indebted to you if you would be 
so kind as to send us the desired information to my address; being as follows: 

Jonkheer Roell, Vice Admiral Retired of the Royal Dutch Navy, A. d. C. 
to Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands, 3 Bosch street. The Hague, 

Believe me truly yours, 

J. E. Roell. 

The Hague, /ipril 23, igo8. 

Edward Hagaman Hall, Esq., Assistant Secretary of the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Commission, New York City: 

Dear Sir. — Since my visit at your office in January last, great changes took 
place with me and instead of returning to Washington as Her Majesty's Minister 
Plenipotentiary, I stay in my own country as its Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
In that way I will only be able to show from this side of the water my great 

The Building of the Half Moon 95 

interest in the coining celebration, the preparations of which have been trusted 
to you. As I told you, I had every reason to believe that a participation in 
those festivities would meet amongst the Holland people with great enthusiasm, 
and I now am glad to tell you that a Committee has been formed and that the 
construction of the Half Moon is intended to be executed on one of our wharves. 
You will soon get an official notice from that Committee but I thought it better 
to anticipate on that, in order to prevent that your own Committee may take 
the building of the old "dreadnought" in hands on the American side. 

Believe me, sir, sincerely yours, 

R. DE Marees Van Swinderen. 

As Stated in Admiral Roell's letter, no contemporaneous Research 
picture or model of the Half Moon was known to exist, but p°°'=s™- 
the researches made in behalf of the New York Commission Vessel 
had prepared it to give a satisfactory reply to the Admiral's 
inquiry. A careful analysis of Juet's Journal of Hudson's 
voyage supplied sufficient data to determine the Half Moon's 
masting, rigging, draft and certain other details, some of 
which were different from those erroneously given by Murphy 
in his monograph on "Henry Hudson in Holland" and com- 
monly accepted. Her tonnage was ascertained from the 
archives of the Amsterdam and Zealand Chambers of the 
Dutch East India Company; and her type having been deter- 
mined, vignettes of vessels of the same type on maps of con- 
temporary voyages suggested many exterior details. Capt. 
John Smith's Sea Grammar suggested some details of the 
interior. The substance of these researches, having been 
approved by Naval Constructor William J. Baxter, U. S. N., 
and by Admiral Coghlan, were communicated by the latter to 
Admiral Roell under date of May 12, 1908. 

Meanwhile the Hollanders had been making independent 
researches of their own, in the course of which they found the 
complete plans of the Half Moon's sister ship, the Hope, 
which was built by the Dutch East India Company, and which 
was rigged, fitted, inventoried and cost the same as the Half 
Moon. They also found a unique engraving made by J. San- 

96 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

redam and published in Amsterdam in 1606 by Willem Jansz 
Blaeu, representing the water front of Amsterdam with many 
ships of different types, including the type of the Half Moon; 
and they found guidance in Nicholas Witsen's "Present and 
Past Day Shipbuilding," published in Amsterdam in 167 1. 
From these data, together with some models of old ships found 
in a private collection in Amsterdam, particulars gained from 
the East India Company's papers, and doubtless other aids of 
which we have not been advised, the Hollanders formed their 
own conception of the Half Moon. 

Happily, the results of these two independent investigations 
agreed, and on June i, 1908, Admiral Roell wrote to Admiral 
Coghlan : " I was pleased to see that the information you gave 
coincides with our own investigations about said vessel. We 
are now ready to fulfill our plan of constructing a ship entirely 
similar to the Half Moon." 
Building From the data thus gathered, the plans of the Half Moon 
were prepared by the late Mr. C. L. Loder, Director of Ship- 
building of the Netherlands Navy Department, and from these 
plans the replica was built at the Royal Ship Yards at Amster- 
dam, under the general direction of Admiral Roell, Chairman 
of the Technical Committee for Building the Half Moon, and 
under the immediate supervision of Assistant Engineer of the 
Navy E. J. Benthem. For material, the Dutch Government 
gave the Committee some great balks of oak timber which had 
lain submerged in water in the wet dock at the Navy Yard for 
over a hundred years. The dates were stamped on them. 
These were dried and sawed up to make the timbers. The 
knees are natural knees. Her planking is about four inches 
thick on the sides, and she has 36 tons of ballast in her. She 
cost ;^40,ooo. The keel was laid October 29, 1908, and the 
ship was launched April 15, 1909. She was taken by water to 
Rotterdam and there placed on board the Holland-America 
Line steamship Soestdyk, by which she was brought to New 
York, arriving July 22, 1909. The Soestdyk proceeded to the 

the Half 

The Building of the Half Moon 97 

Navy Yard in Brooklyn, where the Half Moon was hoisted 
from her cradle and was placed in her native element again 
July 23. As the Half Moon was built of selected oak and was 
a real vessel in every respect, she could have sailed the seas 
as well as her prototype, but she was brought over on the deck 
of a modern steamship as a matter of convenience. 

In anticipation of the arrival of the Half Moon, the Hon. 
A. M. Beaupre, American Ambassador to the Netherlands, 
wrote to the Secretary of State at Washington, under date of 
June 2, 1908, communicating the request of Admiral Roell 
that the Half Moon and her furnishings be exempted from the 
United States customs duties; and on June 24 the Federal 
authorities very courteously instructed the Collector of Cus- 
toms at New York to admit the vessel duty free. 

Upon her arrival the Half Moon became the special charge Arrival 
of the Commission's Half Moon Committee, of which Capt. ^ J^ 
Herbert L. Satterlee, formerly Assistant Secretary of the Navy, 
is Chairman; and by the courtesy of Rear Admiral (then 
Captain) J. B. Murdock, U. S. N., Commandant of the Navy 
Yard, and with the invaluable personal attention of Naval 
Constructor Baxter, she was cared for at the Navy Yard until 
put into commission for the celebration. On August 30, 
Shipwright Benthem arrived, and during the next three weeks 
supervised the rigging of the vessel and otherwise completing 
her preparation for the Celebration. A few days before the 
Celebration opened, the warship Utrecht, of the Royal Nether- 
lands Navy, arrived and supplied the crew for the Half Moon, 
Lieutenant-Commander W. Lam personifying Henry Hudson, 
and Lieutenant A. de Bruijne taking the character of Hudson's 
Mate. The crew of 20 men were dressed in costumes of the 
period of Hudson's voyage. 

We may now describe the Half Moon as she set forth from 
the Navy Yard on Saturday, September 25, 1909, to take part 
in the opening ceremonies of the Celebration, reserving to future 



The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

chapters an account of the ceremonies attending her formal 
presentation and subsequent movements. 
Descrip- The principal dimensions of the Half Moon are as follows : 

tion of 



Length from stem to stern (betewen perpendiculars) 

Greatest breadth of beam 

Depth of hold from upper side of clamps to right 

line of 'tween-deck 

Draft forward 

Draft aft 

Displacement* about 

Old Amsterdam 






















cubic ft. 

95 . 9 cu. M. 





5 8.8 

7 ' o 

3,386.8 cu. ft. 



The hull of the new Half Moon is tarred below the water 
line and has a uniform brownish color above with the exceptions 
noted hereafter. In general form, the hull has a full round bow 
and a full broad bottom. From the bow projects an ornamental 
galleon or beakhead. At the forward extremity of the beak- 
head is the figure-head — a red lion with golden mane. The 
bow of the ship is painted green with red and yellow ornaments 
in the shape of litde sailors' heads. Three anchors are hauled 
up to the channels, two on one side and one on the other. The 
sides of the ship fall in rapidly above a line about midway 
between the upper and lower decks, giving her cross-section 
a pear-shape. The high forecastle at the bow and the high 
poop aft further add to her quaint appearance. The sides of 
the poop are painted sky blue with white clouds. The high 
pear-shaped stern is beautifully carved and decorated. In 
the uppermost panel of the stern upon a blue background 
studded with yellow stars, is a yellow crescent moon with the 
profile of the " Man in the moon " in the concavity of the cres- 
cent. In the panel below this, above the windows of the 

* The tonnage of the Half Moon was stated in the records of the Amsterdam Chamber of the 
Dutch East India Company to have been 40 lasts, equal to about 80 tons. 

The Building of the Half Moon 99 

Captain's cabin, are the arms of Amsterdam with its three 
crosses, the arms of the Seven Provinces (the red lion on a 
gold background) and the monogram of the Amsterdam Cham- 
ber of the Dutch East India Company. The latter consists 
of the initials "V. O. C," standing for "Vereenigde Oost- 
Indische Compagnie" (United East India Company), sur- 
mounted by the initial "A" standing for Amsterdam. The five 
knees supporting the transom are carved to represent human 
heads and painted yellow. Above the stern is an ornate lantern. 

The vessel has a bowsprit bearing a "blinder" or water-sail. Masts, 
called in Hudson's Journal a sprit sail — a square sail attached ^''^ ^^^ 
to a yard hung under the bowsprit, but no headsails; a fore- 
mast bearing a square foresail; a foretopmast bearing a fore- 
topsail; a mainmast bearing a mainsail; a maintopmast carry- 
ing a maintopsail; and a mizzen-mast carrying a mizzen-sail. 
The mizzen-sail, unlike the other sails, is lateen rigged — that 
is to say, it is a triangular sail attached to a long yard slung 
diagonally across the mizzen-mast. The latter has no top- 
mast. The foremast rakes forward, while the mainmast 
rakes backward, the object of this divergence being to give 
more distance between the topsails and allow more vent for 
the full sail. She also has a complement of bonnets — 
additional strips of sail-cloth designed to be attached to the 
mainsail and foresail to enlarge their area. At the tops of the 
foremast and the mainmast are crow-nests. 

Upon the bowsprit is a staff carrying a jack — a small flag 
of orange, white and blue, the colors being arranged alternately 
and radiating from the center. At the foretop is the flag of 
Amsterdam — a tri-color of red, white and black with the arms 
of Amsterdam in the white field. At the maintop is the flag 
of the United Seven Provinces — upon a gold field, a red lion 
rampant, bearing in one forepaw a sword and in the other 
seven arrows. The mizzen-mast is surmounted by a small 
vane. From a staff at the stern floats the flag of the East India 

lOO The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Company. This is the national tri-color of orange, white and 

light blue (reading downward). In the center of the white 

stripe is the monogram of the Amsterdam Chamber of the East 

India Company before described. 

Half The ship has two full decks and a poop-deck. The uppermost 

Moon's Qf jjjg ^^Q £yjj (Jecjfs ig called the upper-deck and beneath it is 

the "tusschendek," or 'tween-deck. Below the 'tween-deck is 

the hold. We will describe the interior beginning at the bottom : 

The hold, 5 feet 10.9 inches deep, just allows a man of average 

height to stand erect on the bottom of the ship without striking 

his head on the timbers of the deck above. It is open from 

stem to stern without compartments, and, being mostly below 

the water line, has no ports, the only access and ventilation 

being through the fore and main hatches. 

The 'tween-deck space is very cramped, as there is scarcely 
four feet space between the deck and the planking of the upper 
deck. At the forward end are the hawse-holes for the anchors. 
Upon this deck are the two "heavy guns" of the little craft 
projecting from portholes on either side of the ship, about 
midway between the foremast and mainmast. These pieces 
are of 800 pounds each and about 8 centimeters calibre. On 
the walls are rammers, sponges, gunners' ladles, match-sticks, 
ball extractor, lanterns and pikes. Nearly opposite the main- 
mast on either side is another porthole. Against the mast is 
stowed one of the water casks. Just abaft the mainmast on 
the starboard side is a little pantry, the berth of the steward 
and a closet. In the corresponding position on the port side 
is a kitchen or galley. This latter contains a tiled fireplace 
with brass-topped andirons, a pair of iron tongs and a poker. 
A brass fire-chain suspended from the top of the fireplace 
holds the pots and kettles over the fire. Outside the fireplace 
on a shelf, are a brass skimmer, a brass snuffer, and various 
kitchen utensils. Under the shelf are peat and wood for fuel. 
On the wall is a sulphur-stick box. Back of the galley is the 

The Building of the Half Moon loi 

berth of the cook and another closet. Aft of the latter is a Half 
sailroom. Between the mainmast and mizzen-mast is the """^ 
spindle of the windlass which comes down through the upper 
deck. Just abaft the mizzen-mast the after part of the ship 
is divided off by a bulkhead. On the starboard side within 
this compartment is the powder magazine containing the gun- 
ner's necessaries; and opposite to it on the portside is the iron- 
plated breadroom for foodstuffs. In the space between the 
magazine and breadroom plays the tiller of the rudder. At 
the forward end of the tiller is fastened a whipstaff or jack- 
tiller, a sort of wooden handle or lever which goes up vertically 
through the upper deck just abaft the mizzen-mast and by 
which the ship is steered from the upper deck. In the stern, 
on either side of the sternpost, is a porthole. 

At the forward end of the upper deck is the forecastle, the 
sleeping-place of the crew, containing five berths. Each berth 
can hold two men if necessary. In the forecastle, after the 
manner of the ancient time, there are three brass tablets bearing 
inscriptions, which, translated, read as follows: "Honor thy 
father and thy mother," "Do not fight without cause," and 
"Good advice makes the wheels run smoothly." Between the 
forecastle and the mainmast is stowed the ship's boat — a 
chunky little rowboat with half round ends, about I2 feet long 
and 5 feet wide. Near the rail are two swivel-guns, pieces 
of ICO pounds each with a calibre of 3.2 millimeters. 
Just back of the mainmast is a great wooden post or bitt, 
carved in the shape of the head and bust of a man and fitted 
with a block or pulley through which pass some of the halyards 
used to hoist the yards. This block was variously called the 
"big man-servant," the "silent servant," and the "knight" — 
"knight-head" in English. Through the deck on the port 
side over the galley on the deck below issues the smokestack 
of the fireplace, which can be unshipped at will. About mid- 
way between the mainmast and mizzen-mast is the windlass. 

I02 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Just back of the latter is the ship's pump. Directly abaft the 
mizzen-mast, where the whipstafF connecting with the tiller 
comes up through the deck, and, protected by a little roof or 
hood, is the standing-place of the steersman. Before him is 
the binnacle, containing the compass; and above him, within 
his reach, is the ship's bell. Immediately behind the steers- 
Captain's man's platform is the Captain's cabin — an apartment about 
Cabin ^ ^ggj. ^ inches high, lighted by four windows, two in the stern 
and one on each side. This compartment is provided with a 
berth, two or three closets, a table with a movable top, and a 
bench divided by four little partitions into four seats. In the 
overhang of the stern is a conveniency. In that cabin are the 
following articles:* 

One antique iron-bound treasure chest, with key; i antique 
medicine chest; 2 large pewter tankards; 2 large pewter plates; 
5 small pewter plates; 3 large pewter mugs; 5 small dram cups 
(pewter); i pewter inkwell and sandbox, oak stand; 2 goose- 
quill pens; 11 pewter spoons; i brass astrolabe; i brass sun- 
dial; I hour glass in wooden frame; 2 single candlesticks; 
2 brass candle snuffers; i brass hanging lamp and bracket; 
I brass firebox, with flint, steel and tinder; 2 ball padlocks; 
I pair steel dividers; i leather case, containing five navigating 
implements; i cross-staff; i mortar and pestle; i small earthen- 
ware jug; I globe; i leather case containing silver combination 
compass and sun-dial; i chart of the world, 1584; i facsimile 
copy on vellum of contract between Henry Hudson and East 
India Company; i volume bound in vellum, psalms and 
catechism, dated 1571; i Bible bound in vellum, dated 1568; 
I volume itinerary of Jan Van Linschoten, dated 1596; i vellum- 
bound volume, "H. Bullinger, Huysboec," dated 1563; i vol- 
ume Asher's "Henry Hudson the Navigator," published by 
the Hakluyt Society; and i small sand-glass in wooden frame. 

♦ Subsequently deposited with the New York Historical Society. 

The Building of the Half Moon 103 

Above the Captain's cabin is the poopdeck, the after portion 
of which is occupied by the cabin of the Mate — a smaller and 
simpler apartment than the Captain's cabin. It is lighted by 
a small window on either side and contains a berth and cup- 
board. This cabin is painted green. 

Such was the appearance of the strange little craft, as, with 
bellowing sails and fluttering colors, she sailed from the Navy 
Yard on Saturday, September 25, past the masterpieces of 
modern naval architecture, to take her place in the triumphal 
procession which was to celebrate the famous voyage of her 
prototype — a gracious testimonial of the affection of the Dutch 
motherland for the great State which has grown from her 
infant colony, and a powerful object lesson of the hardihood 
of the navigators and pioneers who broke the wilderness 300 
years ago. 

The Half Moon returned from her voyage up the river and Half 
anchored at the Water Gate off iioth street. New York City, ^°j.°'^ 
on Monday, October 11. On the same day the Dutch crew Qualities 
were relieved from duty and returned to the Utrecht, which 
sailed immediately for the West Indies. In the afternoon 
Capt. Satterlee obtained a tug from the Navy Yard and towed 
the Half Moon down to the Harbor, where she was tried under 
sail in a puffy southerly breeze, to test her on all points. It 
was found that sh.e would sail to within about ten points of 
the wind. As the helm has only four points play to starboard 
or port, it was impossible to put her about with the helm, and 
she was put about in the manner in which ships of her period 
were handled; that is, the braces were slacked away and the 
lateen sail set and her stern swung off so that her head came 
around, when the lateen sail was triced up and the braces 
tautened. As she has very little keel and no center-board, 
she makes a great deal of leeway, and her best point of sailing 
is down the wind, where she can make about seven knots. 
Capt. Satterlee is of the opinion that she cannot make over 

I04 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

four knots on the wind, and she probably sails just as well as 
the original did. 

After the foregoing experiment, the Half Moon was placed 
in temporary winter quarters in the New York Navy Yard, the 
canvas and bunting being stowed in the hold, the archaeological 
objects being placed in the New York Historical Society, and 
other loose articles being stored in a fireproof warehouse. At 
the present writing (May, 1910) the vessel is carefully pro- 
tected at the Navy Yard, her final disposition not having yet 
been determined.* (For an account of the formal presenta- 
tion of the Half Moon to the Commission and the name of the 
donors, see the chapter on the Inaugural Naval Parade.) 

Final * At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Commission held June lo, 1910, the following 

Disposi- preamble and resolution were adopted: 

tion of Whereas, it is the desire of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission to make immediate and 

Half permanent provision for the preservation and care of the replica of the Half Moon, not only as a 

Moon highly prized testimonial of the affection and generosity of the people of the Netherlands for the 

people of the State of New York, but also as an object lesson in the history of the State and the 

science of navigation; and 

Whereas, the corporate life of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission is limited by its 
charter to a period of ten years from the date of its incorporation; and 

Whereas, the Commissioners of the Palisades Interstate Park, New York Commission, a per- 
petual corporation created by the State of New York, having by law jurisdiction over extensive 
lands and water-front along the river explored by Henry Hudson in the original Half Moon and 
possessing ample financial resources, has formally requested the honor of acting as the permanent 
official custodian of the Half Moon; therefore be it 

Resolved, that the Chairman of the Half Moon Committee be and he hereby is authorized and 
directed, upon the passage of a Concurrent Resolution by the Commissioners of the PaUsades 
Interstate Park, New York Commission, accepting the terms of this resolution, to deliver the Half 
Moon to said Commissioners of the Palisades Interstate Park, New York Commission, in per- 
petual trust for the people of the State of New York; upon the following conditions: 

ist. That the Half Moon shall ordinarily be kept floating upon the Hudson River in the State 
of New York; 

2d, That the Commissioners of the Palisades Interstate Park, New York Commission, shall 
keep in repair, protect and preserve the vessel with the utmost possible care; 

3rd, That the public shall be permitted to visit and inspect the vessel under suitable regulations, 

4th, That with the approval of the Governor of the State of New York the vessel be permitted 
to take part in public ceremonies relating to the science of navigation or to the Hudson River in 
the State of New York. 

The conditions of the foregoing resolution having been formally accepted by the Palisades Inter- 
state Park Commission, the Half Moon was delivered to that Commission on Friday, July 15, 
1910, and was anchored in the Hudson River. 


IMMEDIATELY upon the merging of the Hudson ter-cen- Research 
tenary and the Fulton centenary movements, as recorded . °°f^™ 
in Chapter I, the building of a facsimile of Fulton's pioneer Clermont 
steamboat, the Clermont, became a part of the Commission's 
plans as naturally as had that of the Half Moon. This task fell 
to the Naval Parade Committee, of which Rear Admiral Joseph 
B. Coghlan, U. S. N., was Chairman until his death, December 
5, 1908, and of which Capt. Jacob W. Miller has been Chairman 
since. After her construction, the new Clermont became the 
charge of the Clermont Committee, of which Mr. Eben E. 
Olcott is Chairman. The researches in regard to the Clermont 
were conducted chiefly by Admiral Coghlan, Naval Construc- 
tor Wm. J. Baxter, U. S. N., Capt. Miller, Mr. Olcott, Mr. Frank 
E. Kirby and Mr. J. W. Millard. Messrs. Kirby and Millard, 
naval architects and engineers, drew the working plans, and 
Mr. Millard was the Commission's Inspector of Construction. 
The vessel was built at Mariners Harbor, Staten Island, by the 
Staten Island Shipbuilding Company. 

It is a curious fact that the Naval Parade Committee 
had greater difficulty in determining the appearance of the 
Clermont, which was built in 1807, than in determining the 
appearance of Henry Hudson's Half Moon, which entered the 
river in 1609. There is no contemporary picture or drawing 
to be found in Europe or America of either the Half Moon or 
the Clermont, but, as intimated in the preceding chapter, there 
are so many references to the masting, rigging and draught of 
the Half Moon in Juet's Journal of Hudson's voyage, that 
with the aid of contemporary pictures of the harbor of Amster- 
dam and its shipping, the Half Moon could be accurately 


io6 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Research reconstructed. But in making the facsimile of the Clermont 
"ne'th™" "°'' °"^y ^''^ *^^ Committee lack contemporaneous pictures of 
Clermont the vessel, but authentic descriptions of its details were also 
almost entirely lacking; and still further, the Clermont being a 
pioneer vessel, it was not one of a type and no aid could be 
drawn from the appearance of other vessels of that period. 
The anomaly was thus presented of a greater difficulty in recon- 
structing a vessel lOO years old than in reconstructing a vessel 
300 years old. The plan adopted by the Commission, being 
the product of the most critical and painstaking technical and 
historical research, is, therefore, of great interest not only to 
persons interested in marine matters but also to historians and 
the public generally. 

In pursuing their researches, the Committee found a great 
many persons who offered information about what they believed 
to have been the original Clermont, but this information was 
generally found to apply to the boat after she was remodeled, 
and as the Celebration was designed to commemorate the begin- 
ning of steam navigation, the Committee determined to arrive 
as nearly as possible at the appearance of the pioneer vessel. 
A document bearing on the original size of the Clermont 
was a letter written by Fulton three months after her first trip, 
in which letter he suggested how she should be altered. This 
highly interesting document reads as follows: 

Washington November the loth 1807 
Dear Sir: 

I have received your letter of the 12th inst. after all accidents and delays 
our boat has cleared 5 per cent on the capital expended and as the people are 
not discouraged but continue to go in her at all risques, and even increase in 
numbers I think with you that one which should be complete would produce 
us from 8 to 10,000 dollars a year or perhaps more and that another boat which 
will cost 15,000 dollars will also produce us 10,000 dollars a year therefore as 
this is the only method which I know of gaining 50 or 75 per cent I am on my 
part determined not to dispose of any portion of my Interest on the North river 
but I will sell so much of my funds as will pay my part of rendering this boat 

The Building of the Clermont 107 

complete and for establishing another so that one will depart from Albany Research 
and one from New York every other day and carry all the passengers. It is now poicern- 
necessary to consider how to put our first boat in a complete state for 8 or lo rjiermont 
years — and when I reflect that the present one is so weak that she must have 
additional knees and timbers, new side timbers deck beams and deck, new 
windows and cabins altered, that she perhaps must be sheathed, her boiler 
taken out and a new one put in her axels forged and Iron work strengthened 
with all this work the saving of the present hull is of little consequence particu- 
larly as many of her Knees Bolts timbers and planks could enter into the con- 
struction of a new boat, my present opinion therefore is that we should build 
a new hull her knees and floor timbers to be of oak her bottom planks of 2 
Inch oak her side plank two Inch oak for 3 feet high She to be 16 feet wide 150 
feet long this will make her near twice as Stiff as at present and enable us to 
carry a much greater quantity of sail, the 4 feet additional width will require 
1 146 lbs additional purchase at the engine moving 2 feet a second or 15 double 
strokes a minuet this will be gained by raising the steam 5 lb to the inch as 24 
Inches the diameter of the cylinder gives 570 round Inches at 3 lb to the inch = 
17 10 lb purchase gained to accomplish this with a good boiler and a commodious 
boat running our present speed, of a voyage in 30 hours I think better and more 
productive to us than to gain one mile on the present boat. 

The new boat Cabins and all complete including our materials 

will cost perhaps 2000$ 

Boiler 800 

Iron work in the best manner and mens wages during the winter. . . 1200 

4, 000 

To meet this I find that our copper boiler weighs 3930 lb which at 

40 cents all the price paid by government will produce 1570;? 

Profits of this year 1000 


So that we shall have to provide about 1,500;? added to 3,000 Bills against 
us in the Bank with this arrangement we shall have one Boat in complete 
play producing about 10,000 dollars a year to enable us to proceed with the 
second to come out in the spring of 1809, and then our receipts will be about 
20,000 dollars a year. 

Please to think of this and if you like it to try to contract with the carpenter 
at Hudson for the hull and let him immediately prepare his timbers, knees and 
planks — 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

She should be almost wall sided if i6 feet at bottom she need not be more 
than i8 on deck Streight Sides will be strong it fits the mill work and prevents 
motion in the waves — thus 



It is now time to lay her up for the winter nothing should be risqued from 
bad weather — the gain will be triffling the risque great. 
I cannot be with you before the first week of January 
Compliments to all friends write me again 

Yours truly 

Do not risque the engine in the winds and Waves of this Season. 

^'. From the foregoing, it would appear that the original Cler- 
sions of o o' rr o 

Original mont was 1 50 feet long and 12 feet wide, as with 16 feet beam 
Ckrmont gj^g j^^j "^ fggj additional width;" but from Fulton's statement 
concerning his first boat in the specifications upon which he 
obtained his second patent October 2, 1810, which may be 
found in "A Sketch of the Origin and Progress of Steam Navi- 
gation " by Prof. Bennet Woodcroft, a distinguished authority 
on patents, printed in London in 1848, Fulton says that his 
first boat was 13 feet wide. His statement is as follows: 

"My first steamboat on the Hudson's River was 150 ft. long, 13 ft. wide, 
drawing 2 ft. of water, bow and stern 60 degrees; she displaced 36.40 cubic 
ft., equal 100 tons of water; her bow presented 26 ft. to the water, plus and 
minus resistence of i ft.; running 4 miles an hour. 

The Building of the Clermont 109 

12.37 "'^- niultiplied by 26, the bow of the boat 321 lbs. 

'Friction on 2,380 superficial ft. of bottom and sides, at 7.50 lbs. 

for 50 superficial ft 352 

Total resistence of the boat, running 4 miles an hour 673 

A like power for the propellers 673 

Total power felt at the propellers 1346 

The boat running 4 miles an hour is 6 ft. a second; this is three 

times faster than the piston, hence multiplied by 3 

Necessary power of the engine, the piston running 2 ft. a second . . . 4,038 lbs." 

In the foregoing, Fulton says that his first boat was 1 50 feet 
long and 13 feet wide, drawing two feet of water, and all his 
calculations of displacement, immersed surface and resistance 
correspond with a boat of those dimensions. The Committee 
felt further assured that the calculation referred to the first 
boat because from it Fulton determined the size of his engine, 
and there was no doubt whatever about the engine. They also 
knew that the statement could not refer to the boat after she 
was enlarged because the official papers of her registry after 
her alteration showed that she was then 18 feet wide. 

The facts concerning the registry of the original Clermont Registry 
are briefly these : The Clermont was not enrolled at the time, dej^ont 
of her initial trip on August 17, 1807, but on August 29, 1807, 
Fulton wrote to Chancellor Livingston a letter in which he said 
among other things, "I will have her registered and everything 
done which I can recollect." Five days later, that is, on Sep- 
tember 3, 1807, he had her registered. This original enroll- 
ment cannot be found, but on May 14, 1808, Fulton enrolled 
the enlarged boat, and in that enrollment reference is made to 
that of September 3, 1807. The enrollment of May 14, 1808, 
in the New York Custom House, reads as follows: 

"No 108. Enrollment in conformity to an Act of Congress of the United 
States of America entitled ' An act for enrolling and licensing ships or vessels 
to be employed in the coasting trade and fisheries, and for regulating the same. 

no The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

" Robert R. Livingston, of Clermont, 
"Columbia County, State of New York, 
"having taken and subscribed to the oath required by the said Act and having 
sworn that he, together with Robert Fulton of the City of New York, are 
citizens of the United States, and sole owners of the ship or vessel called the 
North River Steamboat of Clermont, whereof Samuel Wiswall is at present 
master, and as he hath sworn he is a citizen of the United States, and that the 
said ship or vessel was built in the City of New York, in the year 1807, as per 
enrollment 173 issued at this port on the 3rd day of September 1807, now 
given up. And Peter A. Schenck, Surveyor of the Port, having certified that 
the vessel being enlarged, the said ship or vessel has one deck, and two masts, 
and that her length is 149 ft.; breadth 17 ft. 11 in. depth 7 ft. and that she meas- 
ures 182 48-95 tons. That she is a square-sterned boat, has square tuck; 
no quarter galleries and no figurehead. Hands and Seals May 14, 1808." 

The importance of the foregoing is that it shows that the 
boat was 149 feet long and 17 feet 11 inches wide after she was 
enlarged. Nothing is said about lengthening, but she was 
" enlarged," from which statement and from previous evidence, 
of her length it was concluded that she was widened and had 
a poopdeck and other work added. The widening, as inti- 
mated in Fulton's letter of Nov. 20, 1807, was necessary to 
give her greater stiffness, her original beam of 12 or 13 feet 
being too narrow for stability. As to the differences between 
12 and 13 feet beam and 149 and 150 feet length in the state- 
ments concerning the original boat, they are accounted for by 
the fact that the measurements probably referred to different 
points on the hull. For instance, the Custom House measure- 
ment in those days was from the foreside of the stem to the 
afterside of the stern post at the upper deck; and as all of 
Fulton's boats appear to have had a raking bow and stern, the 
lines of rake carried up to the rail would make the Clermont 
150 feet long. 
Building The Committee at length arrived at the conclusion that the 
a ^^t original Clermont was 150 feet long and 13 feet wide, with 7 
feet depth of hold; but owing to the dangers attending a boat 
of such narrow beam, it was determined to build the replica 

The Building of the Clermont 1 1 1 

1 6 feet wide on the bottom and about i8 feet wide at the deck. 
With that exception, the final plans were drawn exactly as the 
Clermont was ascertained to have appeared on her first trip. 
The actual dimensions of the replica, therefore, were as follows : 

Feet Inches 

Length over all 150 o 

Length from foreside of stem to afterside of stern post at upper deck 149 o 

Breadth over wales at upper deck 17 11 

Breadth over plank at bottom 16 o 

Depth from top of beam to top of ceiling to hold 7 o 

Crown of deck beam 3 

The keel of the Clermont was laid May 14 and she was Launch- 
launched on Saturday, July 10, iQog, the officers of the Commis- ™S tl»e 

J 1 \y ^ , , . „. . Clermont 

sion. Its guests, and the launchmg party embarkmg at rier A, 

Manhattan, for the scene of the ceremony at Mariners Harbor, 
Staten Island. The U. S. S. Wasp officered and manned by 
the Naval Militia of New York preceded the flotilla and 
anchored in the Kill von Kull near the shipyard, while the gun- 
boat Aileen followed with the officers of the Commission, the 
launching party and a detachment of the Naval Militia from 
the Second Battalion of Brooklyn. The latter, upon landing, 
acted as a guard of honor and patrolled the grounds around 
the ways. The navy tug Powhatan, the Supervisor of the 
Port's tug Cerberus, the Dock Department tug Manhattan, 
the United States Revenue tender Guide, and Launch A of the 
Department of Docks and Ferries carried guests. Many pri- 
vate yachts and launches, all as gay with colors as the official 
boats, either accompanied the latter or assembled in the waters 
near the shipyard. Mr. W. J. Davidson, President of the Staten 
Island Shipbuilding Company, received the official party at 
the landing and escorted them to the small launching platform 
erected at the bow of the Clermont. The party upon the plat- 
form included several descendants of Robert Fulton and Chan- 
cellor Livingston. The sponsor for the new Clermont was 
Mrs. Arthur Taylor SutcIifFe (born Alice Crary), a great- 
granddaughter of the inventor of the first Clermont; and her 

112 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Launch- maids of honor were Miss Dorothy Camp, Miss Evelyn Knox, 

Clermont ^^^ ^^^® Katherine L. Olcott. They carried mountain laurel 

brought from the Catskill Mountains. A conspicuous object of 

historic interest upon the rail of the platform was the bell of 

the original Clermont. 

The ceremonies attending the launching were very brief. 
Capt. Jacob W. Miller, Chairman of the Naval Parade Com- 
mittee, presided, and spoke upon the subject "Time and Tide, 
Wind and Wave;" the Rev. Charles A. Cassidy offered prayer; 
and Mr. Davidson of the shipbuilding company, and Gen. 
Stewart L. Woodford, President of the Commission, made 
brief remarks. The following original ode was then read by 
Mr. Robert Underwood Johnson, editor of the Century 


River of Plenty and the Peace of God — 
Of all His streams the chosen, since His feet 
By thy round cliffs our new-world beauty trod — 
(Eldest of all our soil His face to greet:) 
Rejoice anew, O River of the Heart, 
To have in human glory such a part! 

From out the heights of Fame's diviner air 

Unto his kind this message and this call: 

Labor is Happiness and Hope and Prayer; 

There is no Progress but the good of all; 

Of Every bondage Love is the release, 

Nor less with Time God's Plenty and His Peace. 

Mr. Eben E. Olcott, Chairman of the Clermont Committee, 
then said: 

"Gen. Woodford, Ladies and Gentlemen. — It is interesting that, on this 
auspicious day, we have one part of the old original Clermont, the bell, which 
was used before the days of the steam whistle to call tardy passengers to the 
landings. It is my great pleasure to present this bell for the occasion. May 
it ring out a message as clear and true, both for this and future generations, 
as the inventor's own words, when, in speaking of the Mississippi and the 
great North West, he said, 'Although the prospect of personal emolument 
has been some inducement to me. Yet I feel infinitely more pleasure in 
reflecting on the numerous advantages that my country will derive from the 
invention.' " 

The Building of the Clermont 1 13 

While Capt. Miller's daughter, Mrs. R. B. Bowler, rang the 
old bell, the final strokes of the operation of "sawing-ofF" the 
king-planks of the cradle were executed and the Clermont 
began to slide down the ways into the water amid strains of 
music by the band, the blowing of steam whistles, the firing of 
salutes from the gunboats, and the cheers of the multitude. 
At the first movement of the vessel, Mrs. SutclifFe broke upon 
the bow a bottle beautifully ornamented with silver filagree 
work and filled with water * from the old Livingston well at 
Clermont-on-the-Hudson, at the same time naming the vessel 
in these words: 

"I name thee Clermont, and again auspiciously proclaim to the American 
people the sentiments of Robert Fulton as expressed in an essay to the Friends 
of Mankind, ' Industry will give abundance to a virtuous world and call mankind 
to unbounded feats of harmony and friendship. The liberty of the seas will 
be the happiness of the earth.' " 

A picturesque incident of the launching, after a Japanese 
custom, was the release of a dozen carrier pigeons from a basket 
on the bow of the boat as she glided down the ways. Each of 
these aerial messengers bore a ribbon upon which were printed 
the dedicatory words of Mrs. SutclifFe. One of the pigeons, 
released at 2.38 p. m., reached No. 342 West Eleventh street. 
New York, in fifteen minutes, having traversed a distance of 
ten miles at the rate of a mile in 90 seconds. 

The new Clermont, as she took her place in the great naval Appear- 
parade of September 25, to begin her voyage over the route */"'!,, 
first traversed by steam by her namesake 102 years before, mont 
was a quaint looking craft in the midst of a fleet of gigantic 

* The use of water instead of champagne in naming the Clermont was a delicate tribute to Ful- 
ton's well-known temperance principles as expressed in a letter which he wrote from London, 
October 20, 1805, and in which he said; "If there is intemperance in any one — I cannot be that 
person's friend, for I feel a kind of contempt for the being who is so imprudent as to extinguish 
the little sense which falls to the lot of man, in the poisonous fumes of ardent liquors: such a person 
has not sense to be his own friend and does not merit the friendship of others." 


1 14 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Appear- modern steamships. She was an almost wall-sided craft with 
the Cler- P^'^^H^l sides, and painted a quaker drab color. Her bow and 
mont the under body of her transom stern were wedge-shaped. Her 
bottom was flat. She had two masts, the foremast carrying a 
square sail and the aftermast a fore-and-aft sail. She had no 
bowsprit or figurehead. There were two cabins, one forward 
and one aft. A plain open railing surrounded the deck. 
Inboard over the stern projected the tiller of the big rudder. 
The boiler, smokestack and the green-colored upper works of 
her single-cylinder engine, the latter an exact facsimile of the 
original engine made by Bolton and Watts, were in plain view 
amidships, while the fly-wheels were outside of the hull and in 
front of the uncovered bright vermillion paddle-wheels. Upon 
her stern were painted the words "Clermont, New York." 
Passen- To add to the picturesqueness of her appearance, she carried 
fh"a°r-^^ passengers several descendants of Robert Fulton and Chan- 
mont cellor Livingston, and many of these were dressed in the quaint 
and variegated costumes of a century ago. Upon the day when 
she entered Newburgh Bay there were on board all the then 
living grandchildren of the Inventor, the Rev. Robert Fulton 
Crary, D.D.(0, Mr. C. Franklin Crary (•), Mrs. Hermann H. 
Cammann, nee Ella C. Crary ('); and Mr. Robert Fulton 
Ludlow Q; also the great-grandson of Chancellor Livingston 
Mr. John Henry Livingston Q), the owner by inheritance of 
the Chancellor's famous country seat, "Clermont." Robert 
Fulton was impersonated by the Rev. C. Seymour Bullock; 
and Fulton's fiancee at the time of the trip of the original 
Clermont, Miss Harriet Livingston, was impersonated by Mr. 
Bullock's daughter. Miss Evelyn Livingston Bullock. The 
character of Chancellor Livingston was taken by Mr. Robert 
Reginald Livingston Q). Others in the party either through- 
out the whole trip of the Clermont or for a part of the time were : 
Governor Charles E. Hughes and staff"; General Stewart L. 
Woodford, President of the Commission; Mr. Eben E. Olcott, 
Chairman of the Clermont Committee; Prof. Granville Barnum, 

The Building of the Clermont 115 

Capt. A. Bedell Benjamin, Rev. and Mrs. Chas. E. Berg, Capt. Passen- 
John Birmingham, Dr. J. N. Bishop, Mrs. Robert Fulto" fh " Cler- 
Blight (=■), Miss Florence Brownne (*), Miss Bull, Mrs. C. Sey- mont 
mour Bullock, Mrs. Edward L. Bullock and children, Mr. Q) 
and Mrs. Q) Edward Crary Cammann, Mr. and Mrs. Q) Her- 
mann H. Cammann, Mr. H. Schuyler Cammann ('), Miss 
Dorothy H. Camp, Mr. Robert S. Clarkson Q), Mr. Charles 
Franklin Crary ('), Miss Amy Crary ('), Miss Cornelia Fulton 
Crary ('), Rev. Q) and Mrs. Robert Fulton Crary, Mr. Robert 
Fulton Crary, Jr. Q), Miss Mary Livingston Delafield Q), Mr. 
Jospeh Devlin (f), Mr. Francis Lewis Gould, Capt. Ira Harris, 
Rev. Sanford Culver Hearn, Mrs. Charles E. Hughes and 
party, Mr. Richard Hunt (=), Mr. Frank E. Kirby, Mr. Russell 
Kirby, Mr. Q) and Mrs. John Henry Livingston, Mr. and 
Mrs. Q) Frederick W. Longfellow, Mr. and Mrs. James B. 
Ludlow, Master Richard Morris Ludlow, Mr. Q) and Mrs. 
Robert Fulton Ludlow, Mr. Alfred R. Mandeville (=), Mr. 
Harry Marvel, Miss Merrit, Mr. J. W. Millard, Prof Otis 
Montrose, Miss Katharine L. Olcott, Rev. Angelo Ostrander, 
Mrs. Henry Parish Q), Mr. Henry G. Pickering, Mrs. Herbert 
Pinkham and daughter, Rev. George Ramsay, Mr. and Mrs. (=) 
Charles Mandeville Reynolds, Miss Katherlne North Sague, 
Miss Georgiana Schuyler, Miss Louisa Lee Schuyler, Miss 
Anita Merle Smith, Hon. William Smith, Rev. Wilton Merle 
Smith, Mr. and Mrs. Q) Arthur Taylor SutcHffe, Miss Almira 
Livingston Troy, Miss Mame Troy, Miss Anna T. Van Sant- 
voord, Supervising Inspector General George H. Uhler, Mrs. 
Weaver, Miss Beatrice Weaver, Mr. Joseph F. Webber, Mr. 
James F. Winans Q), Mrs. Joseph E. Winters, Miss Mary Ray 

(1) Descendants of Robert Fulton. 

(2) Descendants of Chancellor Livingston. 

(3) Widow of a grandson of Robert Fulton. 

(4) Descendants of Charles Brownne, who built the original Clermont. 

(5) Descendant of pilots of the original Clermont. 




few weeks before the Celebration opened, physical prepa- 
rations were made on an elaborate scale for the erection 
of official reviewing stands, the public decorations, and 
the illuminations. These preparations within the limits of New 
York City were made under the direction of the Committee on 
Reviewing Stands and Decorations of which Mr. Charles R. 
Lamb is Chairman, the Naval Parade Committee of which 
Capt. Jacob W. Miller is Chairman, and the Committee on 
Illuminations of which Hon. William Berri is Chairman. 
Official The line of march for the three great land parades in Man- 
Review- hattan Borough — the Historical Parade on Tuesday, Sep- 
Stands tember 28, the Military Parade on Thursday, September 30, 
and the Carnival Parade on the night of Saturday, October 
2 — was from Central Park West and i loth street, down 
Central Park West to Central Park South (or 59th street), 
thence to Fifth avenue, and thence down Fifth avenue to 
Washington Square; and the Official Reviewing Stands for 
these parades were erected on this route at the following points : 
The Court of Honor was located on Fifth avenue between 40th 
and 42d streets, with seats and boxes for 6,600 persons on the 
west side of the avenue in front of the New York Public Library 
and boxes for 300 persons on the east side of the avenue on the 
sidewalk between the columns of the Colonnade. Stands for 
contributors to the Subscription Fund of the Commission were 
located on the east side of Central Park West between 60th and 
63d streets, accommodating 6,000 persons, and on the west 
side between 60th and 6ist streets accommodating 2,000 per- 
sons. An overflow stand for the Commission, seating 2,000 
persons, was located on Central Park South immediately west 
, 116 

Reviewing Stands and Decorations 117 

of Fifth avenue. The stand for the Members of the Legis- 
lature was on Central Park South between Seventh and Eighth 
avenues; and stands for the Board of Aldermen were located 
at Madison Square, and on Central Park West between 63d 
and 66th streets. The tickets to the seats at the Court of 
Honor, the Contributors' stands on Central Park West, and 
the overflow stand on Central Park South were distributed 
directly by the Presiding Vice-President of the Commission 
to the Members of the Commission, the Contributors and those 
who helped the Commission in other ways, and to the repre- 
sentatives of the press; and through the Chairman of the Recep- 
tion Committee to the Official Guests. Tickets to the Legis- 
lative stand were distributed by the Legislative Committee and 
those to the Aldermanic stands by the Aldermanic Committee. 
These tickets were all issued gratuitously, the Commission 
erecting no stands to which an admission fee was charged. 

The Court of Honor at which the officers of the Commission Court of 
and the Official Guests reviewed the pageants, consisted first 
of 36 detached columns arranged in a double colonnade, 18 
on each side of Fifth avenue, along the curb lines from 40th 
street to 42d street. The white columns were in the modified 
Roman style, to harmonize with the columns of the New York 
Public Library, and each was surmounted by a gilded sphere, 
making the total height of each column about 60 feet. From 
capital to capital — along the curb lines, across the avenue, 
and diagonally — were festoons of laurel and smilax, inter- 
mingled with electric lights. At the curb line, in front of the 
seats on each side, was a border screen of California privet, 
interspersed with flowering plants. This screen was not only 
intended for ornamentation, but was purposely used instead 
of a substantial fence or railing in order that it might easily 
be broken through in case of a panic — an event which happily 
did not occur. Above the rising tiers of seats on the west side 
of the avenue, supported by standards surmounted by the 

ii8 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


official flags of the Commission, wide breadths of awning 
stained with the official colors of the Celebration — orange, 
white and blue — were hung after the manner of the royal 
canopies at the Roman games and triumphs. In the midst 
of the seats on the west side rose a tower containing a set of 
tubular chimes upon which were played the airs of all nations. 
At the top of the rear tier of seats was another border of Cali- 
fornia privet, which was bespangled at night with electric lights. 
The whole effect was very dignified, impressive and beautiful. 
Scheme The plan of the other stands was very simple and effective, 
of Dec- jn front of the lowest and foremost tier of seats was a railing 
three feet high, divided by equidistant posts into squares, and 
each square was crossed by two diagonal bars, a vertical bar 
and a horizontal bar, intersecting and producing a conventional 
classical design. At intervals of about 20 feet along the railing 
were flagpoles, displaying the official Hudson-Fulton Celebra- 
tion flags. Each pole was surmounted by a silver half moon, 
and upon each pole, just below the flag, was firmly fastened a 
shield bearing, upon alternate poles, a representation of the 
Half Moon ship and a representation of the Clermont steam- 
boat, executed in orange, white and blue. Where draperies 
were possible the official colors were also used. 

The public authorities, in granting permits to private parties 
to erect reviewing stands, required them, at the request of the 
Commission, to conform to the foregoing design, and plans 
were furnished gratuitously by the Commission to contractors for 
private stands in order that there might be harmony of design. 

The Court of Honor and the general plan above described 
were designed by Mr. Charles R. Lamb. 

Reviewing stands were also erected at convenient places in 
the other Boroughs under the auspices of the Borough Com- 
mittees for reviewing the local parades. 

In addition to the official stands, every available space on 
the line of m^rrh in Manhattan was occupied by the stands of 

Reviewing Stands and Decorations 119 

societies or private parties, so that the avenues through which 
the parades passed were gay with decorations and animated by 
the presence of hundreds of thousands of spectators. 

For the reviewing of the naval parades of Saturday, Sep- Official 
tember 25, the official reception of the Half Moon and Clermont, ^^^^e 
and the landing of the officers from the fleet during the Cele- 
bration, an official stand in the nature of a Water Gate was 
erected on the river front in Riverside Park, opposite iioth 
street, under the direction of the Naval Parade Committee. 
This Water Gate, designed by Mr. Henry F. Hornbostel and 
Mr J. Otis Post, was approached from the landward side by 
a footbridge of 60-feet span crossing over the tracks of the 
New York Central and Hudson River Railroad and leading 
from the elevated ground of Riverside Park to the head of the 
broad staircase leading down to the platform near the water 
level. The staircase was flanked by two pylons, 90 feet high, 
consisting of clustered columns of the Doric order, each pylon 
being surmounted by a globe. Upon the platform, which was 
200 by 70 feet in area, were arranged about 500 seats for the 
officials and the official guests of the Commission. At each 
end of the platform, a breakwater extended out into the river 
150 feet, enclosing a harbor about 180 feet wide. Within the 
harbor were three landing floats connected by movable bridges 
with the official platform. Under the main staircase were 
toilet rooms, and a telegraph and telephone booth. Festoons 
of electric lights and bunting adorned the pylons and platform, 
the latter also being embellished with flagpoles bearing flags 
and escutcheons. At the outer end of each breakwater was a 
flagpole for signalling purposes. The color scheme was orange, 
white and blue — the platform and bridge being painted orange, 
the plaster work of the pylons white, and the draperies blue. 
The Water Gate was not only artistic in itself but it was also 
admirably adapted to the purpose for which it was built, and 
its use effisctively demonstrated the desirability of a permanent 
ceremonial portal at the water side of this maritime metropolis. 




'HE combined official and unofficial electric illuminations 
in New York City during the Celebration were on a 
scale never before paralleled and were generally conceded 
to have marked an era in spectacular lighting. Those under 
the direction of the Committee on Illuminations of the Com- 
mission of which Hon. William Berri is Chairman, were exe- 
cuted under a joint contract by the New York Edison Com- 
pany, the United Electric Light and Power Company, the 
Edison Electric Illuminating Company of Brooklyn, the New 
York and Queens Electric Light and Power Company and 
the Richmond Light and Railroad Company, the equipment 
in all the boroughs being erected by the Tucker Electric 
Construction Company. 
Official The general plan of the Committee was to illuminate the 
lUuri^-*^ City Hall in Manhattan and the Borough Halls in Brooklyn, 
nations Queens, the Bronx and Richmond as civic centers , with addi- 
tional embellishments upon the five principal bridges and some 
of the principal public monuments. The apportionment of 
lights was about as follows: 

Manhattan Borough, Lights. 

City Hall 3,500 

Line of March on Central Park West, from iioth street to Central Park South, thence 

to Fifth avenue and thence to Washington Square »SiS°° 

Statue of Liberty '. Search-lights 

Grant's Tomb Search-lights 

Soldiers and Sailors' Monument ii5oo 

Washington Arch 1,500 

Riverside Drive Viaduct 5io62 

East River Bridges. 

Brooklyn Bridge I3>ooo 

Manhattan Bridge ii,cco 

Williamsburgh Bridge 1 1,000 

Queeasborough Bridge 14,000 


Illuminations and Pyrotechnics 121 

Brooklyn Borough. 

Borough Hall 3,600 

Soldiers and Sailors' Monument i)5°° 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences 7|2°° 

Water Tower, Prospect Park 650 

Queens Borough, 

Borough Hall 1,200 

Jamaica Town Hall 900 

Flushing Town Hall 900 

Bronx Borough. 

Borough Hall 2,S<» 

Richmond Borough. 

Borough Hall 2,640 

107,1 J2 

In addition to the official illuminations above named, there 
were, of course, the usual brilliant illuminations of the city. 
and elaborate private illuminations by the ovsrners of large 
office buildings, stores and dwelling houses — all combining to 
convert the city into a veritable City of Light. 

In working out the plans for the official illuminations, photo- 
graphs of all the buildings, monuments and bridges which it 
was proposed to decorate by illumination were first secured and 
upon these photographs were painted the outlines of the electric 
lights. These photographs, after approval by the Illuminations 
Committee, were submitted to the Chairman of the Committee 
on Decorations as to form and then to the Department of Water, 
Gas and Electricity for the approval of Chief Engineer Chas. 
F. La Combe in charge to secure necessary permits from the 
city. When possible, the designs were also submitted to the 
architects of the various structures. The result was an elec- 
trical display of great variety and wonderful beauty which 
excited the admiration of every one and made a spectacle which 
had never been presented in New York before on so grand a 

122 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

scale. The route of march, illuminated for a distance of six 
miles on each side by continuous lines of electric lights sustained 
on iron poles especially erected for the purpose, was as bright 
as day, and the Court of Honor, with its glistening columns and 
its sparkling canopy, looked like a scene in fairy-land. Across 
the East River and the Manhattan Hollow Way, the great 
bridges appeared suspended in midair Hke vast festoons of 
sparkling gems, supported at their ends on pillars of lights 
And the public buildings and monuments stood out in glowing 
outlines like the creations of fancy rather than the substantial 
masses that they really were. These illuminations were not 
for a night only, but continued throughout the two weeks of 
the Celebration. 
Chro- At 155th street and Riverside Drive, a spectacular exhibition 

™^*'': of chromatic illumination was given nightly under the auspices 
tions of the Commission by the so-called Ryan Scintillator. The 
equipment for this display consisted first of a row of about 20 
powerful search-lights, furnished with glasses of different 
colors. In front of these projectors were several perforated 
steam pipes, both vertical and horizontal, some 100 feet high, 
supplied with steam from a 200-horse power boiler. The 
steam, expelled through the apertures in the pipes, made a 
diffusing screen of vapor upon which the colored rays from the 
search-lights were projected, producing all the colors of the 
rainbow combined with the fantastic effects of the aurora 
borealis. Occasionally the steam curtain was reinforced by 
the explosion of smoke-producing bombs. A regular program 
of exhibition taking about an hour was given twice every night 
during the Celebration. The effects produced were very 
Illumi- To these illuminations were added under naval auspices on 
nation Saturday evening, September 25, a never-to-be-forgotten spec- 
Fleet tacle upon the Hudson River opposite Riverside Park. Here in 
midstream, for a distance of nearly ten miles, from 42d street 

Illuminations and Pyrotechnics 123 

on the south to Spuyten DuyvU Creek on the north, the dusk 
of early evening shrouded the great international fleet of war 
vessels — the largest war fleet with one exception ever gathered 
together in one place — their presence being revealed only by 
their faintly silhouetted forms, the few lights necessary for 
their safety, and the occasional signals sounded or flashed from 
ship to ship. Then by prearrangement, at eight bells, the 
whole fleet burst into outlines of light, as if suddenly touched 
with the propitious augury of St. Elmo's fire — the masts, 
decks, water lines and other chief features glowing with thou- 
sands of sparkling electric globes. And for hours these pon- 
derous, death-dealing machines, lying peacefully on the bosom 
of the Hudson in friendly association, scintillated like the airy 
fabrics of a magician or the unsubstantial dreams of an oriental 
fairy tale. It was a scene of exquisite beauty which will never 
be forgotten by the millions of people who thronged to the 
river side to see it. The illumination of the fleet was repeated 
the following Saturday night, October 2. 

On Saturday night, September 25, brilliancy was added to Display 
the scene on the river at New York by an elaborate display of °* ^'"" 
fireworks under the auspices of the Commission. In order 
that these might be seen to the best advantage by the throngs 
assembled on the sloping banks of Riverside Park, and at the 
other points along the water front, it was arranged that the 
fireworks should be discharged from four floats anchored at 
intervals of i ,000 feet along the opposite New Jersey shore. The 
pyrotechnics themselves were very brilliant, but were somewhat 
disarranged by an extraordinary and unforeseen occurrence. 
On that night there was a remarkable "magnetic storm" — 
by which term is to be understood a disturbance of the magnetic 
equilibrium of the earth which afi'ects telegraphic communica- 
tions but has no apparent effect upon the weather. One of 
the telegraph companies, attributing the disturbance of its 
wires to the floats anchored near a telegraphic cable crossing 

124 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

the Hudson River, cut the floats from their moorings and left 
them to drift helplessly down the river. This episode served 
only to dislocate but not to diminish the volume of fireworks 
Signal Another feature of the Commission's plans for illuminations 

Fires a ^^d a less fortunate issue. The Board of Trustees of the 
point- Commission in October, 1908, designated by resolution a cer- 
•nent tain fireworks company as "official pyrotechnists" of the Cele- 
bration and not only patronized them for the fireworks in New 
York City but also commended them to the communities along 
the river to the northward. The Commission had two well- 
intentioned objects in view in doing this : One was to guarantee 
to the cities and villages along the river certain standard pro- 
grams of pyrotechnics at reasonable and fixed prices. The 
other was to secure concerted action in the burning of a chain 
of signal fires from the mountain tops and promontories along 
the river from Staten Island to Troy on the night of Saturday, 
October 9, to close the Celebration. Much sentiment had been 
aroused by the plan for the beacons; for signal fires had flashed 
along the coast when Henry Hudson navigated American 
waters in 1609; and in the days of the American Revolution 
bonfires on the moutnain-tops of the Highlands had given 
warning of the approach of the enemy and called patriots to 
the defense of their country. Furthermore, great expectations 
had been aroused by the descriptions given by the pyrotechnists 
of these beacon fires, which were not to be bonfires of ordinary 
combustibles, but were to be made of imported peat and scien- 
tifically prepared materials, which would burn according to 
price from two to four hours even in a rain storm and would 
"closely resemble the Pillars of Fire of Bible times." In 
several of these fires, however, the pyrotechnists used American 
peat which was so wet that it would not burn, and in those 
cases in which the combustibles did burn the beacons did not 
equal the expectations. In the communities along the Upper 

Illuminations and Pyrotechnics 125 

Hudson, particularly, the failure of the beacon fires was a 
great disappointment. 

As a whole, however, the decorations and illuminations were 
the most notable of their kind ever seen in this country — a 
characterization which applies not only to New York City but 
also to the cities to the northward in which the displays, in 
their proportionate scales, were as elaborate and brilliant as 
those in the Metropolis. 



Coopera- 1~XURING President Roosevelt's administration, the Presi- 
Federal I y ^&ax. of this Commission conferred informally with him 
Govern- concerning the cooperation of the United States Govern- 

'°*'^* ment in the Celebration, but while Mr. Roosevelt, as Presi- 
dent, as a New Yorker, and a descendant of Dutch ancestors, 
expressed his cordial sympathy with the commemoration, the 
uncertainty concerning the Commission's financial resources at 
that time precluded any definite arrangements for Federal 
cooperation. Soon after President Taft's inauguration in 
March, 1909, however, the appropriations by the New York 
State and New York City governments together with other 
resources had guaranteed the necessary financial support, and 
Mr. Taft assured the President of the Commission and those 
who accompanied him to the White House, that he would 
direct the various departments of the Federal Government to 
cooperate with the Commission in the fullest measure possible. 
The response to these instructions by the members of the 
Cabinet was most hearty and cordial. To the cooperation of 
the Department of State was largely due the standing which 
the Celebration was given in the eyes of foreign governments 
and the consequent attendance of foreign representatives. 

The official invitation list of the Commission was not large, 
and included only the following: 

Official Feierd Officials. 

The President of the United States. 
The members of the President's Cabinet. 
The Vice-President of the United States. 
The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 
The Justices of the United States Supreme Court. 
The Surgeon-General of the United States Navy. 


Invitations to Official Guests 127 

The Hon. Truman H. Newberry, Ex-Secretary of the Navy. 

Major-General Leonard Wood, U. S. A., Commanding the Department of 

the East. 
Major-General Frederick D. Grant, U. S. A., Commanding the Department 

of the Lakes. 
Col. Hugh L. Scott, U. S. A., Superintendent of the West Point Military 

Hon. William Phillips, Third Assistant Secretary of State. 
Capt. J. B. Murdock, U. S. N., Commandant of New York Navy Yard. 
Capt. Commander Worth G. Ross, United States Revenue Cutter service. 
Hon. William Loeb, Jr., Collector of the Port of New York. 
The Hon. Whitelaw Reid, American Ambassador to Great Britian, home on 

leave of absence. 
The Hon. Charles S. Francis, American Ambassador to Austria, home on 

leave of absence. 

Foreign Officials. 

The diplomatic representatives of every foreign government accredited to 
the government of the United States at Washington. 

Special delegates from every foreign government so accredited. 

Naval representation from the maritime nations so accredited. 

The consular representatives of foreign governments in New York. 

All the members of the Netherlands Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

The Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada. 

The Premier of the Dominion of Canada. 

New York State Officials. 
The Governor of the State. 
The Lieutenant-Governor of the State. 
The Secretary of State. 
The State Comptroller. 
The State Treasurer. 
The Attorney-General. 
The State Engineer and Surveyor. 
The members of the Legislature. 
The members of the Lake Champlain Tercentenary Commission. 

New York City Officials. 
The Mayor of the City of New York. 
The Borough Presidents. 

128 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

The members of the Board of Aldermen. 
The Comptroller. 

Special Guests. 
The Governor of the State of New Jersey, the only other State bordering on 

the Hudson River. 
The Governor of the State of Pennsylvania, in which Robert Fulton was bom. 
Mrs. Joseph B. Coghlan, widow of the late Rear-Admiral Joseph B. Coghlan, 

U. S. N. 
Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, poetess at the oificial reception. 

Form of The official invitations, executed by Quayle & Son of Albany 



for the State Printers, the J. B. Lyon Co., were 9 by 12 inches 
tion in size, and consisted of a two-leaved invitation bound in a 
bristol-board cover. On the front page of the cover was the 
seal of the Commission reproduced in gold, over a half-wreath 
of laurel. 

The first page of the invitation was headed by the coat-of- 
arms of the State of New York under which was engraved in 
plain script a form with appropriate blank spaces which, when 
filled in and signed, read as follows, in the invitation to the 
British Ambassador for instance: 

The Hudson-Fulton 

Celebration Commission 

of the 

State of New York 

has the honor to invite 

His Excellency 

The Right Honorable James Bryce, CM. 

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Great Britain 

to attend the Tercentenary of 

the Discovery of the Hudson River by 

Henry Hudson in 1609 

and the Centenary of its 

First Successful Navigation by Steam by 

Robert Fulton in 1807 

which will be celebrated in New York 

from September Z5th to October 9th, 1909 

Stewakt L. Woodpokd, 

HsMKT W. SACicrrT, Joseph H. Choatk, 

Secretary. Chairman af Invitations Commitlet. 

Invitations to Official Guests 129 

The second page was blank. At the top of the third page 
was the heading: 


headquarters; the tribune building, new YORK CITY, N. Y., U. S. A. 

under which were the names of the President, Vice-Presidents, 
Treasurer, Secretary, Assistant Secretary, and members of the 
Invitations Committee of the Commission. The fourth page 
was blank. 

On May 6, 1909, the invitations to the foreign governments invlta- 
and to the foreign diplomats accredited to the United States t'""*^ *" 
Government were delivered to the Department of State which Govern- 
had very courteously consented to transmit them to their destina- ments 
tions. They were accompanied by an eight-page circular of 
information, 9 by 12 inches in size, printed on hand-made 
paper, briefly describing the Commission and the purpose of 
the Celebration, emphasizing the international significance of 
the Celebration, and giving an outline of the program. In 
the following paragraphs, an intimation was given that the 
entertainment of the foreign guests would be without expense 
to the visitors: 

" In view of the extraordinary significance of the events to be commemorated, 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, by authority of the Government 
of the State of New York and the Government of the City of New York, and 
with the official countenance of the United States Government, has invited 
all Foreign Governments accredited to the United States to participate in the 
ceremonies of the Celebration by the presence of official representatives and 
vessels of their navies. The Naval, Diplomatic and other official representa- 
tives of Foreign Nations, as well as the official representatives of the Federal 
and State Governments, will be Guests of Honor of the Commission, and will 
be accorded hospitality, both of a public and private character, from the time 
of their formal reception on Saturday, September 25th, igog, until the close 
of the Celebration. 

"The Celebration, with respect to the ceremonies and the magnitude of 
the population in whose presence they will be enacted, will be the most brilliant 
of its kind that has ever been held in America. The City of New York alone 



The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

will furnish an attendance of over 4,000,000 persons, and it is expected that 
from one to two millions more will attend from other parts of the country. 

"FortheNaval parade, participated in by both Foreign and American vessels, 
and for the aquatic sports designed for the crews of all the ships, the Harbor 
of New York and the Hudson River offer a superb theatre. Prior to the 
Naval parade on Friday, October ist, the combined fleets will lie at anchor in 
the Hudson River opposite Riverside Park and the Mausoleum of General 
Grant, in New York City, and will be the focus of public attention on the 

State The invitations to the foreign governments were forwarded 

^^^^ ~ by the United States Secretary of State with the following 
Letters letter of instruction : 

" HuDSON-FuLTON Celebration. 

Department of State, 
Washington, May 10, 1909. 

"To the Diplomatic Officers of the United States: 

"Gentlemen. — You will address the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the 
Government to which you are respectively accredited as follows: 

'"From Saturday, September 25th, to Saturday, October 9th, 1909, there 
will be celebrated at the City of New York and along the Hudson River the 
three-hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the river by Henry Hudson 
in 1609, and the one-hundredth anniversary of the first successful application 
of steam to the navigation of the river by Robert Fulton in 1807. 

"'The Celebration will be in charge of a Commission consisting of four 
hundred prominent citizens appointed by the Governor of New York. The 
officers of this Commission, comprising twenty-one of the leading citizens of 
New York City, have sent to my Government, with a request that it be deliv- 
ered through the diplomatic channel, an invitation addressed to the Govern- 
ment of to be represented at the celebration ' by its official 

representative and a vessel of its navy.' 

"'Under the instructions of my Government, I have the honor to transmit 
the invitation to you with the expression of my Government's hope that the 

Government of may find it convenient to accept it. I am 

to explain to Your Excellency that by the expression 'its official representative* 

s meant the sending of an official representative from and 

not the designation of its diplomatic representative at Washington, to whom 
a separate invitation has been extended. 

Invitations to Official Guests 131 

"'Accompanying the invitation. Your Excellency will find a printed program 
containing full information regarding the Celebration and the exercises set 
apart for each day. 

"'I am also to saythat the State of New York has appropriated ^5400,000, and 
the City of New York $200,000, to defray the expenses of this Celebration, and 
that the diplomatic, naval, and other official representatives of foreign nations 
will be guests of honor of the Commission, and will be accorded hospitality, 
both of a public and private character, from the time of their formal reception 
on Saturday, September 25th, until the close of the celebration.' 

"The invitation and program are enclosed herewith. 

"I am. Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

P. C. Knox. 
"Enclosures as above." 

The Executive Officers of the Commission, the Committee 
on Invitations and the Committee on Reception arranged a 
system as nearly perfect as possible by means of vv^hich, upon 
the receipt of acceptance, the Reception Committee was 
promptly notified and immediately assumed the responsibility 
of arranging for the proper reception of the arriving guests and 
their subsequent entertainment. The operation of this system 
will be more fully described in the following chapter. 



PON no committee devolved duties of a nature more deli- 
cate and responsible than those of the Reception Com- 
mittee, of which the Hon. Seth how, former Mayor of 
the City of New York and former President of Columbia 
University, was Chairman; for upon the attentions of this Com- 
mittee largely depended the character of the impressions of 
the Celebration and of New York hospitality which the 
representatives of the foreign governments would carry away 
with them. 
Work at The headquarters of the Committee were established in the 
Qjjj^gg Hotel Astor, where, with the purpose of conserving the financial 
Head- resources of the Commission, as few rooms were taken and as 
quar ers ^^^ clerks were engaged as were possible. It may be stated 
here, however, for the benefit of the Commission's successors 
in any kindred undertaking, that the experience of its Reception 
Committee demonstrated with great force the necessity of 
having enough room space and enough personal help to carry 
on simultaneously all of the different functions described here- 
after. As it was, our Committee had so little room and was so 
short-handed that all the active members of the Committee 
and the entire clerical force were overworked for substantially 
six weeks. Mr. Low himself worked every night until mid- 
night or later, from the beginning of September until the Cele- 
bration opened, and on one evening twenty members of the 
Reception Committee staff were at their headquarters until 
half-past two o'clock in the morning. With any less willing 
and efficient helpers than the Committee was able to command 
the work could not have been done at all; but by dint of inde- 
fatigable work, the responsible duties of the Committee were 


Entertainment of Official Guests 133 

discharged to the evident satisfaction of the guests. The Com- 
mission is particularly indebted to Mr. William J. Moran, the 
Secretary of the Reception Committee, whose personal quali- 
fications, reinforced by his experience as Secretary to Mr. Low 
when the latter was Mayor of New York, made him a most 
efficient coadjutor of the Chairman. 

The work of the Reception Committee divided itself into 
six parts: 

1. The ascertainment of the names of the coming guests; 

2. The meeting of the arriving guests and their assignment 
to hotels; 

3. The furnishing of instructions, badges, medals, cards, etc., 
to the guests; 

4. Arrangements for the transportation of guests to the 
various functions; 

5. The provision of aides to escort the guests to the official 
functions; and 

6. Arrangements for formal receptions by the Commission 
and by Federal, State and City officials. 

The first function of the Committee was to ascertain and Bureau 
make a careful record of the names of the expected guests. ° 
Acceptances received by the Committee on Invitations were 
promptly forwarded to the Reception Committee, but it required 
no little correspondence to learn just who were coming. This, 
however, was accomplished through the cooperation of the 
United States Department of State, so that by the first week 
in September the Committee was pretty well advised as to 
what guests had to be provided for, although new guests were 
reported almost up to the opening of the Celebration, and the 
Moorish and Italian delegates arrived after the Celebration 

The names of the guests, as soon as learned, were systemati- 
cally entered in a multiple card catalogue, the several sets of 

134 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

cards, by cross-references, indicating at a glance the names and 
formal titles of the guests, the governments which they repre- 
sented, the hotels at which they were lodged, their escorts, and 
many other details of the attentions to be paid to them. 
Meeting Warned by the experiences of public celebrants in other 
Guests cities, the Reception Committee took especial pains to see that 
every guest was suitably received by a special representative of 
the Committee upon arrival in the city and escorted to his 
hotel. Every official delegate except two or three was thus 
met. Those who came by sea — with the single exception of 
the Special Delegate from Haiti who arrived without the Com- 
mittee's being able to learn how he was coming — were met 
down the bay. Through the courtesy of the Collector of 
Customs, the "privileges of the Port" were offered to all guests 
arriving from foreign countries and in no case, so far as the 
Commission has knowledge, were any guests delayed by Custom 
House formalities. The Diplomatic guests were brought from 
Washington by a special car to Jersey City where they were 
met by the Commission's special representatives. Thence they 
were taken under the river in special cars to 23d street. New 
York City, and thence in taxicabs to their hotels. 

An interesting incident of the coming of foreign guests was 
the arrival of the Moorish delegation. A few days before the 
Celebration opened, the Commission was advised by the Depart- 
ment of State that the Special Delegate of the Sultan of Morocco 
with three Secretaries and four servants, would arrive by 
steamship in Boston, and that on account of their unfamiliarity 
with the language and customs of this country it would be 
advisable to meet them in Boston. The delegates were there- 
fore met at Boston, and upon landing they presented the 
following letter of introduction from the American Minister at 

Entertainment of Official Guests 135 

Tangier, September idth, 1909. Meeting 


To the President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, New York: 

Sir. — I have the honor to inform you that the Bearers hereof, Sid Laarbi 
Zenhashi, private secretary of His Shereefian Majesty, and Sid Mohamed 
Ben Abdeslam Ben Jelul, one of the chief notables of the city of Fez, have been 
nominated by His Majesty the Sultan of Morocco, to represent him at the 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration. These gentlemen are accompanied by Dr. 
Holtzmann, one of His Shereefian Majesty's physicians, in the capacity of 
Interpreter, and are attended by several servants. These Representatives 
are being sent to the Celebration by His Majesty the Sultan, as a proof of his 
high regard for the American people. I have not failed to inform these Dele- 
gates of our high appreciation of this honor and of the pleasure with which 
their visit will be welcomed by the Commission, under your Presidency. 
I have the honor to be. Sir 
Your obedient servant, 

H. Percival Dodge, 
1 Seal of j American Minister. 

■I American Legation >- 
(^ Tangier. 1 

The members of the Moorish party were taken to Harvard 
University and around Boston before being brought to New 
York. From New York, the Delegates who were charged with 
a message from the Suhan to the President of the United States, 
were taken to Washington, and, after the discharge of their 
mission, brought back to New York. 

The foregoing is cited as an example of the efforts made by 
the Committee in behalf of the Commission to show every 
attention to arriving guests. 

Upon arrival, the guests were assigned to quarters in the 
principal hotels of the city. This was a work of great diifi- 
culty and delicacy, but was accomplished to the very general 
satisfaction of all concerned. In this part of its hospitality, 
the Commission had the very public-spirited cooperation of 
the hotel proprietors, who, notwithstanding the extraordinary 
demands which they well knew in advance would be made 

136 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

upon their accommodations by the paying public, most gener- 
ously offered to entertain the official guests of the Commission 
without charge as their contribution to the success of the Cele- 
bration. The hotels thus cooperating were the Hotel Astor, 
Hotel Belmont, Hotel Brevoort, Holland House, Hotel Imperial, 
Hotel Knickerbocker, Hotel Manhattan, Murray Hill Hotel, 
Hotel Netherland, Park Avenue Hotel, The Plaza, Hotel 
Saint Regis, Hotel Savoy, Hotel Walcott and Hotel Waldorf- 
Astoria. At the meeting of the Trustees of the Commission 
on October 13, 1909, the Chairman of the Reception Com- 
mittee publicly stated that all the guests were entertained 
acceptably at the hotels and nothing but satisfaction had 
been heard from the guests as to their treatment. The action 
of the hotels, he said, had been very public-spirited and he 
wished to bear testimony to the fact that they had carried out 
their generous offer of hospitality according to the highest 
interpretation of its spirit. As a slight recognition of their 
very valuable services, an official silver medal, four inches in 
diameter, was presented to each hotel. 
Instruc- The guests having arrived and having been duly Installed in 
hons,^ their hotels, the next duty of the Reception Committee was to 
Cards, give them the necessary Instructions for their movements, 
«'«=• furnish them with their official badges and passport cards, 

their official programs, official medals and the like. The 
amount of detail Involved in this branch of the work was enor- 
mous, but was accomplished with only an occasional failure. 
Among the documents placed In the hands of each guest was 
a leaflet of " Information for the Official Guests of the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission," which divided the functions 
of the Celebration into four groups. 
Func- Group A consisted of "Official Functions," which the guests 

vid°dhi' ^^^^ definitely expected to attend, namely: The paying of 
to Four their respects to the Vice-President of the United States, the 
Groups Governor of New York State, the Mayor of New York City, 

Entertainment of Official Guests 137 

and the President of the Commission at the Waldorf-Astoria Functions 
Hotel at 10 A. M., Saturday, September 25; the review of the. '7* t 
naval parade and the presentation of the Half Moon and Groups 
Clermont, at the Water Gate at iioth street and Riverside 
Park, at 2 P. m., September 25; the Official Reception and 
Welcome to the Guests of the Commission at the Metropolitan 
Opera House on Monday evening, September 27, at 8.30 
o'clock; and the Official Banquet to the guests at the Hotel 
Astor on the evening of Wednesday, September 29. The 
guests vsrere informed that for these functions escorts vy^ould be 
provided for the Vice-President; the Governor of New York; 
the Mayor of the City; Mr. Justice Brewer of the Supreme 
Court of the United States ; the Attorney-General of the United 
States; the Secretary of the Navy; the Secretary of Commerce 
and Labor; the Governors of New Jersey and Pennsylvania; 
and for the Special National Delegates, the Diplomatic Guests, 
and the Flag and Ranking Officers of the Visiting Fleets. 

Group B comprised "Official Entertainments" which, it 
was stated, had been provided for the pleasure of the guests 
and which it was hoped that they would find it agreeable to 
attend; but attendance on these was not Je rigueur. These 
entertainments included the concerts by the United Irish 
Societies in Carnegie Hall and the United German Societies 
in the Hippodrome on Sunday evening, September 26, the 
Historical Pageant of Tuesday afternoon, September 28, the 
Liederkranz Concert at the Metropolitan Opera House Tues- 
day evening, the Military Parade of Thursday, September 30, 
the Naval Parade to Newburgh on Friday, October i, and the 
Carnival Parade on Saturday, October 2. 

Group C consisted of "Entertainments on Invitation," and 
Included Invitations for a limited number of guests to a recep- 
tion by Major-General Leonard Wood, U. S. A., on Governor's 
Island, Monday, September 27; a reception by Col. Hugh L. 
Scott, U. S. A., at the West Point Military Academy on Wed- 

138 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Functions nesd ay, September 29; a reception and ball in the Brooklyn 

into Four Academy of Music on invitation of the Brooklyn Citizens' 

Groups Committee on Thursday evening, September 30; and a garden 

fete at Columbia University on the invitation of the Alumni 

Association of the United States Military Academy Saturday 

afternoon, October 2. 

Group D embraced "Unofficial Entertainments." Under 
this head the leaflet said: "These are found described in the 
Official Program, and may be participated in at the pleasure 
of the guests, as they find it convenient. Methods of reaching 
many of these entertainments are indicated in the Booklet 
issued by the Public Health and Convenience Committee of 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. Accompanying 
this is the Official Program and the Booklet of the Public 
Health and Convenience Committee." 

The primary object in thus dividing the various features of 
the Celebration into groups, indicating those which were de 
rigueur and those which were entirely optional with the guests, 
was to make the program, with respect to the guests, as 
flexible as possible and allow them the largest freedom of 
movement. It also relieved the guests from the possible 
embarrassment of constant attendance by the escorts of the 
Commission, and, on the other hand, greatly simplified the 
escort work of the Reception Committee. There were also 
several incidental advantages from this various classification, 
as, for instance, it permitted any foreign delegate, without 
violation of proprieties, to absent himself from the Historical 
Parade, if, upon examination of the Official Program which 
was given to him in advance, he felt that his susceptibilities 
would be affected by any of the subjects portrayed in the 

Every guest was furnished with an official badge of the 
character described in Chapter VI. A four-inch silver medal, as 
described in the same chapter, was given to every Admiral and 

Entertainment of Official Guests 139 

ranking oflBcer, special delegate, diplomat and consul; and a 
two-inch medal was given to every naval officer below the grade 
of Admiral or ranking officer. Every guest was given a pass- 
port card admitting him to the official functions, and he was 
also given a series of official pamphlets apprising him fully of 
the details of the various features of the Celebration. 

The Reception Committee made arrangements for the trans- Trans- 
portation of guests, so that all could attend the various func- ^° ^ °° 
tions in a becoming manner. This task was made especially ments 
difficult by the fact that the men-of-war, when anchored in the 
river, stretched over a distance of about ten miles from 42d 
street to beyond Spuyten Duyvil Creek. It thus became 
necessary to make suitable arrangements for the transportation 
of the Admirals and other officers in command, for the large 
numberof junior officers and for the men, although the arrange- 
ments for the men were made by the Naval Committee. An 
automobile was placed at the exclusive service of each Admiral 
and ranking officer, and subsequently the Chairman of the 
Reception Committee received the assurance from almost all 
of them that it had added greatly to their pleasure. Floats 
were provided by the Naval Committee at different points on 
the riverside, and from several of these floats to the nearest 
subway station a so-called "ferry service" was established, 
by which an omnibus ran every fifteen minutes from the landing 
stage to the subway station, and another omnibus from the 
subway station to the landing stage. At 155th street, for 
example, the distance so covered was a mile and a half, and the 
number of passengers carried reached into the thousands. Mr. 
John Naughton deserves special mention for the great ability 
with which he organized and carried on this service. Some 
of the specially distinguished guests who were on shore were 
also furnished with automobiles. For the ordinary trans- 
portation, arrangements were made with the various taxicab 
companies serving the hotels at which the guests stayed, to 

140 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

issue coupon tickets, to be redeemed by the Committee after 
the Celebration at 10 per cent discount. These coupons were 
printed in books of the value of $20, which were furnished to 
every guest, and, in case of need, the supply was replenished. 
Out of the total outlay made by the Reception Committee, 
probably more than ^25,000 was for transportation, but no 
single feature of the work of the Committee did more to make 
the entertainment a success than the admirable transportation 
system which was devised. The work done by an association 
of taxicab operators acting under the direction of the Com- 
mittee was most efficiently and conscientiously done. At the 
Trustees' meeting on October 13, 1909, the Chairman of the 
Reception Committee quoted Rear Admiral Schroeder, com- 
manding the American fleet, as saying that he had never been 
so well cared for in any part of the world; and similar intima- 
tions were given by representatives of other navies. 

Official As already indicated, an important branch of the Commit- 
scorts ^.gg'g (Jm-Jes YS^as the provision of Aides as escorts for the guests 

Gaests upon arrival in New York, to conduct them to their hotels, 
and during the Celebration to escort the guests to and from 
the official functions. This work was made practicable when 
the Trustees, by resolution adopted September 15, 1909, 
divided the various events of the Celebration into the four 
groups before mentioned and cut down the official functions 
to four in number. It proved entirely practicable to provide 
Aides for this small group, when it would have been entirely 
impracticable to provide escorts for a week at a time. It is 
believed that all the guests appreciated the freedom which the 
flexibility of the arrangements permitted. 

The services of the many gentlemen who consented to act 
as Aides to the Reception Committee were invaluable, and the 
Commission is under great obligation to them for the fidelity 
and good judgment with which they performed the duties 
assigned to them. 

Entertainment of Official Guests 141 

A few of the guests, the date of whose arrival was unknown Cere- 
to the Commission, or who arrived privately some days in ^°,?'* 
advance of the Celebration, paid their devoirs to the Commis- 
sion by calling in uniform at the Headquarters of the Com- 
mission, and later, in compliance with their instructions from 
home, paid their respects to the chief civil magistrate and 
chief military authority within this jurisdiction. As soon, 
however, as any of the guests made their arrival known, they 
were acquainted with the arrangements already made both for 
their receiving the respects of the officials here and for their 
paying theirs in return. These arrangements constituted the 
sixth department of the Reception Committee's duties. 

On the arrival of the guests at their hotels, the cards of the 
Governor of the State, the Mayor of the City, the President of 
the Commission, and the Chairman of the Reception Com- 
mittee were immediately left for them, and they were invited 
to attend a reception at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, at 10 
o'clock Saturday morning, September 25, when Governor 
Hughes, Mayor McClellan, General Woodford and Mr. Low 
were present to receive their return calls. The Vice-President 
of the United States, Mr. Sherman, was also present at this 
time in another room, so that the guests had the opportunity, 
first of all, to pay their compliments to the representative of 
the United States. 

It also fell to the Reception Committee to make the details Cere- 
of the arrangements for the Official Reception in the Metro- ™°^g^. 
politan Opera House on Monday evening, September 27, and tions 

* Much to the regret of the Commission, the President of the United States was unable to attend 
the Hudson-Fultou Celebration. To the representatives of the Commission who conveyed the 
invitation to him in Washington soon after his inauguration, he expressed the deepest interest in 
the commemoration, but said that for reasons of public policy he had made preparation for an 
extended journey through the States to the Pacific coast immediately after the adjournment of 
Congress, and that it would be impossible for him to change them. As a testimony of his sym- 
pathy, however, he directed the heads of the various Federal departments to cooperate with the 
Commission to the fullest extent possible. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


for the Receptions at Governor's Island on Monday afternoon, 
and at West Point on Wednesday afternoon.* This involved 
preparing and distributing invitations, and seeing to it that 
vehicles were at command to serve the guests both in going 
and coming. The Committee was greatly helped in the matter 
of the Reception at Governor's Island by the courtesy of 
Admiral Murdock, of the Navy Yard, in placing a tug at the 
Committee's disposal to transport the guests to and from the 
Island, from the foot of West 40th street. It is pleasant to 
relate that when this boat returned, and again when the train 
arrived from West Point on Wednesday evening, so many taxi- 
cabs were available for returning guests that no one was 
obliged to wait more than three minutes. 

In assigning seats to the guests on the stage at the great 
function at the Metropolitan Opera House, and in innumerable 
other matters involving delicate questions of diplomatic eti- 
quette, the Committee had the invaluable aid of the Hon. 
William Phillips, then Third Assistant Secretary of State of 
the United States, who, upon the request of the Commission, 
was sent to New York to lend his cooperation in person. 

Following is a list of the Official Guests whom the Commis- 
sion had the honor of entertaining, together with their addresses 
while in New York: 

List of 





Hon. James S. Sherman... . 
Hon. Charles E. Hughes.... 
Hon. George B. McClellan. 

Vice-President of the United States 

Hotel Manhattan 

GoTemor of the State of New York 

Mayor of the City of New York 

Hotel Astor 
City Hall 

* For further reference to these events, see Chapter XVI. 

Entertainment of Official Guests 




Argentine Republic 




Costa Rica 






Great Britain 









The Netherlands. . 










Senor Don Julio Carrie 

Count de Buisseret 

Senor Don Jose Francisco Vergara 

Naval Delegate Rear Admiral Lindor Perez Gacitua 
Senor Eduardo Pombo 
Senor Francisco A. Gutierrez 

Dr. Juan J. Ulloa 

Brigadier-General Gerardo Machado 

Count C. Moltke 

Senor Don Esteban Carbo 

M. Jean Gaston Darboux, Perpetual Secretary of 

Academy of Sciences 

Grossadmiral von Koester 

Eapitanleutnant Erich von Mueller, Adjutant 
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Seymour, G. C. B 
Licentiate Don Manuel Arroyo and Dr. Don Jose 


Licentiate Don Juan Mata C 

Professor Horace Etheart 

Mr. Alan O. Clephane 

Vice Admiral Alfonso di Brocchetti 

His Imperial Highness Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni 

Mr. Maurice Pescatore 

Senor Don Carlos Pereyra 

Captain Manuel E. Izaguirre (Second Delegate). . . 
Sid Laarby Ben Zenhashi and Sid Mohamed Ben 

Abedeslam Ben Jelul 

Mr. J. T. Cremer 

Senor Don Pio Bolanos 

Mr. O. Gude 

Senor Don Ramon M. Valdez 

Mr. Rodman Wanamaker 

Mr. Eduardo Higginson 

Senor Don Federico Mejia 

His Excellency Youssouf Zia Pasha 

Colonel Aziz Bey (Second Delegate) 

Senor Don Rafael J. Fosalba 

Senor Don Eduardo de Lima 

Manuel Aguala (Second Delegate) 

Hotel Belmont 
Hotel Belmont 
Hotel Astor 
Hotel Astor 

66 Beaver St., N. Y. 
Hotel Astor 
Hotel Netherland 
Hotel Savoy 

Hotel St. Regis 
Hotel Astor 

H. M. S. "Inflexible' 

Hotel Astor 
Hotel Astor 
Hotel Brevoort 
Hotel Knickerbocker 
Hotel Savoy 
The Plaza 
St. Regis 
Hotel Astor 
Hotel Astor 

The Plaza 
66 Beaver St., N. Y. 
Hotel Netherland 
Hotel Knickerbocker. 
Care Consulate, 309 

25 Broad st. 
Hotel Astor 
Hotel Manhattan 

144 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 






V. S. S. " Connecticut," Flagship. 

Rear Admiral Seaton Schroeder, U. S. N. Commander-in-Cluet, United States Atlantic Fleet. 

Personal Staff" 
Captain A. W. Grant, Chief of Staff. 

Lieutenant-Commander Ridley McLean, Aid and Fleet Ordnance Officer. 
Lieutenant-Commander E. L. Bennett, Fleet Engineer. 
Lieutenant-Commander J. H. Holden, Aid and Flag Secretary. 
Lieutenant R. D. White, Aid and Flag Lieutenant. 
Lieutenant Sinclair Gannon, Aid. 
Lieutenant O. W. Fowler, Aid and Fleet Athletic Officer. 

Fleet Staff 
Medical Inspector J. M. Edgar, Fleet Surgeon. 
Pay Inspector Samuel McGowan, Fleet Paymaster. 
Major Dion Williams, Fleet Marine Officer. 
Assistant N. C, L. B. McBride, Special Duty. 

U. S. S. "Georgia," Flagship. 

Rear Admiral Richard Wainwright, U. S. N. 

Personal Staff 
Lieutenant S. C. Rowan, Flag Lieutenant. 
Ensign A. K. Atkins, Aid. 

U. S. S. "ViKGiNU," Flagship. 
Captain S. P. Comly, U. S. N. 

Personal Staff 
Lieutenant W. M. Hunt, Flag Lieutenant. 
Lieutenant J. D. Wainwright, Aid. 

U. S. S. "Minnesota," Flagship. 
Captain Hugo Osterhaus, U. S. N. 

Personal Staff 
Lieutenant R. L. Berry, Flag Lieutenant. 
Lieutenant C. J. King, Aid. 

Captain W. A. Marshall, commanding "North Carolina." 
Captain J. C. Fremont, commanding "Mississippi." 

Entertainment of Official Guests 145 

Captain W. C. Cowles, commanding "Connecticut." List of 

Captain C. J. Badger, commanding ^'^Kansas.'*' Official 

Captain Alfred Reynolds, commanding '''^ Montana/^ GuestS 

Captain J. M. Helm, commanding *^'' Idaho." 

Captain C. McR. Winslow, commanding "New Hampshire'' 

Captain Alex. Sharp, commanding " Virginia.*' 

Captain F. F. Fletcher, commanding "Vermont." 

Captain F. E. Beatty, commanding "Wisconsin." 

Captain R. M. Doyle, commanding "Missouri.''* 

Captain W. B. Caperton, commanding "Maine," 

Captain T. M. Potts, commanding "Georgia," 

Captain C. J. Bousch, commanding "Ohio." 

Captain J. T. Newton, conmaanding "Nebraska." 

Captain W. I. Chambers, commanding "Louisiana.** 

Captain D. W. Coffman, commanding "New Jersey,** 

Captain T. D. GrifEn, commanding "Rhode Island." 

Commander H. McL. P. Huse, commanding "Celtic" 

Commander C. H. Harlow, commanding "Panther.** 

Commander Harry Phelps, commanding "Culgoa," 

Commander W. S. Sims, commanding "Minnesota." 

Commander H, B. Wilson, commanding "Chester.** 

Commander S. S. Wood, commanding "New York.*' 

Commander A. L. Key, commanding "Salem.*' 

Commander W. L. Howard, commanding "Birmingham." 

Commander Roger Welles, executive, "New Hampshire.** 

Commander H. A. Jones, executive, "Idaho.** 

Commander G. R. Slocum, executive, "Missouri.** 

Commander G. W. Kline, commanding "Castine." 

Commander G. F. Cooper, executive, "Rhode Island." 

Commander E. T. Witherspoon, executive, "Nebraska.** 

Commander Victor Blue, executive, "North Carolina." 

Commander A. H. Davis, executive, "Georgia.** 

Commander Frank Marble, executive, "Vermont.** 

Lieutenant-Commander C. B. McVay, Jr., commanding "Yankton.** 

U. S. S. "Prairie." 

Commander Frank W. Kellogg, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. "Dixie.*- 

Lieutenant Paul Foley, U. S. N. 

"Presioente Sarmiento.*' 
Captain Almada. 



Contre-Admiral Le Pord. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

List of 

Personal Staff 

Capitaine Darcy. 
Med. Inspect. Borelli. 
Commissaire Le Bellecou. 
Medicin Principal Fossard. 
Lieutenant Richard. 
'* Justice." 

Capitaine de Vaisseau Le Fevre. 


Capitaine de Vaisseau Huguet. 


Capitaine de Vaisseu Tracou. 


Grossadmiral von Koester. 
Kapitanleutenant Erich von Muller^ Adjutant. 
Korvettenkapitan Retzmann, Naval Attache. 
(Hotel Astor.) 

"Victoria Louise." 

Kapitan zur See Mauve. 

Kapitan zur See Engelhardt. 

Fregattenkapitan Goette. 

Fregattenkapitan Varrentrapp. 


H. M. S. "Inflexible." 

Admiral of the Fleet, Sir Edward Seymour, G. C. B. 

Chief of Staff, Captain Douglas R. L. Nicholson. 
Secretary, Francis C. Alton, C. B. 

Flag Commander, Edward B. Lowther-Crofton, D. S. O. 
Commander, Frederick A. Powlett. 
H. M. S. "Inflexible." 

Captain Henry H. Torlesse. 
H. M. S. "Drake." 

Rear Admiral Frederick T. Hamilton, C. V. O. 

Perianal Staff 
Secretary, R. Clutton Baker. 
Flag Lieutenant, James M. Pipon. 
Engineer, Captain Albert E. L. Westaway. 
H. M. S. "Drake." 

Captain Hon. Hubert G. Brand, M. V. O. 

Entertainment of Ofificial Guests 


H. M. S. "Augtll." List of 

Captain Cecil F. Lambert. Official 

H. M. S. "Duke of Edinburgh." GuestS 
Captain Hon. Robert F. Boyle, M. V. O. 


Capitano Baggio Ducarne Filippa 

Capitano Leonardi, M. 



Captain Manuel Catellanoss. 


Captain G. P. van Hecking Colenbrander. 


S. Alsberg Plaza Hotel 

Baron J. d'Aulnis de Bourouill Plaza Hotel. 

Hon. E. J. Benthem Plaza Hotel. 

Hon. J. T. Cremer Plaza Hotel. 

Lieutenant de Meester Plaza Hotel. 

Hon. E. P. de Monchy, Rz Plaza Hotel. 

Mr. Adrian Gips 32 Broadway. 

Hon. J. Heldring Plaza Hotel. 

Lieutenant-Commander Lam Plaza Hotel. 

Hon. J. Rypperda Wierdsma Plaza Hotel. 

Jonkheer O. Reuchlin Plaza Hotel. 

Mr. F. C. Stoop Plaza Hotel. 

H. Teixeira de Mattos Plaza Hotel. 

Captain Van der Pant, R. N. A Plaza Hotel. 

Hon. S. P. Van Eeghen Plaza Hotel. 

Captain Van Hecking Colenbrander H. M. S. " Utrecht." 

Hon. W. F. Van Leeuwen Plaza Hotel. 

Hon. R. Van Rees Plaza Hotel. 

Mr. C. M. Van Ryn Plaza Hotel. 

M. Westerman Plaza Hotel. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

List of 





Argentine Republic 


Senor Don Epifanio Portela, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 

Baron Louis Ambrozy, Charge d'Affaires of 

Hotel Belmont 
Hotel Netherland 

M. Le Comte de Buisseret, Appointed Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 

Hotel Belmont 


Senor Don Ignacio Calderon, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 

Hotel Knickerbocker 


Lieutenant-Commander D. R. Marques De 


Senor Don Anibal Cruz, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary of Chile 

Dr. Wu Ting-fang, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of China 



Hotel Savoy 

Costa Rica 

Senor Don Joaquin Bernardo Calvo, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 

Hotel Behnont 


General Carlos Garcia-Velez, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 


Count Moltke, Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary of Denmark 

Hotel Netherland 

Dominican Republic. . . 

Mr. Arturo L. Fiallo, Charge d'Affaires ad 


M. Lefevre-Pontalis, Charge d'Affaires ad 

Hotel St. Regis 

Count von Wedel, Imperial German Charge 

Mr. H. W. Kennard, Second Secretary of Em- 

Hotel Belmont 


Mr. L. A. Coromilas, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of Greece, , . 



Senor Dr. Don Luis Toledo Herarte, Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
of Guatemala 

Hotel Astor 


Mr. H. Pauleus Sannon, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary of Haiti 

Dr. Luis Lazo A, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of Honduras 

Hotel Brevoort 

Hotel Knickerbocker 

Entertainment of Official Guests 







Marchese Paolo Di Montagliari, Chargd 

Hotel Savoy 

Mr. Keishiro Matsuf, Charge d'Affaires ad 

The Plaza 

Senor Don Balbino Davalos, Charg6 d^Affaires 

The Netherlands 

Jonkheer J. Loudon, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of The Netherlands 

Senor Dr. Don Rodolfo Espinosa, Envoy Ex- 
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 

The Plaza 

Hotel Knickerbocker 

Mr. 0. Gude, Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 

Hotel Netherland 

Mr. C. C. Arosemena, Envoy Extraordinary 
and Minister Plenipotentiary of Panama 

Mr. Felipe Pardo, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of Peru 


Hotel Knickerbocker 

9 East 39th street 

Viscount de Alte, Envoy Extraordinary and 

Minister Plenipotentiary of Portugal 

Mr. B. Kroupensky, Charg^ d'Affaires ad in- 

Hotel Manhattan 

22 Washington sq. N. 


Senor Don Federico Mejia, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Sal- 

Hotel Astor 

Phra Ratanayapti, Chargfi d'Affaires ad interim 

Hotel Manhattan 


The Marquis of Villalobar, Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary of Spain. . 
Mr. W. A. F. Ekengren, Charge d*Affaires ad 



Hotel St. Regis 

Dr. Paul Ritter, Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary of Switzerland 

A. RuBtem Bey, Charge d'Affaires ad interim 
of Turkey 


Holland House 


Senor Alberto Nin Frias, Charge d'Affaires ad 

Hotel Manhattan 

Senor Don P. Ezequiel Rojas, Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 


List of 

150 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 



Hon. David J. Brewer, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the 

United States Murray Hill Hotel 

Hon. George W. Wickersham, Attorney-General of the United States. 

Hon. George von L. Meyer, Secretary of the Navy Hotel Belmont 

Hon. Charles Nagel, Secretary of Commerce and Labor On board " TuUp " 

Hon. Huntington Wilson, Assistant Secretaiy of State Holland House 


Lieutenant-Governor Horace White Waldorf-Astoria 

Secretary of State of New York, Samuel S. Koenig 237 East 7th street 

Attorney-General Edward R. O'Malley Hotel Belmont 

State Engineer and Surveyor Frank M. Williams Hotel Imperial 

State Treasurer Thomas B. Dunn Hotel Imperial 

Comptroller of the State of New York, Charles H. Gaus Hotel Imperial 

Chairman Legislative Sub-Committee, Hon. Jotham P. Allds Murray Hill Hotel 


Hon. John Franklin Fort, Governor of New Jersey Hotel Astor 

Hon. Edwin S. Stuart, Governor of Pennsylvania Waldorf-Astoria 

Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, guest of Mr. and Mrs. Seth Low 30 East 64th street 

Mrs. J. B. Coghlan Hotel Astor 

Surgeon-General of the United States Navy Wyman Waldorf-Astoria 

Ex-Secretary of the United States Navy, Truman H. Newberry Plaza Hotel 

Major-General Leonard Wood, U. S. Army, Commanding Department 

of the East Governor's Island, N.Y. 

Major-General Frederick Dent Grant, U. S. Army, Commanding De- 
partment of the Lakes Hotel Manhattan 

Colonel Hugh L. Scott, U. S. Army, Superintendent of U. S. Military 

Academy at West Point Hotel Astor 

Senor Don Pedro Gonzales, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary on Special Mission to United States from Nicaragua Hotel Knickerbocker 

Hon. William PhilUps, Third Assistant Secretary of State Hotel Astor 

Captain J. B. Murdock, Commandant of New York Navy Yard Navy Yard, New York 

Captain Commander Worth G. Ross, U. S. Revenue Cutter Service, 

Washington, D. C Hotel Walcott 

Hon. William Loeb, Jr., Collector of the Port of New York Custom House 


Members of the New Tork Commission 

Hon. John H. Booth Hotel Knickerbocker 

Hon. James A. Foley 314 East 19th street. New York City 

Hon. James J. Frawley 21 Park row. New York City 

Entertainment of Official Guests 


Hon. Henry Wayland Hill Hotel Knickerbocker 

Hon. Wallace Knapp Hotel Knickerbocker 

Hon. Louis C. LaFontaine Hotel Knickerbocker 

Hon. Howland Pell 7 Pine street. New York City 

Hon. John B. Riley Hotel Knickerbocker 

Hon. William R. Weaver Hotel Knickerbocker 

Hon. Walter C. Witherbee, care of Mrs. Black Pelham Manor, N. Y. 

Members of the Vermont Commission 

Hon. George T. Jarvis Waldorf-Astoria 

Hon. George H. Prouty Waldorf-Astoria 

List of 


Herman A. Metz, Comptroller of the City of New York. 
Patrick F. McGowan, President of the Board of Aldermen. 
John F. Aheam, President of the Borough of Manhattan 
Bird S. Coler, President of the Borough of Brooklyn. 
John F. Murray, President of the Borough of the Bronx. 
Lawrence Gresser, President of the Borough of Queens. 
George Cromwell, President of the Borough of Richmond. 
Timothy P. Sullivan, Chairman of the Aldermanic Committee. 





Argentine Republic. 



Hon. Jos^ Vincente Fernandez, Consul General 
Hon. Alexander von Nuber, Consul General . . 

80 Wall street 

123 East 17th street 

Hon. Jose Anguirre-Acha, Consul General 

Hon. Jos^ Joaquim Gomes dos Santos, Consul 

and 15th street 


17 State street 


Hon. Ricardo Sanchez-Cruz, Consul General. . 

43 Exchange place 
18 Broadway 
78 Broad street 
24 State street 


Hon. Carlos M. Sarria, Consul General 

Hon. Genaro Payan, Acting Consul General . . 

Hon. Dr. Juan J. Ulloa, Consul General 

Hon. Mariano Rocafort, Consul General 

Hon. Martin Julius Charles Theodor Clan, 

Costa Rica 


96 Wall street 


130 Pearl street 
31 Broadway 
n Broadway 

Dominican Republic. 

Hon. Fabio F. Fiallo, Consul General 

Hon. Felicisimo Lopez, Consul General 

Hon. Etienne Marie Louis Lanel, Consul 
General; M. H. Goiran Deputy Consul 


35 South William street 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

List of 





Hon, Rudolph Franksen, Consul General 

Hon. Courtenay Walter Bennett, Consul 

II Broadway 

Great Britain 

2 State street 

Hon. D. N. Botassi, Consul General 

35 South William street 

Hon. Doctor Ramon Bengoechea, Consul 

4 Stone street 
31 Broadway 


Hon. Louis Joseph Simon, Consul General 

Hon. Guillermo Moncada, Consul General. . . . 

Hon. Annibale Raybaudi Massiglia, Consul 



230 Lafayette street 
60 Wall street 

Gustavo di Rosa, Acting General Consul 

Hon. Kokichi Midzuno, Consul General 

24 Stone street 

32 Broadway 

35 South WilUam street 

Hon. Cayetano Romero, Consul General 

Hon. J. R. Planten, Consul General 


Hon. Pio Bolanos, Consul .... 

66 Beaver street 

Hon. Christopher Ravn, Consul General 

Hon. Manuel de Obaldia, Consul General 

17 State street 

18 Broadway 
309 Broadway 
501 Fifth avenue 
25 Broad street 

Hon. H. H. Topakyan, Consul General 

Hon. Eduardo Higginson, Consul General. . . . 
Hon. Luis de Sousa Monteiro Ferreira de 
Castro, Consul General 



17 State street 

Hon. Baron Albert de Schlippenbach, Consul 

22 North Washingtos Sq. 
42 Broadway 


Hon. Ernesto Schernikow, Honorary Consul.. . 
Hon. Loring Townsend Hildreth, Consul 

14 East 60th street 

Hon. Antonio Diaz Miranda y Arango, Consul 

18 Broadway 

17 State street 

18 Exchange place 
102 West 54th street 
59 Pearl street 

29 Broadway 
80 Wall street 


Hon. Jacques Bertschmann, Consul.. . . 

Hon. J. de la Boissiere, Consul General 



Hon. Alfredo Metz Green, Consul. .... 


Hon. Jacinto Lopez, Consul General . . . 

Entertainment of Official Guests 153 



Her Imperial Highness Princess Kuniyoshi Kuni. 
Madame S. Nagasaki, Dame d^honneui to the Princess 


Mrs. J. T. Cremer Plaza Hotel 

Mrs. E. P. de Monchy Plaza Hotel 

Mrs. J. Heldring Plaza Hotel 

Mrs. Jonkheer O. Reuchlin Plaza Hotel 

Mrs. C. F. Stoop Plaza Hotel 

Miss Van Eeghen Plaza Hotel 

Mrs. F. W. Tan Leeuwen Plaza Hotel 

Mrs. R. Van Rees Plaza Hotel 

Miss Van Rees Plaza Hotel 

The Messrs. van Leeuwen Plaza Hotel 


Mrs. James S. Sherman, wife of the Vice-President of the United States. Hotel Manhattan 
Mrs. Charles E. Hughes, wife of the Governor of the State of New York. Hotel Astor 
Mrs. George B. McClellan, wife of the Mayor of the City of New York. . Washington Sq. North 
Mrs. David J. Brewer, wife of Justice Brewer of the U. S. Supreme Court. Hotel Murray Hill 

Mrs. Meyer, wife of the Secretary of the Navy Hotel Belmont 

Mrs. Wickersham, wife of the Attorney-General 

Mrs. Huntington Wilson, wife of Assistant Secretary of State Holland House 

Mrs. O. Gude, wife of the Minister of Norway Hotel Netherland 

Mrs. W. A. F. Ekengren, wife of the Charg^ d'Affaires of Sweden Hotel St. Regis 

Mrs. H. W. Kennard, wife of the Second Secretary of the British Embassy. Hotel Belmont 

Mrs. Paul Ritter, wife of the Mim'ster of Switzerland Holland House 

Mme. Pescatore, wife of the special representative of the Grand Duchy of 

Luxemburg Hotel St. Regis 

Mrs. John Franklin Fort, wife of the Governor of New Jersey Hotel Astor 

Mrs. Horace White, wife of the Lieutenant-Governor of New York Waldorf-Astoria 

Mrs. Frederick Dent Grant, wife of Major-General Grant, U. S. A. Hotel Manhattan 

Mrs Hugh L. Scott, wife of Colonel Hugh L. Scott, U. S. A Hotel Astor 

Mrs. Thomas B. Dunn, wife of the State Treasurer of New York Hotel Imperial 

Mrs. Samuel S. Koenig, wife of the Secretary of State of the State of New 

York 137 E. 7th street 

Mrs. Frank M. Williams, wife of the Engineer of the State of New York. . Hotel Imperial 
Lake Champlain Ter-centenary Commission: 

Mrs. John B. Riley Hotel Knickerbocker 

Mrs. William R. Weaver Hotel Knicherbocker 

Mrs. Henry W. Hill Hotel ELnickerbocker 

154 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mrs. John H. Booth Hotel Knickerbocker 

Mrs. Walter C. Witherbee, Miss Witherbee, care of Mrs. Black Pelham Manor, N. Y. 

Appre- At the close of the Celebration the official guests were very 
. .. punctilious in calling pour prendre conge, either in person or by 

Guests card. In one way or another all expressed themselves highly 
pleased with their entertainment. Many of them also wrote 
letters. Want of space prevents the reproduction of all of 
these very courteous communications, but the following ex- 
amples suffice to indicate the general sentiment of the guests. 

From the Belgium's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 

Minister tiary, M. le Comte Conrad de Buisseret, wrote: 


(coat of arms) 
A Washington 

Washington, D. C, October 12, 1909. 

Sir. — Allow me to express to you, as President of the Commission of the 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration, my heartfelt gratitude for the kindness & courtesy 
shown to me & my Legation during the three days which we spent in New York. 
I have not failed to inform my Government of the lavish hospitality extended 
to us, & which, I have no doubt, will be a source of gratification to them. We 
shall ever preserve a vivid remembrance of those beautiful festivities. 
With kind regards, I beg to remain, dear Sir, 

Your obedient Servant 

^ Cte. Conrad de Buisseret. 
To the Honorable General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Commission of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 

From Lieutenant Commander D. Marques de Azevedo wrote as 

Brazil's j 

razi s fojio^g jfj behalf of the Brazilian representatives 

naval attache 
to the 


New York, October 6th, 1909. 
Dear Sir. — Before leaving New York, where I had the honor of being 
entertained so delightfully during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, I desire 

Entertainment of Official Guests 155 

to express to you in the name of His Excellency the Brazilian Ambassador, 
and on my own behalf, my deep sense of appreciation for the courtesy and 
kindness shown me. I thank you for the opportunity afforded me as a 
Representative of Brazil to participate in the Celebration and to view its 
grandeur while enjoying the hospitality of your City. The elaborate care 
and great solicitude shown for me as a guest of your Commission will never 
be forgotten by me, and as I leave your City I do so carrying with me 
memories which ever endear New York to me. 

Please, dear Sir, believe me, 

Yours very sincerely, 

D. Marques de Azevedo. 
To the Honorable General Stewart Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Committee. 

Colombia's Special Delegate, Hon. Eduardo Pombo, wrote : From 



Washington, D. C. Delegates 

Eduardo Pombo, Special Delegate from Colombia, presents his respects to 
General Stewart L. Woodford, and before leaving New York, wishes to extend 
to him and through his respectable organ to the Honorable Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Commission, his heartfelt thanks and sentiments of appreciation 
for the many courtesies and hospitality he received during his sojourn in the 

New York, October 5, 1909. 

Mr. Pombo's colleague, Hon. Francisco A. Gutierrez, left a 
similar expression. 

Denmark's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- From the 
tiary. Count Moltke, wrote: 



Washington, D. C. 

October 6th, 1909. 
Sir. — At the conclusion of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, I have at heart 
to address to you as President of the Celebration Commission the following 

The privilege of attending the memorable festivities, which now belong to 
the already glorious annals of the history of the State and City of New York, 
was great in itself, and no visitor will ever forget the grandeur of the task which 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

the metropolis had taken on her shoulders in carrying out the elaborate celebra- 
tion program, neither the unique success which crowned it in every detail. 

But, if this is so generally speaking, those who had the benefit of special 
facilities extended to them with the utmost courtesy for every one of the numer- 
ous, equally delightful and impressive ceremomies and exercises, sheltered by 
a hospitality of a rarely generous and lavish character, have a particular reason 
to express their gratitude. 

I have the greatest pleasure then, my dear General, to say that, proud as I 
was to be appointed the special delegate of His Danish Majesty's Government 
to witness the glorification of your wonderful metropolis in its magnificent 
perpetuation of discovery and inventive genius, I must thank you from 
the bottom of my heart for the rare chivalry with which you have hon- 
ored my country and my nation in the reception granted me as their official 

The welfare of the American people and of its greatest port and city is fol- 
lowed with warm sympathy and cordial friendliness by the Danish Nation, 
and it is our sincere hope that the recollection of these bright days of rejoicing 
and legitimate pride will be passed by you to posterity without ever being 
clouded by any future event. 

Respectfully requesting that you will kindly interpret these feelings to the 
honorable members of your Commission, 

I have the honor to be, Sir, 

Very respectfully yours, 


Danish Minister. 
Hon. General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 

Room 120, Waldorf-Astoria, New York City. 


The Dominican Republic's Charge d'Affaires, the Hon. 
Arturo L. Fiallo, and her Special Delegate, Hon. F. B. Jen- 
nings, wrote: 


de la 


Washington, D. C. 

October 6, 1909. 
Sir.— On my return to Washington I take pleasure in offering to you and 
the members of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission the assurances of 

Entertainment of Official Guests 157 

my highest appreciation for the many courtesies extended to me during my stay 
in New York as a guest of the Commission. Your generous hospitality on 
this occasion will always remain for me as a source of delightful recollection. 

I avail myself of this opportunity to tender to you, Mr. President, the expres- 
sion of my profound respect and highest esteem. 

Arturo L. Fiallo, 

Charge d'affaires ad interim. 


15 Broad Street, 
New York 

October 12, 1909. 
Hon. Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of Hudson-Fulton Commission: 
Dear Sir. — On this "Columbus Day" it is especially appropriate that, as 
the representative of the first country settled by Columbus in the Western 
Hemisphere, I should extend to you and the Commission hearty congratulations 
upon the magnificent celebration which has just been brought successfully 
to a close. It was in every respect worthy of the great events which it signalized, 
and on behalf of the President and People of the Dominican Republic I wish 
to thank you for your kind invitation to participate in the celebration and for 
the generous hospitality shown to the representatives of the Republic in common 
with the other guests of the Association. 

Yours very sincerely, 

F. B. Jennings, 
Special Representative of the Dominican Republic. 

Senor Don Esteban Carbo, Special Delegate from Ecuador, From 

wrote: E'^"^- 


Washington, D. C. 

October 6, 1909. 
Sir. — I have the honor to extend my sincere thanks to you and to the 
members of the Hudson-Fulton Commission. I cannot tell you, Mr. Presi- 
dent, how much I have enjoyed the brilliant splendor of these festivities. 
As a guest of the Commission I must say that I have never before received 
such unparalleled hospitality, and I am deeply grateful. I am sending a 
full description of the Celebration to my country in order that it may be 
kept in the archives of the government. My earnest wish is that Ecuador 

158 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

may be fortunate enough to some day have as guests some of the members 
of the Commission. It is with a feeling of deep regret that I bid farewell. 
The events of this Celebration I will keep indelibly in my memory. 

In the name of the Ecuadorian Government and in my own, I thank you. 
With sentiments of high appreciation and esteem, I am, Sir, 


E. F. Carbo. 
General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, New York, N. Y. 

From the France's Special Delegate, M. Jean Gaston Darboux, com- 
iWeeate rnu^icated his compliments through the French Ambassador 

at Washington and the Department of State in a note of which 

the following is a translation: 



October 30, 1909. 

Mr. Secretary of State. — Mr. Darboux, member of the Institute and 
Permanent Secretary of the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences, has 
acquainted the Government of the Republic with the excellent reception given 
to the French Delegation sent to the United States on the occasion of the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration. 

Pursuant to your instructions I have just received, I venture to have recourse 
to your Excellency's good office to have my Government's thanks transmitted, 
in this connection, to the State and City of New York. 

Be pleased to accept, Mr. Secretary of State, the assurance of my high 


From the Grossadmiral Von Koester, Germany's Special Delegate, 

German „„„^„ . 
_, , . wrote: 

October 9, 1909. 
My Dear General Woodford.— Before I leave New York to-morrow I 
wish to thank you and the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission once again 
very sincerely for the most splendid and very friendly reception, which we 
have found here; I do so not only for myself, but also on behalf of the captains, 
officers and men, of the German warships, who had the privilege of partaking 

Entertainment of Official Guests 159 

in the celebrations and of whom the Commission has taken care in so kind 
a way. 

Personally I wish to express my thanks for having been the guest of the city 
and of the Commission at the Astor Hotel, the management of which Hotel 
has given me every comfort possible, facilitating thereby the fulfillment of my 
numerous social obligations. 

Furthermore I have to thank you for the automobile of the Mason-Seaman 
Transportation Company, which has been placed at my service. The serv- 
ice it has done me was satisfactory in every respect and it has been, as 
well by its material quality as by the ability of the chauffeur, of great value 
to me. 

I am fully aware of the extraordinary eflSciency shown by the Commission 
in arranging all the numerous facilities we have enjoyed; without them I 
would not have been able to fulfill my mission in that way, which was possible 
only by your kind help. 

With renewed assurances of my high esteem I beg to remain. 

Yours very sincerely, 



Ritter des hohen Ordens von schwarzen Adler, Mitglied des Herrenhausen.* 

Admiral of the Fleet, Sir Edward H. Seymour, Special Dele- From 
gate from Great Britain, wrote: w'^^ta'n's 

H. M. s. "inflexible" 

at New York 

9th October, 1909. 

Sir. — On the termination of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration at New York 
may I ask you to accept for yourself and the members of the Commission 
the warmest thanks of myself, the Rear Admiral, Captains, Officers and Men 
of His Majesty's Ships for the generous hospitality shown to us by the 
Commission during our stay here. 

The spectacles, pageants, and parades that have been placed before the 
Representatives of so many of the Nations of the Earth in almost oriental 
magnificence, have dazzled the eyes and stimulated the imagination, and 
although these have passed away the remembrance of them will endure and 
cannot fail to have some lasting result. 

* Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle, Member of the House of Lords. 

i6o The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

It has been our privilege to have taken part in a great historic Celebra- 
tion to do honour to the memory of two great men whose names are insepa- 
rably connected with the progress of the world and the development of its 
resources and of the communications of its people, and it is our earnest 
hope that one result of this Celebration will be that in the future these two 
names will also be identified with the advance of mankind towards the 
brotherhood of Nations and the attainment of happiness. 
I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
E. H. Seymour, 

Admiral of the Fleet. 
General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Commission. 

From the His Excellency, the Hon. L. A. Cormilas, Minister from 

Mini^r Greece, wrote: 

New York, Oct. yrd, 1909. 
My Dear General Woodford. — Before leaving New York I desire to 
express my thanks to you, as well as to Mr. Seth Low and all the members 
of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Committee for the invitation extended to 
me as a representative of Greece, and the cordial and most courteous atten- 
tion I received during the festivities, the grandeur of which will certainly live 
in the memories of all who witnessed them. 

Please accept, my dear General Woodford, the renewed assurances of my 
high consideration, and believe that I am. 

Your most true friend, 


General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

From the Guatemala's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
m"lan ^entiary, Senor Dr. Don Luis Toledo Herrarte, wrote: 



October lyh, 1909. 

Sir. — I have the pleasure to inform you that the Guatemalan Government, 

desirous of honoring in a fitting manner the memory of Robert Fulton, one of 

the benefactors of mankind, has decided to join in the great festivities which 

the State of New York has just held in celebration of the first centennial of the 

Entertainment of Official Guests i6i 

successful application of steam navigation, and has, therefore, issued, under 
date of September 8, 1909, through the' Department of Promotion (Fomento) 
the following resolution: 

"The Constitutional President of the Republic, whereas: The eventful 
discovery of the application of steam to navigation must be classed as the 
occurrence which has had the greatest influence in the development of commerce, 
the all important factor of progress in all phases of modern activity; and 
whereas the personahty of Robert Fulton, a model of singleness of purpose 
and perseverance, commands the gratitude of all Nations as that of a superman 
who has bestowed benefits on humanity, be it therefore resolved: That on the 
loth of October next, in commemoration of the centennial of such discovery, 
a bronze bust of Robert Fulton be placed in the Estrada Cabera Park, in the 
capital of the Republic. — Let it be known. — Estrada C. — The Secretary of 
State in the Department of Fomento. — Joaquin Mendez." 

In informing you of the foregoing, thus discharging a most pleasant duty, 
I beg to offer you the assurance of my highest and most distinguished 

Luis Toledo Herrarte, 
E. E. & M. P. 
Hon. Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 

New York City. 

Haiti's Special Delegate, Professor Horace Etheart, wrote a From the 
letter which, rendered from the French, reads as follows: Delegate 


New York 

13 October, 1909. 

Mr. President. — At the moment of return to my country, I feel a very great 
pleasure in sending you all my thanks for the numerous marks of delicate 
attention which 1 have received from the Commission and to felicitate you on 
the beautiful success of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 

All the trouble which you have taken — the Committee and you, — to cele- 
brate worthily the memory of these two men whose names you have united in 
one thought of remembrance, is compensated by the brilliant success of the fetes 
which you have organized. 

Haiti has been very happy to participate in this beautiful manifestation and 
to give also a new proof of the sincere friendship which she bears to the great 
American nation. 


i62 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Please accept, Mr. President, for you and for the members of the Commission, 
the assurances of my most distinguished consideration. 

H. Etheart. 
Hon. Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

From the The Hon. Alan O. Clephane, Special Delegate from Hon- 

Hondu- J 

auras, wrote: 
raman ' 

Delegate consulado de Honduras 

Washington, D. C. 

October yh, 1909. 
Hon. Seth Low, 

Chairman Reception Committee, Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission ; 
My Dear Mr. Low. — As Special Delegate representing the Govern- 
ment of Honduras at the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, I desire to thank you 
personally, and through you the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, for 
the many courtesies extended to me as a guest of the Commission during 
the week of the Celebration. It was the universal expression of opinion 
among the members of the Diplomatic Corps and Special Delegates that it 
would have been impossible for more to have been done for the pleasure 
and comfort of the guests. I regret not having had the opportunity before 
leaving New York on Sunday morning of calling upon you to personally 
express my thanks. I also wish to take this occasion to express to the 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission the appreciation of the Government 
of Honduras for the opportunity so kindly afforded of taking part with the 
other nations of the world in the magnificent Celebration marking the anni- 
versaries of these two events of national and international importance. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Alan O. Clephane. 

From the Prince and Princess Kuni, of Japan, left their compliments 

Japanese j^ ^jjg following words: 

the plaza 

Fifth Avenue 58th to 59th Streets 

At Central Park 

New York, October 2, 1909. 
Sir. — On the eve of their departure from New York, Their Imperial High- 
nesses Prince and Princess Kuni desire me to express to you their hearty appre- 

Entertainment of Official Guests 163 

ciation of the kind attention and extreme courtesy given to them by the members 
of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission during their stay in New York. 
They carry to their home a very pleasant souvenir of the generous hospitality 
vrhich they have received at the hands of your fellow citizens. They also 
desire me to express to you their sincere wishes for the welfare and prosperity 
of New York. 

I shall be very much obliged if you will kindly take such steps as you deem 
fit to make known to the members of your Commission, and to the Governor 
and citizens of New York, this expression of their thanks in which I beg to 
join myself for the courtesy extended to me at this important occasion. 
I have the honor to be. Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 
K. Matsui, 
Chargfd' Affaires ad Interim of Japan. 

General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 

Tribune Building, New York. 

The sentiments of the special delegates from Morocco were prom the 

communicated in the following letter: Moorish 

October Sth, 1909. 

Hon. General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 

Hotel Astor, New York City: 

Honorable Sir. — On the eve of our departure we have in our hearts to 
express to you the great joy which we have had, and the gratification we have 
felt on the occasion of our presence during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. We 
are particularly gratified with the extreme consideration which we have received, 
and we interpret this all as a marked sign of esteem and respect for his Sharefian 
Majesty, The Prince of the Believers, Mulay Abdul Hafid, Sultan of Morocco, 
and we beg of you to kindly communicate these our feelings to the gentlemen 
of the Commission — Mr. Ridder, Mr. Seth Low, Mr. Seligman, Colonel 
Sackett, Dr. Hall, Mr. W. J. Moran and Prof. Sinkhovitch, who all have 
assisted you in this unparalleled celebration. 

Please believe us that we will dutifully and uprightly bring all of our good 
impressions to the Steps of the Sharefian Throne. Allow us please to ask you 
to transmit our deep gratitude for all the kindness and magnificent hospitality 
which we have received during our visit, to all the members of the Commission 
to the authorities of the City of New York, and to all the citizens of this incom- 
parable commercial and industrial commonwealth. 

164 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

From the We pray to God that He may protect and bless this country, and aid it in 
Moorish gji jjg undertakings for the benefit of everlasting progress. 

Most respectfully, 

The sentiments of the Moorish delegation were further 
expressed in the following communication: 

To THE Dear, the Wise, the Honorable ChargS d'affaires of the 
Great American Nation, Mr. Henry Robertson. 

After Compliments. 

We have received Your Excellency's letter dated Shoual ist, 1327 (October 
l6th, 1909), informing us that your Legation has received a communication, 
the text of which you have forwarded us in both languages, containing the 
expressions of thanks by the Chief of the Commission of the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration to His Shereefian Majesty, our victorious Master, for his courtesy 
in considering the matter of the invitation of your great Nation to him, and 
the sending of a Shereefian Delegation composed of notables worthy to repre- 
sent His Shereefian Majesty near your great Nation; and of His Shereefian 
Majesty's acceptance of said invitation, and of his sending a Shereefian Dele- 
gation; and requesting us to bring the contents of the above said communi- 
cation to His Shereefian Majesty's knowledge. 

We have taken note. 

We are exceedingly pleased to inform Your Excellency that we have forwarded 
a copy of the said communication containing the friendly expressions which 
strongly bind the friendship happily existing between this Holy Empire and 
your great Nation; we earnestly pray to God Almighty that the result may be 
good for all. 

In conclusion we beg Your Excellency, in our quality as His Shereefian 
Majesty's Representative, to convey to your great Nation the expression of our 
gratitude and thanks for the splendid reception and welcome accorded to the 

Entertainment of Official Guests 165 

Shereefian Delegates in the United States, as well as our thanks to those nota- 
bles who conducted the Celebration, and especially to its Honorable Chief. 

In Peace. 

Shoual 5th, 1327. October zoth, 1909. 
MoHAMED Ben Mohamed El Guebbass. 

The representative of the Netherlands Hudson-Fulton Com- From the 

mission, the Hon. S. P. van Eeghen, left an appreciative note. Nether- 

Captain Colenbrander, of the Royal Dutch Navy, wrote: 


New York Harbor, October 12th, 1909. 

My Dear Mr. Low. — On the eve of our departure from the hospitable 
waters of New York I wish to endeavor to express to you as chairman of the 
Reception Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission my 
most grateful thanks for the many and varied courtesies received at your 

We have been so lavished with hospitality and thoughtful attentions that it 
is quite impossible to allude to them all; yet I feel that I cannot depart with- 
out thanking you particularly for the automobile placed at my service during 
our stay here. The pleasure and convenience attending the use of this 
automobile have been very much appreciated, and it has certainly furnished 
a most delightful means of seeing your wonderful city. Also the book of 
taxicab coupons are a great convenience, and the identification card on 
several occasions assisted me greatly. 

In every way, I feel that you and your Committee left nothing undone to 
make our stay agreeable, comfortable, convenient and interesting. The 
prominent place assigned to the "Utrecht" and the Netherlands Navy in 
the various official functions and parades has been observed with the greatest 
pride and satisfaction, and it will be a most agreeable duty for me to allude 
to all these matters in my report to the authorities at The Hague, concerning 
the wonderful reception and entertainment received by the "Utrecht" at the 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration. This Celebration has certainly been a most 
unqualified success, and is thus more than ever typical of the brilliant success 
of the City of New York and of the men who perfected its wonderful 

In closing, my dear Mr. Low, I beg you to accept from me and in the 
name of the officers and men under my command, our most grateful and 

1 66 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

From the heartfelt thanks for the innumerable courtesies received at the hands of the 
Hetner- Reception Committee, of which you are the distinguished Chairman. 
_ , With expressions of the highest respect and esteem 

I remain, 


Captain R. D. N. 

The Netherlands Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary, Jonkheer J. Loudon, wrote: 



October 13, 1909. 
My Dear General Woodford. — Looking back upon the magnificent cele- 
bration of the last weeks I cannot refrain from again expressing to you and 
through you to the entire Hudson-Fulton Commission my heartfelt apprecia- 
tion of all that has been said and done in those days to commemorate the 
historic links between our countries and to strengthen the ties of g^iuine friend- 
ship and sympathy between our two nations. 

The most cordial hospitality and courtesy you extended to your numerous 
guests from the Netherlands and to the Commander and officers of H. M.'s 
"Utrecht" is, I can assure you, very warmly appreciated in the land from where 
the "Half Moon" sailed and I know that none of the Hollanders who enjoyed 
your hospitality will ever forget the manner in which you personally welcomed 
them on every occasion, nor the eloquent words in which you so often spoke 
of Her Majesty the Queen. 

Believe me, my dear General, with renewed thanks and with highest regards, 
Most sincerely yours, 

J. Loudon, 
General Stewart L. Woodford, Minister of the Netherlands. 

President Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

New York. 

From the Nicaragua's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 

^'*=^" tiary, Senor Dr. Don. Rodolfo Espinosa, left his compliments 
raguan . •^ ^ r 

Minister m a letter which, translated from the Spanish, reads: 

legation of NICARAGUA 

Washington, D. C. 

October 8, 1909. 
Senor President. — As Representative of the Government of Nicaragua 
I had the pleasure to assist at the festivals which the State of New York cele- 

Entertainment of Official Guests 167 

brated to commemorate the ter-centenary of the discovery of the Hudson 
river and the first centenary of the successful application of steam to maritime 
navigation by Robert Fulton. 

My country joined sincerely in the just rejoicing of the State of New York 
which was carried to an end in a manner so splendid and by means of a brilliant 
series of festivals, glorifying two great events of your history. 

I take especial pleasure in signifying to you and by your distinguished media- 
tion to the Festival Committee, all the gratitude of my Government and myself 
for the exquisite attentions of which my country was the object in the person 
of its Plenipotentiaries. 

Indelibly will remain in my mind the record of the days passed as the guest 
of the City of New York, which gave the spectacle seldom seen of a festival so 
beautiful and so meritorious which undoubtedly must have satisfied the aspira- 
tions of the honorable gentlemen who initiated it. 

I improve this opportunity to present to you the assurances of my most dis- 
tinguished consideration. 


Hon. General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 

New York City. 

Panama's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary From 

wrote : 



Washington senta- 

Mr. C. C. Arosemena, Minister of Panama, has the honor to present his '*^^^ 
respects to General Stewart L. Woodford, President of the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Commission, and begs that he will convey to the gentlemen of the 
Commission Mr. Arosemena's grateful and appreciative thanks for the very 
enjoyable week spent in New York as the guest of the Commission. 

Washington, October 3, 1909. 

Panama's Special Delegate, Senor Don Ramon M. Valdes 
wrote : 


New York The nth October, 1909, 

General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, 

New York: 
My Dear General. — It would be impossible for me to adequately express 
my heartfelt gratitude for the countless courtesies shown to me as Nationa' 

1 68 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Delegate of the Republic of Panama during my stay in New York as your 

I feel that the splendid celebration which I have been privileged to attend 
has a wider significance than the commemoration of historic events, however 
great and world-wide their importance, that it has brought the nations of the 
earth into closer communion than ever before; that it has — above all — given 
to Latin-America a better and truer understanding of the great city, the heart 
and the brains of the United States. 

I shall take very great pleasure in conveying to President Obaldia and to the 
Government of Panama the most grateful impressions I carry away from New 

Permit me to subscribe myself, my dear General, 

Your most grateful and obedient servant, 

Ramon M. Valdes. 

From the Portugal's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 


tiary, Le Vicomte d'Alte, left the following letter with his 

Minister "p. p. c." card: 




New York, October 2d, 1909. 
General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission: 

Sir. — Before leaving New York, I must thank you very cordially and, 
through you, all the members of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 
for the many courtesies extended to me during my stay here as a guest of the 

The admirable care and fore-thought evidenced in all the arrangements 
for the comfort of those attending the great celebration in that capacity, achieved 
their object to an extent never, perhaps, surpassed on any similar occasion. 

Allow me to add that the personal relations which it was my privilege to 
enjoy with you, sir, and with the other distinguished gentlemen composing 
the Commission, will ever remain one of the most pleasant memories of this 
highly successful celebration, which certainly was worthy in every respect of 
the great City and State whose birth and amazing development it was intended 
to commemorate. 

In this connection, I wish particularly to mention the name of the Honour- 
able Seth Low, Chairman of the Reception Committee, to whose kind guidance 

Entertainment of Official Guests 169 

all were so deeply indebted and that of Mr. Bradley Houghton, detailed to 
accompany me on official occasions, who displayed a courteous solicitude for 
my comfort which I very highly appreciated. 

Pray believe me. Sir, with sincere consideration. 

Your obedient servant, 


The Hon. B. Kroupensky, Charge d' Affaires of Russia, wrote : ^''o™ *^ 




October \th, 1909. 
General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission: 
My Dear General Woodford. — Having just returned to Washington 
from the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, I deem it an agreeable duty to convey 
to the Celebration Commission and more especially to you personally, as well 
as to Mr. Seth Low in his quality of Chairman of the Reception Committee, 
in behalf of myself and of Commander VassiliefF our heartiest thanks for all 
the kind attention and courteousness shown to us during these splendid fes- 
tivities. The recollection of the beautiful pageants we witnessed in New York 
last week will ever be associated in our memory with solicitous and most 
kindly consideration you gave to all our needs and comforts, and I can only 
say that my too short stay in New York on the memorable occasion of the 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration was not only full of interest, but of delightful 

Pray accept, my dear General Woodford, with my renewed thanks, the 
assurances of my highest consideration. 

B. Kroupensky, 
Charge d' Affaires of Russia. 

Salvador's Special Delegate, Senor Don Federico Mejia, From 

wrote: Salva- 




October 25, 1909. 
Sir. — It affords me great pleasure, as Special Delegate of the republic of 
Salvador, and as Minister Plenipotentiary of that nation, to express to you my 
government's sincere thanks for the courtesies extended to its representative 

170 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

in connection with the recent Hudson-Fulton Celebration, to which I beg to 
add my own personal appreciation of your bountiful and splendid hospitality. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

F. Mejia. 
General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President, Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 

New York City. 

From the The Marquis of Villalobar, Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
aii^ster *^*^^ Plenipotentiary of Spain, telegraphed from Washington 
as follows: 

Washington, D. C, Oct. 5, 1909. 
General Stewart L. Woodford, 

Waldorf Hotel, New York, N. Y. 
Pray accept and kindly convey to the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commis- 
sion my congratulations for their success, and my sincere thanks for the generous 
and hearty hospitality which I received during their magnificent celebration. 

Marquis of Villalobar, 

Minister of Spain. 

From the Sweden's Charge d' Affaires, the Hon. W. A. F. Ekengren, 
Swedish wrote: 

Charge d legation de suede 

ASaires , e \ 

(coat ot arms) 

Washington, Oct. gth, 1909. 

Sir. — Just arrived to my home in Washington, I hasten to send you these 
lines in order to let you know how highly I myself, as well as my wife, have 
appreciated the extraordinary courtesy shown us by the Hudson-Fulton Cele- 
bration Commission during the memorable days from September 25th to the 
3rd of this month. 

I have in other Countries had the pleasure of taking part in official festivities 
of the same kind, but I willingly confess that I never have witnessed anyone 
so well planned and so magnificently executed, or where the hospitality towards 
the guests has been greater. 

It has made me a great pleasure to report to the Foreign OflSce in Sweden 
all the courtesy bestowed upon us, myself as well as my wife, during our recent 
stay in New York, and I am sure that my government will highly appreciate 
the honor shown our Country in my humble person. 

Begging you. Sir, to accept for yourself, as on behalf of the Commission of 

Entertainment of Official Guests 1 7 1 

the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, our most sincere thanks for everything that was 
done to us in order to make our recent stay in New York pleasant in every way, 
I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 
W. A. F. Ekengren, 

Chargi d' Affaires of Sweden. 

Turkey's Special Delegate, His Excellency Youssouf Zia From tiie 

Pasha, left a note which, translated from the French language ^"** 
, . , . . , ^ ^ Repre- 

m which It was written, reads: senta- 

New York, ii October, 1909. **'^s 
Mr President. — Colonel Aziz Bey joins with me in expressing to you 
our thanks for the gracious reception which the Commission over which you 
have so worthily presided has given us during the fetes organized for the cele- 
bration of the Hudson-Fulton anniversaries. The memory of it which we 
have preserved will be ineffaceable. 

Be pleased to accept, Mr. President, the assurance of my most distinguished 

Youssouf Zia. 
General Stewart L. Woodford, 

President of the Hudson-Fulton Commission. 

Uruguay's Special Delegate, Senor Don Rafael J. Fosalba, From 

offered his compliments in a letter which, translated from the ™", 
r ' guay's 

Spanish, reads as follows: Repre- 


New York 

October 8, 1909. 
Mr. President of the Commission of the Festivals of the Hudson-Fulton Celf 

Hon. General Stewart L. Woodford, 

My Esteemed General. — About to return to my country, after having 
been its official representative in the brilliant festivals organized by the Com- 
mission entrusted to your prestiged presidency, I desire to discharge the pleasing 
duty of addressing to you these lines to express my most fervent sentiments of 
gratitude for the innumerable and kind attentions of which I have been the 
object on your part and that of the Commissioners in the organization of the 

172 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

I beg to add also my most profuse felicitations for the brilliancy which has 
characterized the Hudson-Fulton festivals, which have exceeded in splendor 
and magnificence all I have hitherto seen. 

I carry away the most grateful memories of the hospitality of this great 
western Metropolis and it will be to my high honor to express to my Gov- 
ernment and to the people of the Republic of Uruguay, the fraternal affection 
with which the delegates of the nations which have been represented in this 
celebration have been treated. 

I reiterate to you my thanks and my gratitude and I improve this opportunity 
to express to you the assurances of my high consideration and personal esteem. 


special Delegate of Uruguay to the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 

The Uruguayan Charge d' Affaires, Senor Albert Nin Frias, 
wrote as follows in English : 


New York 

October 8, 1909. 
Dear Sir. — I am leaving for Washington, D. C, to-day and before I 
depart I wish to express to you the pleasure I have derived in being the guest 
of the H. F. C. for so many charming days. I take the opportunity to present 
you my best compliments and thank you most heartily for the numberless 
courtesies I have received here during the Celebration. I shall take a special 
delight in reporting to my Government the splendor, beauty and high signifi- 
cance of the celebrations which have helped so much to promote peace and 
good will amongst the nations of the world. 

Believe me. Sir, most truly, 

Albert Nin Frias. 
To the President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 

From the Venezuela's Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
zu^lan "^"^y' ^^^°^ Don Pedro Ezequiel Rojas, left the following note: 



Washington, D. C. 

Pedro Ezequiel Rojas, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
of the United States of Venezuela, presents his compliments to the distinguished 

Entertainment of Official Guests 173 

General Stewart L. Woodford, and before leaving New York, wishes to pre- 
sent to him and to the Honorable Commission of the Hudson-Fulton Celebra- 
tion, his heartiest thanks for the many courtesies he received during his stay 
in this city. 
New York, October 4th, 1909. 

Rear Admiral Seaton Schroeder, U. S. N., commanding the From the 

Atlantic fleet, wrote: ^^^fj' 

can Navy 


U. S. S. Connecticut, Flagship, 
North River, New York, N. Y. 

October 8, 1909. 
My Dear Sir. — Upon the eve of the departure of the last division of the 
fleet from the festive scene of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, I hope that you 
will permit me to express to you how deeply sensible we of the Navy are of 
the great success that has attended your work of reception. Even the lavish- 
ness with which every possible vehicle of greeting has been decked would have 
failed of such perfect accomplishment had it been directed by a less skillful 
hand. I know that all the foreign guests of the City are leaving with a full 
appreciation of the welcome that has been theirs ; and I wish to assure you 
that we of the home fleet recognize a distinct refutation of the proverb that a 
prophet is not without honor save in his own country. 

Please to accept the cordial thanks of the Atlantic Fleet, and believe me. 

With great respect. 

Yours very sincerely, 

Seaton Schroeder, 
Rear Admiral, U. S. Navy, 

United States Atlantic Fleet. 
Hon. Seth Low, 

Chairman Reception Committee, Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 


Opening ' I "HE first event of the Celebration in chronological order was 
°* t-^ M. *^^ opening of the great art, historical and scientific exhi- 
bitions bitions on the morning of Saturday, September 25, 1909. 
In fact, so forehanded had been the preparations for these 
remarkable exhibitions that some of them, notably that at the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art, were actually opened several 
days in advance of the formal opening of the Celebration, 
and all of them were in perfect order and ready to receive 
the throngs of visitors when the doors and gates of the various 
institutions were thrown open on the morning of the 25th. 

These exhibitions — of which it may be said that taken 
collectively, and in some cases individually, they have never 
been paralleled — were under the direction of the Committee 
on Art and Historical Exhibits of which J. Pierpont Morgan, 
LL.D., President of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, is 
Chairman. The exhibitions were divided into two general 
groups, the art exhibits being under the immediate direction 
of the sub-committee on Art Exhibits, of which Robert W. de 
Forest, LL.D., President of the Municipal Art Commission 
of the City of New York and Secretary of the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, is Chairman, and the historical exhibits 
(including scientific) being under the direction of the sub- 
committee on Historical Exhibits, of which George F. Kunz, 
Ph.D., Sc.D., Honorary Curator of Precious Stones of the 
American Museum of Natural History, is Chairman. 

The following description of the art, historical and scientific 
exhibitions is kindly furnished by Dr. Kunz: 
Museums ^' every world's fair that has taken place in the past it has 
UtiUzed been customary to erect museum buildings for the exhibition 


Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 175 

of obiects of historical, archaeological or art significance, the Easting 

1 • • • • 11 r • • T-. • u Museum 

latter consisting principally 01 paintings. During 1907, wnen^^jy^g^ 

the project of the great Hudson-Fulton Celebration was under 
consideration, it was suggested* that it would be much better 
to utilize the twenty-five or more museums in Greater New York 
than to erect any new buildings. The plan was carefully con- 
sidered by the Commission, with the result that two committees 
were formed : one for art exhibits at the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art and the other for historical exhibits. Of the twenty- 
five museums, twenty-two took part. The total cost to the 
Commission amounted to ^22,000, the balance of the expense 
being assumed by the institutions themselves. The result 
was that the authorities of the museums, as well as those of 
the Botanical Garden and the Zoological Park, and also the 
Department of Parks, were induced to further the great exhibits 
and to make them accessible to all who were in the city or were 
likely to visit it during the three months from the end of Sep- 
tember to the end of December. 

The success was unparalleled, and as a suggestion for other 
cities, it is thought well to give a brief description of the exhibits, 
their locations, the hours of opening and the moral effect of 
these displays upon the public. Those who had charge of the 
special exhibitions of the different museums, institutions, and 
societies have kindly communicated many important details 
as to the space occupied, the number of visitors, etc. In 
several instances the museums have received immediate encour- 
agement in the form of gifts and donations. They were popu- 
larized to a greater extent than ever before, and are better under- 
stood by many thousands of citizens who had never been in 
certain ones of them before the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

The popularity of any exhibition that makes a direct appeal Force of 

to the public was shown in the case of the Tuberculosis Exhibi- * Direct 

♦ The suggestion was made by Dr. Kunz. — Editor. 

176 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

tion, held in the American Museum of Natural History, in 

December, 1908. During this month 487,107 visitors came to 

the Museum, over 400,000 more than the monthly average. 

Here public interest was easily aroused in an important, though 

painful subject, and there can be little doubt that a similar 

interest can be created in exhibitions of objects possessing 

historic or artistic value, if they are presented in the proper 

way, and if they are made popular in the best sense of the term. 

Other Since the London Exhibition of 1851 and the first Paris 

Exhi- Exposition of 1855, there have been probably one hundred 

expositions in various parts of the world. Generally they 

have been held in commemoration of some historic event or 

anniversary, and each one, large or small, has usually had some 

special distinctive feature. The great exposition at Chicago 

had its White City and its illuminations; the Buffalo Exposition 

had its architecture, its illuminations and the added advantage 

of its striking environment; and the various French expositions 

have each possessed peculiar points to mark their individuality. 

All of them have been held for six months or more, but in a 

great many cases from one-third to one-half of that time 

elapsed before all the departments were completed and opened 

to the public. In this way public interest was checked at the 

beginning, and when the exposition was finally completed, 

a good part of the allotted time had passed, and the enthusiasm 

always excited by these affairs had begun to flag. 

jfg^ New York in itself is not only the greatest exposition, per- 

York haps, in the world, because of its geographic features and its 

1, . wonderful resources, but its various lines of transit — surface 
a Great 

Exhi- cars, elevated railways and subways — facilitate the handling 

bitxon pj- great crowds. In addition to this New York lies between 

two rivers, and is as easily reached by boat as by rail, to say 

nothing of the attractive physical advantages which this location 

gives it. 

Although not so named, this Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 177 

really offered the features of a great exposition and no expo- 
sition ever organized on this continent ever possessed a greater 
variety of interest than this one when all the resources of Nevy 
York were presented and given such a brilliant and attractive 
setting. To apply the standard of monetary value may seem 
a trifle vulgar when we are treating of the triumphs of art in 
all its forms, and yet this standard merely expresses the worth 
of antiquities and artistic creations in a more exact way than by 
using superlatives of speech. A reasonable estimate of the 
value of the attractions which New York City offers to its 
visitors would be rather in excess of ^2,000,000,000 than below 
that figure, and yet, where the great expositions of the past 
have cost from ;^io,ooo,ooo to ;^20,ooo,ooo or more for their 
organization, all the treasures and beauties of New York can 
be displayed at an expense of only ^1,000,000. A single build- 
ing, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, with the objects it holds, 
would not be overvalued at from ^30,000,000 to 1^40,000,000. 

The Celebration was designed to cover a very wide field, 
and the aim of the Commission was not confined to honoring 
the explorer of the Hudson River and the man who made steam 
navigation a permanent success; in addition to this the occasion 
was utilized to illustrate and emphasize the development and 
greatness of New York City, the Metropolis of the western 
hemisphere. Those who can understand the true significance 
of this Celebration, and who are able to forecast the future, 
will see the vision of a still greater and more magnificent city, 
worthy of being called a world metropolis. 

Of the special exhibitions which were organized by the Art Metro- 
and Historical Exhibits Committee, the most important was^^^g^j^ 
the magnificent exhibition of masterpieces by Dutch painters of Art 
from the finest private collections in the United States, which 
was seen in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, at Fifth avenue 
and Eighty-second street. This exhibition was divided Into 
two sections: (i) Dutch paintings of the period of Hudson, 

178 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Metro- together with Dutch furniture and objects of art of the time; 

?° ' *° and (2) examples of the American industrial arts dating from 
Museum \ / r ^ ^ o 

of Art about 1625 to 1825, ^^^ paintings by American artists of 
Fulton's time. 

For reasons that are self-evident, it was felt that the exhibi- 
tion in the Metropolitan Museum should be purely artistic in 
character, rather than historical, and there being few works of 
art associated with the life or personality of Henry Hudson 
himself, for this part of the commemoration it was determined 
to attempt to bring together a loan collection of Dutch art of 
his time, that is, roughly speaking, the first half of the seven- 
teenth century, the period when Dutch painting was at the 
height of its development. With liberal cooperation on the 
part of private collectors it was believed that such an exhibition 
could be made worthy of the occasion, the Dutch school being 
the only one of the great schools of the past which can be said 
to be well represented among the collections of America. 
Never before had so many splendid examples of Dutch art 
been gathered together in the United States; indeed, the exhibi- 
tion as a whole has never been rivaled even in Europe. It 
was remarkable not only for what it contained, but also as an 
index of the art culture of the United States, for three large 
private collections made no contributions to the exhibition, 
and from others only a part of their wealth of examples could 
be chosen. The exhibition, which represented only a portion 
of the art treasures of the United States, was therefore a sig- 
nificant indication of the development of art taste in the United 
States. That it was possible to assemble in New York 145 
paintings of the first importance, including 34 Rembrandts* — 
a larger number of Rembrandts than exist in any permanent 
collection except that of the Hermitage in St. Petersburg — 
was a fact well calculated to excite surprise in European art 
circles. Then there were twenty portraits by Frans Hals, who 

* Less than one-half of the seventy Rembrandts in America. 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 179 

is only inferior to Rembrandt among the Dutch portraitists; Metro- 
and five specimens of the work of Vermeer van Delft, w^hose ^ ' *° 
pictures are extremely rare, there being only 30 authentic of Art 
examples extant. Besides the works of these artists there were 
fine and characteristic pictures by other artists who were 
contemporaries of Henry Hudson. The number of examples 
of each artist was as follows : Nicolaes Berchem, i ; Abraham 
van Beyeren, i; Ferdinand Bol, i; Jan van de Capelle, 2; 
Aelbert Cuyp, 11; Jan van Goyen, 3; Dirk Hals, 2; Frans 
Hals, 20; Bartolomaeus van der Heist, 2; Jan van der Heyden, 
2; Meindert Hobbema, 7; Pieter de Hooch, 5; Willem Kalf, i; 
Phihps Koninck, i; Judith Leyster, i; Nicolaes Maes, 2; 
Gabriel Metsu, 2; Aert van der Neer, 3; Adriaen van Ostade, 2; 
Isack van Ostade, 2; Paulus Potter, 2; Rembrandt Harmensz 
van Rijn, 34; Jacob van Ruisdael, 11; Salomon van Ruysdael, 
4; Jan Steen, 5; Gerard Terborch, 4; Adriaen van de Velde, i; 
Willem van de Velde, 2; Johannes Vermeer, 5; Jan Cornelisz 
Verspronck, i ; Simon de Vlieger, i ; Philip Wouwerman, 2. 

Many years will pass before an equally favorable oppor- 
tunity will be afforded for the study of Dutch pictorial art. 

The contributors to this section of the exhibition were as 
follows : 

Chicago, 111. : The Art Institute, Mr. Charles L. Hutchinson 
and Mr. Frank G. Logan. 

Montreal, Canada: Sir William van Home and Mr. James 

Newport, R. I. : Mr. Theodore M. Davis. 

New York: Mr. Thatcher M. Adams, Mr. Benjamin Altman, 
Mr. William T. Blodgett, Mr. M. C. D. Borden, Mr. Charles 
E. Bushnell, Hon. W. A. Clark, Mr. Theodore M. Davis, 
Mr. W. B. Dickerman, Hon. Robert W. de Forest, Mr. Henry 
C. Frick, Mr. Wilhelm Funk, Mr. George J. Gould, Mrs. 
H. O. Havemeyer, Mr. Ferdinand Hermann, Mr. Leon 
Hirsch, New York Historical Society, Mrs. C. P. Huntington, 

i8o The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Metro- Mrs. Morris K. Jesup, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Mr. 
Mis^um J- Pierpont Morgan, Mr. Mortimer Richard, Mr. Charles M. 
of Art Schwab, Mrs. John W. Simpson, Mr. Charles Stewart Smith, 
Mr. H. L. Terrell and Mr. W. K. Vanderbilt. 

Philadelphia, Pa.: Mrs. William L. Elkins, Mr. John G. 
Johnson, Mr. P. A. B. Widener. 

Toledo, Ohio: Mr. E. D. Libbey. 

Washington, D. C: Mrs. E. C. Hobson and Mr. W. A. 

The American section of the exhibition at the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art embraced examples of the American Indus- 
trial Arts dating from the earliest Colonial times in New 
England and New Amsterdam to 1825, and paintings by 
American artists of Fulton's time. The latter were limited to 
artists born before 1800. In the collection of these objects, 
the aim was to show by means of the most noteworthy examples 
the development of artistic expression in the more important 
handicrafts. In the exhibition of these, care was taken to 
give them the best possible chance to be seen to advantage in 
a consequential arrangement. It being the first time such an 
exhibition has been made, it was hoped that a new emphasis 
might be given to the importance of our early workmen. The 
most important group shown was the furniture. In the early 
Colonial days almost all of the furniture was brought by the 
settlers from England or from Holland. Later much of the 
household furnishing was imported, but craftsmen early began 
to ply their trades, using as models what had been brought 
out from the mother countries. 

Little seventeenth century furniture now exists, and it was 
only through the courtesy of Mr. Eugene H. BoUes, of Boston, 
who lent examples of oak chests, chests of drawers, "turned 
chairs," "wainscot chairs," etc., from his extensive and remark- 
able collection, that the Committee was enabled to make a 
noteworthy display in this direction. 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions i8i 

Previous to the beginning of the eighteenth century, oak Metro- 
was the wood most used by cabinet-makers; with the i^itro- ^^^g^^j 
duction of mahogany about 1720, a new era began. Of this of Art 
period the exhibition showed all of the variations in style worked 
out in this wood, and well-known by the names of the English 
cabinet-makers — Chippendale, Sheraton, Hepplewhite, Adam, 
etc. Of these styles the exhibition contained examples brought 
from England through the ordinary channels of trade and copies 
produced in this country. Many excellent and important 
specimens were secured through the kindness of several col- 
lectors of note, among them Mr. George S. Palmer of New 
London, Conn., Mr. Dwight Blaney and Mr. F. H. Bigelow 
of Boston. Of special interest to New Yorkers were the 
examples of furniture of Fulton's own period, made by a cabinet- 
maker of New York, Duncan Phyfe, and generously lent by 
Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. Phyfe was strongly influenced by 
the immediate followers of the French Empire style, but he 
brought to his work an individuality in his motives and an 
excellence of technique which raised him above the other 
workmen of his time and allow us with reason to claim for him 
the place of New York's great cabinet-maker. 

Accessory to the furniture were collections of American- 
made silverware, showing specimens of the handicraft of the 
comparatively speaking large body of silversmiths in New 
England and New Amsterdam and including a number of the 
very rare pieces by Paul Revere, better known as a soldier 
than a silversmith, also pewter, glass and pottery. For the 
silver the Committee was indebted chiefly to Mr. R. T. Haines 
Halsey and Mr. George S. Palmer, who placed the whole of 
their collections at the disposal of the Committee. 

As with the silver, so with the pewter, glass and pottery, 
most of which came from the collections of Mr. Alexander W. 
Drake of New York City and Mr. Edwin A. Barber of Phila- 
delphia. The arrangement brought out the story of the 

i82 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Metro- development of the industrial arts in this country before 

poUtan o 

Museum ~>' 

of Art Only a few American paintings were brought together, the 

Museum's own examples of the work of our early American artists 

being deemed sufficient to show their art, but enough pictures 

by Smybert, Copley, etc., were obtained to give additional 

character to the rooms in which the industrial arts were shown — 

enough to show the degree of the taste for the arts in the colonies 

as expressed in all its branches. 

The contributors to this section were Mrs. W. H. Adams, 

Mrs. Chester Bidwell Albree, Mr. D. Maitland Armstrong, 

Mrs. Anson P. Atterbury, Mr. Samuel P. Avery, Dr. Edwin A. 

Barber, Judge Peter T. Barlow, Mr. F. H. Bigelow, Mr. 

Dwight Blaney, Mr. H. E. Bolles, Mr. Richard Canfield, 

Mrs. Elihu Chauncey, Judge A. T. Clearwater, Mrs. George 

H. Clements, Mrs. Wilmot Townsend Cox, Mrs. Robert W. 

de Forest, Mrs. F. J. de Peyster, Mr. Alexander W. Drake, 

Mr. Herbert Dupuy, Mrs. Richard S. Ely, Mr. G. G. Ernst, 

Mr. John Erving, Mr. Sherman Evarts, Mrs. Hamilton R. 

Fairfax, Mr. William B. Osgood Field, Mr. Harry Harkness 

Flagler, Mrs. Robert Ludlow Fowler, Mr. Hollis French, Dr. 

Horace S. Fuller, Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey, Miss Nannie 

Randolph Heth, Mrs. Edward Holbrook, Mrs. William H. 

Howard, Mr. W. M. Grinnell, Mr. Ernst F. Hagen, Miss Sarah 

L. Huntington, Estate of Rev. Wm. R. Huntington, Mr. J. 

Herbert Johnson, Miss Dorothea Keep, Mr. Thomas H. 

Kelly, Dr. George F. Kunz, Mrs. Wm. Camp Lanman, Mrs. 

Abraham Lansing, Mr. Wilford R. Lawshe, Mr. Luke Vincent 

Lockwood, Mr. Robert Fulton Ludlow, Dr. L P. Lyon, Mrs. 

Pierce Macdonald, Mrs. Richard Worsam Meade, Dr. Lewis 

Morris, Miss Frances C. Morse, Miss Mulford, Mrs. Alfred 

Nelson, Mr. George S. Palmer, Mrs. Marsden J. Perry, Misses 

Philipse, Mr. F. O. Pierce, Mr. Albert Hastings Pitkin, Mrs. 

W. A. Putnam, Mr. T. M. Oakley Rhinelander, Mrs. Roger 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 183 

M. Sherman, Mr. George H. Story, Mrs. Alice Crary Sut-Metro- 
clifFe, Trinity Church Corporation, Judge Charles H. Truax, ^yggy— 
Mr. Charles M. Van Kleeck, Mrs. Wm. E. Verplanck, Wads- of Art 
worth Athenaeum, Dr. Faneuil D. Weisse, Mrs. Wm. H. 
Wentworth, Mrs. Henry Wharton and Mr. Everett P. Wheeler. 

The area devoted to the special exhibition in the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art was 9,070 square feet. It was open daily 
from September 30 to November 30, 1909, the hours being 
from 10 A. M. to 6 p. m. on week days and from i to 6 p. M. 
on Sundays; on Saturdays the building was open until 10 p. m. 
During this period 300,775 persons visited the Museum. All 
appreciative visitors, as well as the writers for the press, recog- 
nized that the exhibition possessed the very highest value for 
all students of one of the great schools of painting. When we 
bear in mind the fact that most of the visitors took advantage 
of the opportunity to view the other splendid treasures of 
various kinds brought together in the Museum, we can hardly 
err in believing that the educational result was commensurate 
with that attained by the Philadelphia Centennial, the Chicago, 
or the St. Louis expositions. 

The Museum issued a two-volume catalogue of the dual- 
exhibition — Volume I of 204 pages being devoted to the Dutch 
masters, and volume II, of 178 pages, containing the list and 
description of American paintings, furniture, silver, etc. These 
volumes were printed in two styles, one being in paper covers 
for popular sale, and one being an edition de luxe, cloth bound 
and superbly illustrated. 

We have all read of the Indians who were settled on Manhat- Amer- 
tan Island before the arrival of Henry Hudson, but few realize ]yJ^gg^n^ 
how many relics of these aborigines have been found here, of Nat- 
especially at the upper end of the island. A large and valuable li. 
collection of these relics was shown in the American Museum 
of Natural History, at Central Park West and Seventy-seventh 
street. This exhibition, which will be permanent, was opened 

184 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Ameri- September 15, a considerable part of the Plains Hall on the 
Museum gr°"i^<l floor being devoted to it. It was open on week days 
of Natural from 9 A. M. to 5 P. M.; on Sundays from i to 5 P. M. The 
IS ory general interest excited in these relics of the past was demon- 
strated by the fact that many school teachers brought entire 
classes to the Museum to see the exhibits, which were also 
made the basis for lectures delivered under the auspices of 
the Board of Education. Photographs were supplied for 
slides to serve as illustrations for these lectures. It is announced 
on behalf of Dr. H. C. Bumpus, Director of the Museum, that 
this special collection will be elaborated from time to time. 
From September 15 to October 15, the exhibition was seen by 
73,714 persons. The large increase in the number of visitors 
during the months of September, October and November, 
1909, over the number admitted in the same months of the 
previous year, testifies to the interesting character of this exhi- 
bition. The figures for these three months in 1908 are 155,433, 
and in 1909, 221,587, an increase of 76,154. There was issued 
a classic monograph by Dr. Clark Wissler describing the 
Indian relics of the time of the discovery, acquisition and 
colonization of Manhattan Island. Besides this a pamphlet 
on the same subject, entitled: "The Indians of Manhattan 
Island and Vicinity," comprising 54 pages and illustrated with 
20 figures, was prepared by Mr. Alanson Skinner, of the 
Department of Anthropology of the Museum. 
Ameri- The area covered by the exhibition in the rooms of the 
g*° ^f°Jj American Geographical Society, 15 West Eighty-first street. 
Society was about 1,572 square feet, and the very important collection 
assembled here, consisting of rare books, maps, etc., relating 
to Henry Hudson, Robert Fulton, and their times, was shown 
for thirty days, from 9 p. m. to 5 p. m. Undoubtedly a much 
larger number would have been attracted, had there not been 
some misunderstanding as to admission. The librarian, Mr. 
F. S. Dellenbaugh, states that all visitors expressed great 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 185 

appreciation, and that there was general regret that the exhibits 
could not be retained longer. A catalogue was issued, covering 
41 pages and giving a detailed description of the different 
objects, with four full-page reproductions of the title-pages of 
rare books, and a folding plate, reproducing the title-leaf of 
the 1625 edition of "Purchase His Pilgrimes." This catalogue 
may be had free on application to the librarian of the Society. 

The participation of the American Society of Mechanical Amer- 
Engineers (Engineering Building, 29 West Thirty-ninth street) sog^gty 
in the Celebration took the form of an exhibition of models of Mechan- 
the first vessels to which steam was applied for navigation, and ^^^ . 
models of the latest steamships, thus illustrating the immense neers 
changes which have taken place in one century, and enabling 
visitors to mark the difference between the early and modern 
types. Drawings and documents relating to Fulton's early 
work served as a further illustration of the means employed 
to solve the problem of steam navigation. A very interesting 
contribution to this exhibition was a portrait of Fulton by 
himself The greater part of the exhibits were placed in the 
Council Room of the Society, and about 700 square feet of 
floor space was occupied by them. According to Mr. Calvin 
W. Rice, Secretary of the Society, the number of visitors from 
the middle of September to the middle of October, during 
which time the exhibition was open from 9 a. m. to 5.30 p. m., 
was about 500. Those who came displayed great interest, 
and the names of many important people appear on the regis- 
ter. No doubt there would have been a larger number of 
visitors had the real value of the exhibits been generally known. 

At the Brooklyn Institute Museum, situated on Eastern Brooklyn 
Parkway, the special exhibition was open from 9 A. m. to^®'*'"*^ 
6 P. M. on week days, from 2 to 6 p. m. on Sundays, and on 
Thursday evenings from 7.30 to 9.30. Here were shown rep- 
resentations of the animals of Long Island and implements 
used by the Long Island Indians. These objects, which can 

1 86 The Hudson- Fulton Celebration 

Brooklyn still be seen in the Museum, are placed in two halls having 
about 2,000 square feet of floor space. During the months of 
September and October 50,000 visitors came to the Museum; 
Mr. F. A. Lucas, Curator-in-Chief of the Museum, reports 
that general interest was excited regarding the lives of Hudson 
and Fulton, and also in the history of the Hudson River Valley. 
This interest led to general reading on these subjects, and to 
a better understanding of what the work of Hudson and 
Fulton meant for the prosperity of our land. The exhibition, 
as such, ^as removed on December 15, 1909, but much of the 
material assembled will form a part of the permanent Historical 
Collection of the Museum. The exhibit in the Children's 
Museum occupied about 150 square feet. Miss Gallup states 
that it was viewed by nearly 20,000 persons, between the first 
of September ^nd the middle of December. The children who 
took part in the Celebration appeared to be much interested in 
the objects shown. 

One of the most noteworthy of the printed documents 
referring to the Revolution exhibited in the Brooklyn Institute 
was an old "Broadside" printed in New York, March 25, 
1783. This was loaned by Col. Henry T. Chapman. We are 
here given a vivid idea of the time required for the transmission 
of news in that day, for this sheet tells us that the first news 
of the signing of the preliminaries to the treaty of peace at 
Paris on January 20, 1783, reached Philadelphia, by way of 
Cadiz, Spain, on the 27th of March. 
Fraunces' Fraunces' Tavern, 54 Pearl street, under the care of the 
Tavern Sons of the Revolution, attracted daily, for the two or three 
weeks of the Celebration, as many as 150 visitors. This 
building, originally erected in 17 19, and the scene of Wash- 
ington's farewell to his officers on December 4, 1783, was 
restored in 1907 by the New York Society of the Sons of the 
Revolution. During the Celebration it was open daily, except 
Sundays, from 9 a. m. to 6 p. m. The permanent exhibition 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 187 

of Revolutionary relics, occupying one of the large rooms, was 
increased during this time by loans and donations, many of 
which still remain in the building. The objects shown here 
gained in interest from being placed in surroundings which 
recalled the past, and the impression made upon the visitors 
was correspondingly enhanced. 

The special exhibition of the City History Club, 21 West City 
Forty-fourth street, was on view through the month of October. History 
It occupied about 300 square feet of floor space and embraced 
illustrations, photographs, maps and plans relating to^the his- 
tory of the City of New York; it was seen by over 150 persons. 
Miss Frances Fuller, Secretary pro tern, of the Club, informs 
us that this exhibition served to create interest in the Historical 
Guide Book of the City of New York, published by the Club, 
and also in its other work. » 

The College of the City of New York, at St. Nicholas avenue City 
and 139th street, exhibited in the historical museum of the ° ^^'^ 
institution for several weeks during and after the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration, a collection of charts, views, manuscripts, 
and relics representing Old New York. Among these objects 
were original prints of New Netherland and New Amsterdam, 
by Nicholas J. Visscher, about 1650, and by N. Visscher, 1690; 
Letter's "New Jorck," 1720; contemporary plans and views of 
the Revolution period, showing the movements of Washington 
and Howe in this vicinity during the campaign of 1776; Revo- 
lutionary battle relics; portraits, pictures of residences and 
letters of old New Yorkers; bronze busts of Washington, 
Lincoln and Fulton by Houdon and Volk; and other material 
suggested by the Celebration. 

It need scarcely surprise us that when so much was to be Long 
seen and such manifold claims were made upon the attention g!*°* 
of both strangers and residents, the modest but interesting ical 
exhibition of the Long Island Historical Society, corner of^°"^*y 
Pierrepont and Clinton streets, Brooklyn, should have been 

1 88 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

comparatively neglected; nevertheless, the librarian, Miss 
Emma Toedteberg, announces that a limited number of 
appreciative visitors, about 50, were attracted. The exhibition 
was open daily, except Sundays, from 8.30 a. m. to 6 p. m., 
the most interesting object being an original manuscript 
volume of Danker's and Sluyter's " Journal of a Voyage to New 
York in 1679-80." 
Rational fhe building of the National Arts Club is situated on Twen- 

Arts . . 

Clui, tieth street facing Gramercy Park, and was formerly the resi- 
dence of Governor Samuel J. Tilden. Here was given an exhi- 
bition of pictures and historical objects covering the history of 
''Three Centuries of New York" under the joint auspices of the 
National Arts Club and the American Scenic and Historic Pres- 
ervation Society. Mr. Frederick S. Lamb and Mr. Reginald P. 
Bolton were the Chairmen of the Committees of the respective 
organizations. The galleries devoted to this were about 138 
feet long and 28 feet wide, having an area of nearly 3,900 square 
feet. The exhibition, which was open daily for six weeks, 
between the hours of 10 a. m. and 6 p. M., was visited by at 
least 10,000 persons. It consisted of paintings, photographs, 
drawings and other interesting material, illustrating the growth 
and progress of New York from the time of Henry Hudson to 
the present day. The chairman of the Art Committee of the 
Club, Mr. Frederick S. Lamb, writes that this unique exhi- 
bition was greatly appreciated, being pronounced by many to 
be the most noteworthy of its kind ever held. By the kind 
permission of the owners photographic slides of many rare 
prints were taken, to be used for educational purposes. 
N. Y. In the rooms of the New York Genealogical and Biographical 

toricid" '^"^'^ty' 226 West Fifty-eighth street, between Broadway and 
and Bio- Seventh avenue, there was a special exhibition of old deeds, 
l^*?'^'*^** manuscripts, books, portraits, etc., relating to the history of 
the United States, up to and including the War of 1812. It was 
open daily, except Sundays, from 10 a. m. to 5 p. M., and con- 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 189 

tinued from the latter part of September to the first of Novem- 
ber. A catalogue was issued containing descriptions of the 
various objects of interest. 

The exhibition in the building of the New York Historical New 
Society, 170 Central Park West, was the official Fulton exhibi- g°^j^^_ 
tion of the Celebration. It was open from September 27 toical 
October 30, 1909, including Sundays, from 9 A. M. to 5 P. M., Society 
and was shown in the Henry Dexter Hall, occupying an extent 
of nearly 3,000 square feet. The number of visitors was 2,036. 
The catalogue of this exhibition, which was undertaken in 
cooperation with the Colonial Dames of New York, forms an 
octavo of 60 pages, embracing 354 items, and embelHshed with 
a handsome colored plate of the fine portrait of Robert Fulton 
by Thomas Sully. A special feature of the exhibition was the 
collection of portraits of Robert Fulton and of portraits, minia- 
tures, manuscripts and other objects of historical interest 
relating to his life and times. The grouping together of so 
many objects illustrating the individuality and career of this 
distinguished man, served to impress those who saw them 
with his historic significance, and for this result we are greatly 
indebted to the efforts of Mr. Samuel Verplanck Hoffman, the 
President of the Society. 

The portrait of Fulton by Benjamin West, shown in the 
Historical Society's exhibit, is justly regarded as one of the 
best works of our American painter, who became president of 
the Royal Academy in London. Fulton himself was an artist 
of considerable ability, and pursued his art studies in London 
under West's direction. Among his works is a most interesting 
portrait of himself, which was shown in the exhibition of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Although this does 
not equal West's portrait in artistic merit, like other attempts of 
artists to portray their own features it gives us something not 
to be found in other portraits, namely, the idea, or perhaps we 
should rather say the ideal, the artist has formed of himself. 

I go The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

New The special exhibition in the Lenox Branch of the New York 

°y. Public Library was open during the months of September, 

Library October and November, 1909, daily, except Sundays, from 
9 A. M. to 6 p. M., and occupied 3,612 square feet of space. 
The number of visitors was about 5,000. Dr. John S. Billings, 
Director of the New York Public Library, writes that the 
great interest aroused by the exhibits has been since shown 
by the numerous inquiries in regard to single pieces or general 
groups displayed at that time; and the management has done 
everything possible to satisfy those interested in the matter. 
The material is always accessible for reference and can easily 
be traced by consulting the catalogue of 86 pages issued for 
this occasion, and entitled: "List of the Prints, Books, Manu- 
scripts, etc., relating to Henry Hudson, the Hudson River, 
Robert Fulton, and Steam Navigation." This gives, in 745 
entries, a description of the material shown in the exhibition. 

The The special exhibition in the Aquarium Building, in Battery 

Aqua- Park, was open for fifteen days, from September 25 to October 
9, inclusive; and during this time the building was open daily, 
including Sundays, from 9 A. M. to 5 p. M. The Director, 
Mr. C. H. Townsend, states that there were 369,887 visitors, 
a daily average of 24,659. On September 26 the number of 
persons admitted to the building was 64,795, ^^e greatest 
number that ever entered the Aquarium in a single day. It 
was quite evident that the visitors, who filled the house to the 
doors all through the day, fully appreciated the interest and 
importance of this display of our native fish. A special effort 
was made before the Celebration began to fill the tanks and 
pools with the greatest number and variety of aquatic forms 
ever crowded into the tanks. Those containing the various 
species present in the Hudson River at the time of its discovery 
by Henry Hudson were marked by cards in the colors of the 
Hudson-Fulton flag. During the Celebration eleven Hudson- 
Fulton flags were displayed on the roof of the building, which 


Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 191 

possesses in itself considerable historic interest. Erected in 

1807 by the United States Government as a fort, it was, after 

the War of 1 812, called Fort Clinton; later, as Castle Garden, 

it was the scene of Jenny Lind's triumphs. From 1855 to 

1890 it served as the portal to the New World for 7,690,606 


It is estimated that about 150,000 visitors profited by the New 

exhibition in the New York Botanical Garden, in Bronx Park, ^°'^ . . 

SO ably managed by the Director, Dr. Nathaniel E. Britton. Garden 

This continued from the first of September to the middle of 
December, and extended over 200 acres. The museums were 
open daily, including Sundays, from 10 a. m. to 5 p. m., and 
the conservatories from 10 a. m. to 4 p. m.; the grounds were 
always open. In the grounds and conservatories were exhibits 
of plants, shrubs, trees and natural woodland; in the museums 
were shown plant-products utilized in the arts, sciences and 
industries. All trees growing on Manhattan Island and in the 
Hudson River Valley at the time of Hudson's arrival were 
marked with the letter H. The effect of this exhibition upon 
the visitors was to arouse their curiosity as to the character- 
istics of our native trees, and many purchased the special 
descriptive list of the native trees of the Hudson River Valley, 
by Mr. Norman Taylor, prepared for use during the Celebra- 
tion, and included in the reprint of Bulletin 29 of the New 
York Botanical Garden. This also comprises a descriptive 
guide to the grounds and collections, and forms an octavo of 
166 pages, with 40 plates, many of which represent typical 
specimens of various species of trees. 

The tree labels placed on the trees in many parks of Brook- Public 
lyn and Queens boroughs by the Department of Parks have^"'^^ 
served, in the opinion of the Arboriculturist, Mr. J. J. Levison, 
to disseminate among millions of people a knowledge of their 
native trees, and in this way an appreciation of the arboreal 
wealth of our land has been fostered. An additional small 

192 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

enameled sign was hung on those labeled trees that were indig- 
enous to the Hudson River Valley in 1609. This special label 
read: "This species is a native of the Hudson River Valley." 
It requires an occasion like this to bring about such a good 
result; and as the labels will be left on the trees for a year, the 
educational effect will be still more widespread. Mr. Levison 
believes that similar work in other localities may have been 
stimulated, and states that the school teachers and other 
visitors made their appreciation noticeable by their remarks. 
New The various species of birds and mammals native to Man- 

^°''^ hattan Island and its immediate neighborhood, to be seen in 

Zoolog- . ° 

icai the New York Zoological Park, were scattered through the 

Park northwestern quarters of the Park, which was open daily, 
including Sundays, from 9 A. m. until an hour before sunset. 
From September 25 to October 9 the number of visitors was 
76,036; and the Director, Dr. William T. Hornaday, remarks 
as a noteworthy fact that a relatively small proportion of these 
were residents of this city. The greater number of the birds 
and mammals were to be seen in the Small Mammal House, 
the Large Bird House, and the Aquatic Bird House, where 
150 species of mammals and birds were prominently indicated 
to visitors. Some of the reptiles in the Reptile House were 
also indicated, as was the American bison, for this species 
inhabited the southwestern part of New York State at the 
time of Hudson's coming. The special guide-book, written by 
Dr. Hornaday, consists of 46 pages and contains 71 illustra- 
tions. It is entitled: "The Wild Animals of Hudson's Day 
and the Zoological Park of our Day," and embraces a general 
view of the scope and character of zoological parks in our time. 
Dr. Hornaday believes that we can scarcely overestimate the 
moral effect of the diversion created by the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration from the consideration of the material things of 
to-day to the interesting facts of history; for, in the pursuit of 
wealth and pleasure, the lessons of history are apt to be neg- 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 193 

lected and forgotten. Thus, "any influence which causes the 
on-rushing multitude of the City and State of New York to 
pause and look backward upon the great events of the Past, 
exercises a wholesome and beneficent influence upon the 

The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of the City of New Re- 
York made an exhibition of relics connected with the long p^^^jj 
history of the Church, which was founded in 1628 and repre- Church 
sents the earliest religious organization in New York. These 
objects were shown in the Chapel of St. Nicholas, corner of 
Fifth avenue and Forty-eighth street, and the exhibition was 
open to the public from 9 A. M. to 5 p. M. daily, during the period 
of the Celebration. 

In Richmond Borough, a collection of Indian implements, staten 
weapons, etc., from various parts of Staten Island, was shown island 
by the Staten Island Association of Arts and Sciences, in the 
Borough Hall, New Brighton, Staten Island. It was open 
every afternoon from i to 5 p. M., except Sundays, Mondays 
and holidays; on Saturdays it was open from 10 a. m. to 5 p. m- 
The Curator-in-Chifcf, Mr. Charles Louis Pollard, reports that 
the extent covered was 1,875 square feet and that there were 
1,511 visitors from September 4 to November i, the duration 
of the exhibition. In view of the small population of the bor- 
ough, this signified that the interest in the subject illustrated 
was quite general. The educational value of this exhibition 
was especially marked in the case of many children, too poor 
to make the trip to New York, since, by means of the models 
in the collections, they were shown how the Indians built their 
wigwams, what kind of furniture was used by the Dutch 
settlers, and what were the distinctive features of their houses. 
The collection of Indian relics remains as a permanent exhibit 
and the model of the Billopp House will be set up again and 
put on view later. A brief but satisfactory notice of the objects 
shown was issued as Bulletin No. 14 of the Museum. 

194 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Van The special exhibition in the Van Cortlandt House, in Van 

. °'*' Cortlandt Park, lasted from June until November, and attracted 
House as many as 3,000 persons in a single day. It was open daily 
from 9 A. M. to 5 p. M. This fine Colonial mansion, built in 
1748, and containing furniture of the period, is one of the 
oldest houses within the area of Greater New York. The 
exhibition was under the patronage of the Colonial Dames of 
the State of New York, who are custodians of the building, 
and Mrs. Alice Greenough Townsend, Recording Secretary 
of the Society, notes that the Colonial Dames contributed 
thirteen of the portraits loaned to the Metropolitan Museum for 
their splendid collection; one of these, that of Lady Scott by 
Blackburn, was given the place of honor in the illustrated 
catalogue. Many fine specimens of Colonial silver were also 
loaned to the Museum by members of the Society. In the 
Van Cortlandt House were shown Wedgwood medallion por- 
traits and mezzotints of illustrious personages who lived prior 
to the Revolution ; cartoons and caricatures of political events, 
etc. This old house with its Colonial furnishings, gave to those 
who came here a better idea of the surroundings in which the 
founders of our country lived, moved and had their being, 
than could be acquired by long study of printed records. There 
have been nearly 300,000 visitors during the past year. 
Wash- During the month of October, it is estimated that about 

ington s ^,600 persons visited Washington's Headquarters, the old Jumel 
quarters Mansion, situated in Roger Morris Park, Edgecomb Road and 
1626. street, and erected about 1763. This building is in the 
custody of the Washington Headquarters Association, under 
the Department of Parks, and was open to the public daily, 
including Sundays, from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m. As no special 
exhibition had been arranged, the collection embraced only 
those objects always to be seen in the building, special features 
of which are the specimens of Colonial furnishings, pictures, 
etc., and also the Bolton Collection of war relics of the Revo- 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 195 

lution. Here, as in the other old houses of Colonial times, the 
atmosphere of the past exercises its subtile charm, and helped 
to conjure up a picture of the home life of long ago. i 

The various exhibitions aroused in the minds of the beholders 
a more lively understanding of the history and development 
of our city, and while delighting the eye, conveyed an important 
lesson in the very best and most effective way — that is, uncon- 
sciously. A population like ours is greatly in need of some 
powerful stimulation of this kind to weld together all of its 
heterogenous elements. 

Following is a summary of special Hudson-Fulton exhibitions Sum 
in the City of New York : 


American Geographical Society 

American Museum of Natural History 

American Society Mechanical Engineers 

Brooklyn Institute Arts and Sciences 

Brooklyn Institute, Children's Museum 

City History Club 

College of the City of New York 

Fraunces' Tavern 

Long Island Historical Society 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 

National Arts Club 

New York Aquarium , 

New York Botanical Garden 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 

New York Historical Society 

New York Public Library, Lenox Branch 

New York Zoological Park 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church 

Staten Island Association Arts and Sciences 

Van Cortlandt House 

Washington's Headquarters 


About 30 days.. 


Sept. 15-Oct. . 
Sept. 15-Oct. II 
Sept. and Oct., 
Sept. i-Dec. 15. 


Sept. 2J-Oct. 9 

2 or 3 weeks . . 

3 months 

Sept. 30-Nov. 

6 months 

Sept. 26-Oct. 9 . 
Sept. i-Dec. 15. 
Sept. 30-Nov. 1 
Sept. 27-Oct. 30 , 
Sept., Oct., Nov. 
Sept. 25-Oct. 9 

6 days 

Sept. 4-N0V. I . 















50 acres 

50 acres 



maxy of 
























* 3,000 in one day, nearly 300,000 for the year. 

■f Not including Botanical Garden and Zoological Park. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

List of Following is a bibliography of the publications issued in 

cati n connection with the art, historical and scientific exhibitions 
held under the auspices of the Commission: 

Calendar of Events of the Celebration. Revised to September 14, 1909. Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Commission, New York, 1909. 8vo. 32 pp. 

Catalogue of the Historical Collection and Objects of Related Interest at the Children's Museum, 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. Hudson-Fulton Celebration Number; prepared by 
Agnes £. Bowen. 8vo. 88 pp , 8 plates. 

Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. Dedications: September 25 to October 9, 1909. 
Programs and Historical Sketches compiled and pubUshed by the Committee on Dedications, for 
use of Societies and Organizations dedicating Memorials under the Auspices of the Hudson-Fulton 
Celebration Commission. 8vo. 64 pp., Z2 plates. 

Descriptive Guide to the Grounds, Buildings and Collections, New York Botanical Garden, 
Bronx Park; Native Trees of the Hudson River Valley. Reprinted from Bulletin No. 23, N. Y. 
Botanical Garden, with index added. Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, New York, 1909. 
8vo. 171 pp., 39 plates. 

Hudson-Fulton Celebration, 1609-1807-1909. A Brochure for use of schools, compiled and 
edited by Harlan Hoyt Homer. N. Y. State Education Dept., Albany, 1909. 8vo. 64 pp., 
33 plates. 

Hudson and Fulton. A Brief History of Henry Hudson and Robert Fulton, with Suggestions 
Designed to Aid the Holding of General Commemorative Exercises and Children's Festivals 
During the Hudson-Fulton Celebration in 1909. Edward Hagaman Hall, L.H.M., L.H.D. 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, New York, 1909. 8vo. 74 pp., 4 plates. 

The Hudson-Fulton Celebration. Catalogue of an exhibition held in the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art commemorative of the ter-centenary of the discovery of the Hudson River by Henry Hudson 
in the year 1609, and the centenary of the first use of steam in the navigation of said river by Robert 
Fulton in the year 1807. . . New York, September to November, MCMIX. New York, 1909. 
2 v., 24I cm. Contents. — V. I : Catalogue of a collection of paintings by Dutch masters of the 
seventeenth century, by W. R. Valentiner. V. 2: Catalogue of an exhibition of American paint- 
ings, furniture, silver and other objects of art, MDCXXV-MDCCCXXV, by Henry Watson Kent 
and Florence N. Levy. 

The Hudson-Fulton Celebration. Catalogue of an exhibition held in the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art commemorative of the ter-centenary of the discovery of the Hudson River by Henry Hudson 
in the year 1609, and the centenary of the first use of steam in the navigation of said river by Robert 
Fulton in the year 1807. . . . New York, September to November, MCMIX. New York, 1909. 
2 v., plates, ports., 28| cm. $5 Contents. — V. i: Catalogue of a collection of paintings by 
Dutch masters of the seventeenth century, by W. R. Valentiner. V. 2: Catalogue of an exhibition 
of American paintings, furniture, silver and other objects of art, MDCXXV-MDCCCXXV, by 
Henry Watson Kent and Florence N. Levy. 

Catalogue of a Loan Exhibition of Paintings by Old Dutch Masters held at the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art in connection with the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, September-November, 
MCMIX, by Wilhelm R. Valentiner, Curator of Decorative Arts. Published by the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, New York, MCMX. V. i, 35J cm. This is an edition de luxe of the Catalogue 
of the Dutch Paintings in the Hudson-Fulton Exhibition, printed on Italian hand-made paper, 
and with one hundred and fifty photogravure illustrations. It is sold only by subscription at the 
Museum, and will be issued in the autumn of 1910. 

Indians of Manhattan Island and Vicinity; A Guide to the Special Exhibition at the American 

Art, Historical and Scientific Exhibitions 197 

Museum of Natural History. Prepared for the Hudson-Fultoa Celebration Commission by the List of 
Museum. 8to. 6o pp., 20 plates. Publica- 

List of Museums, Institutions, and Societies which have prepared Free Exhibitions relating to tions 
Henry Hudson, Robert Fulton and the History of Steam Navigation. Prepared by the Committee 
on Science, History and Art of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, New York, 1909. 
8vo. 8 pp. 

List of Prints, Books, Manuscripts, Etc., relating to Henry Hudson, the Hudson River, Robert 
Fulton and Steam Navigation, Exhibited in the Lenox Branch, N. Y. Public Library, on the occa- 
sion of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. New York, 1909. 8vo. 86 pp., i plate- 
Official Robert Fulton Exhibition of the Hudson-Fulton Commission. The N. Y. Histor cal 
Society in cooperation with the Colonial Dames of America New York, 1909. 8vo. 66 pp , 
I plate. 

Valley of the Hudson in the Days of the Revolution. By Grace M. Pierce, Historian of the 
State of New York Daughters of the American Revolution. Published under the Auspices of the 
Hudson Fulton Celebration Committee's Daughters of the American Revolution. 1909. 8vo. 

38 PP- 

Wild Animals of Hudson's Day and the Zoological Park of Our Day. By William T. Homaday, 
ScD. Fubhshed by the Hudson-Fulton Commission in cooperation with the N. Y. Zoological 
Society. 8vo. 47 pp., 71 plates. 



THE outdoor ceremonies of the Celebration began with the 
inaugural naval parade on Saturday, September 25, 

Before describing the parade itself, and in order that some 

idea may be had of the diverse responsibilities and great labors 
of the Naval Parade Committee, it is necessary briefly to review 
the work of that Committee. The first Chairman of the Com- 
mittee was the late Rear Admiral Joseph B. Coghlan, U. S. N., 
with Captain Jacob W. Miller as Vice Chairman. Upon 
Admiral Coghlan's death December 5, 1908, Captain Miller 
succeeded to the Chairmanship and upon him devolved the 
principal labor of working out the details of great naval parades. 

Report of In his final report to the President of the Commission, dated 

Parade December 7, 1909, Captain Miller says: 

Com- "It is interesting to note that at the first meeting of the 

™* ^* Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee held on December 16, 
1905, three distinct aims were advocated as worthy of serious 
attention : 

"First, that a permanent memorial should remain after the 
Celebration ; 

"Second, that a naval parade should be one of the prominent 
features; and 

" Third, that the keynote of the festivities should be marine 
in its nature. 

"The evolution of the Commission has been generally along 
these lines, although it still seems doubtful if suflRcient per- 
manent memorials worthy of the anniversaries are assured. 
Beginning with the sole object of doing honor to Hudson, 

our horizon was enlarged, and through successive municipal, 


Inaugural Naval Parade 199 

state and indirect governmental supervision, resulted in a Report of 
Celebration of international importance. Parade 

"This broadening development naturally left its impress Commit- 
upon your Committee. Starting as a body with jurisdiction ^® 
over one day's parade, its duties were enlarged to include all 
those upon the water; the responsibility of building the 
Clermont, and the official pier. As time went on, its 
breadth of activity embraced correspondence and arrangements 
with our own and foreign fleets; their anchorage sites; the 
entertainment of their crews; the placing of buoys from New 
York to Newburgh; the building of suitable floats as landing 
places; the policing, hospital protection, and management of 
those floats; the securing of free transportation through Greater 
New York for our naval guests, and many other minor but 
important marine duties. " 

Referring to the first idea above mentioned, namely, that a 
permanent memorial should remain after the Celebration, 
Capt. Miller says: 

"Through the untiring efforts of another committee, a 
monument to Hudson is assured; but the Commission, acting 
as such, has not made certain that a proper memorial of Fulton 
be built. It has, however, endeavored to restrict a spot upon 
the water-front which should be dedicated to his memory. " 

The report then recalls the facts attending the union of the 
Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Committee and the Fulton Cen- 
tennial Celebration Committee; and also the unavailing efforts 
to secure cooperation between the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission and the Robert Fulton Monument Association, 
which are more fully described in Chapter I. It then continues: 

"From that date your Committee has ever been of the Water 
opinion that the shoals within the pier-head line, along River- ^*'* 
side Drive, should be devoted to the uses proposed by Mr. 
Vanderbilt's Association, Columbia University, the Naval 
Mihtia of the State, and various other marine interests, which 

20O The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Water since the Spanish-American War have been active in that 
^ * good cause. This Committee, as well as they, have always 
appreciated the advisability of segregating, at that locality, 
a proper landing place for our own and foreign navies, sur- 
rounded by other marine, educational and public structures, 
all planned on a comprehensive and artistic scale; to be built 
as money could be provided by the city. State or private sub- 
scriptions — in short, to retain the Hudson shore between 
97th and 129th streets for the benefit of the Navy, the State, 
the city and the people, at a point where all could ever have 
access to the river. 

"With that general end in view, and in order to give an 
object lesson of the possibilities of the neighborhood, your 
Committee obtained permission to build a temporary reviewing 
stand and landing place at ii6th street, but objection having 
been made by the Department of Parks, it was subsequently 
placed at iioth street. Lack of funds prevented us from 
carrying out in full the artistic designs of the Committee's 
architects, Messrs. Henry Hornbostel and J. Otis Post, although 
the structure has been justly admired. It served the purpose 
for which it was erected, and proved its capability for landing 
over 6,000 men from the United States Atlantic Fleet on the 
morning of Thursday, September 30th, a feat which otherwise 
could not have been accomplished. Even it, however, was 
inadequate to give proper accommodations to the 32,000 
officers and men afloat on the warships between September 
24th and October 9th; therefore eighteen other stations. 
Including floats, telegraph, telephone and express oflSces, were 
constructed. The temporary water-front accommodations rep- 
resented an expense of over $70,000, an amount which would 
go far toward erecting durable buildings. Economy, as well as 
civic pride, are both forceful arguments why all should unite 
in urging the need of permanent facilities, where visiting 
foreign marine guests can be received with dignity by the 

Inaugural Naval Parade 201 

municipal authorities. I, therefore, refer again to the fact 
that one of the original ideas of this Commission was to leave 
a definite impress of its existence upon New York, and no 
better one can be advocated than the improvement of the flats 
off Riverside Drive, opposite the point where the navies anchor, 
and where Nature lends itself so easily to artistic improvement, 
on the river discovered by Hudson, and rendered further 
famous by Fulton." 

Referring to the idea of naval parades as a prominent feature Two 
of the Celebration, Capt. Miller says: Parades 

" As above stated, it was the original intention in December, 
1905, to have one naval parade from New York to New- 
burgh and return, as a convoy to the Half Moon and Cler- 
mont. Subsequently on March 24, 1909, it was finally 
determined to initiate the Celebration on Saturday, September 
25th, with a water pageant in New York Harbor. The reasons 
for this were twofold : 

"First. That the keynote of the Celebration being maritime, 
the first day should be devoted to a proper reception of the 
Half Moon and Clermont and the visiting men-of-war. 

" Second. That the different speeds and types of vessels pre- 
vented a proper spectacular trip over a route as long as that 
from New York to Newburgh; and that the effect at New- 
burgh — the spot where the Lower Hudson Committee was 
to turn over the Half Moon and Clermont to the Upper 
Hudson Committee — would be heightened by arranging 
to have all the different subdivisions of the fleet arrive 
there at a given time on October ist. I have to thank the 
gentlemen of Newburgh for their loyal cooperation with this 
Committee during the long correspondence, and the arrange- 
ments of executive detail, which resulted in the great success 
of the pageant from New York to that city." 

Concerning the building of the Clermont, Capt. Miller's 
report says: 

202 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Building "During the spring of 1908, Rear Admiral J. B. Coghlan, 
^j ^ U. S. N., as Chairman of the Naval Parade Committee, began 
mont correspondence with Mr. Robert Fulton Ludlow, with a view 
of obtaining data concerning the original Clermont, and 
on October 14th of that year he made a report to the Trustees 
regarding the progress of his investigations. He continued 
with much energy his laudable efforts until his death, which 
occurred on December 5, 1908. On December 23d the Com- 
mission passed a resolution eulogistic of this distinguished 
and much beloved officer. At a meeting on December 23d 
it was decided that the Clermont should be built as an 
exact reproduction of the original vessel, and with steam 
power. On January 27, 1909, the cost of building the Cler- 
mont was estimated at ;?40,ooo; but having been elected 
on May 5, 1909, Chairman of the Naval Parade Committee, I 
sent out bids, and was enabled to close the contract for the 
building of the vessel with the Staten Island Shipbuilding 
Company for $i4.,i^o. The Clermont was finally completed, 
including all expenses and extras, at a cost of ^15,865.15." 

The report gives certain details concerning the building of 
the Clermont which are more fully given in Chapter VIII, and 
then continues as follows: 
Coopera- "It is impossible within the limits of a report such as this 
Ackno 1-*° S^^^ details of all the work accomplished. It embraced 
edged cooperation with the yacht clubs, Naval Militia, Reception 
Committee, and many other organizations and individuals, and 
a long correspondence with the Rear Admiral commanding 
the United States Atlantic Fleet, in which I was ably assisted 
by Captain Harry George, U. S. N., Retired, who volunteered to 
take up this important work. The Naval Reserve Association, 
under the leadership of Mr. J. P. O'Shea, relieved this Commit- 
tee of all details in obtaining the Hippodrome for the entertain- 
ment of the men-of-warsmen on September 27th. The perform- 
ance was attended by over 5,000 men from the visiting ships. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 203 

"The generosity of Columbia University in providing its 
grounds for the Garden Party, and for the entertainment to 
the sailors on Saturday, October 2d, should not be forgotten. 

" The civic pride of the transportation companies of the city 
of New York v?hich furnished free passes to the officers and 
men of our own and foreign navies should always be held in 
remembrance. The cooperation of Mr. A. N. Spooner, 
Commissioner of the Department of Docks and Ferries, in all 
matters pertaining to the establishment of landing places, was 
the subject of a special letter to him from the Commanding 
Officer of the United States Atlantic Fleet. To those gentle- 
men who kindly loaned their vessels for patrol, scout and 
escort duty, thanks are rendered. 

"As the date of the Celebration approached, the labors of 
the Committee, Staff, Aids, Flag Officers, and Chiefs-of- 
Divisions became excessive. They sacrificed their personal 
business to the public service, and I have to thank them all 
for duty well and loyally performed. 

" To the officers and men of the Navy and Naval Militia — 
to both of which Services I have had the honor to belong — 
I desire to express my great appreciation of their cordial 
cooperation during the Celebration. 

" Finally, for the benefit of similar ceremonies, experience Lessons 
has proved that, in future water parades of large extent, more !^°™ . 
attention should be given to the comparative steam power of ence 
vessels; that nothing below nine knots should be allowed in 
the formation, and that yachts should be placed ahead of the 
steamboat squadron. 

"In public functions of the magnitude of the recent Cele- 
bration, the arrangement of many important details are often 
left to the last moment. This was especially noticeable at the 
reviewing stand at iioth street, where on Saturday, September 
25th, certain of our distinguished guests were submitted to 
much inconvenience on account of not having tickets for 

204 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

numbered seats. No hospitality is more appreciated at a 
public gathering than a ticket entitling a person to a definite 
Remark- In order to understand the magnificence of the naval cere- 
Fleet monies on the Hudson River and in New York Harbor on 
and Saturday, September 25, it should be stated first, that for 
Crowds several days prior to the 25th vessels of the United States 
Navy and of foreign governments had been steaming into the 
harbor and anchoring in the river, at a distance of about 400 
yards from bow to bow, until on the morning of the 25th there 
was a column of war ships ten miles long, reaching from 42d 
street to Spuyten Duyvil Creek. This is believed to have 
been, with one exception, the largest modern war fleet numer- 
ically ever assembled, and the largest fleet of war vessels of 
diff^erent nations without exception ever gathered in one place. 
Early in the day, spectators began to assemble on both banks 
of the Hudson River, the greatest numbers being massed from 
72d street northward. The sloping banks of Riverside Park, 
from 72d street to the Claremont Viaduct, presented a natural 
amphitheater unequalled in the world for beholding a spec- 
tacle such as was to be presented, and it is doubtful if ever 
such a mass of humanity was ever gathered together in one 
place as was assembled in Riverside Park. The estimates of 
the number of spectators between 72d street and 130th street 
ranged from 750,000 to 1,000,000; but, while this probably 
represented the majority of spectators, it did not by any means 
represent the whole number of those who occupied coigns of 
vantage in office buildings, on roof-tops, on piers, streets, 
lawns, parks, and the heights of the Palisades, from the Battery 
to Spuyten Duyvil on one side of the river, and from Jersey 
City to Fort Lee on the other. If the parade itself was memor- 
able, the vast multitude of spectators who witnessed it was 
equally so. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 205 

The vessels participating in the parade were divided into Siun- 
1 p 11 mary of 

squadrons as follows : ^^^^^1^ j^ 


Scout Squadron 8 

Escort Squadron: 

Naval Militia vessels, State of New York 2 

Torpedo boats 8 

Submarines. 6 

Half Moon i 

Clermont i 

Dalzell, tender i 

Dalzelline, tender i 

Government vessels 8 


Patrol Squadron 9 

Police and Public Safety Squadron 1 

First Squadron (steamboats and ferryboats) 108 

Second Squadron (steam yachts) 77 

Third Squadron (motor boats) 193 

Fourth Squadron (tugs and steam lighters) 318 

Number of vessels in moving parade 74^ 

Fifth Squadron (anchored vessels) 800 

Number of vessels under authority of Naval Parade Committee >>54* 

United States men-of-war and colliers 31 

Foreign vessels: 

England 4 

Germany 4 

France 3 

Italy 2 

Netherlands i 

Argentine Republic i 

Mexico I 


Invited vessels: 

U. S. S. Mayflower i 

U. S. Training Ship Newport i 

U. S. S. Portsmouth, Naval Militia New Jersey i 

U. S. S. Elfreda, Naval Militia, Connecticut i 

S. S. New Amsterdam, Holland-America Line i 

S. S. Roosevelt (Peary's Arctic vessel) i 


Total number of vessels participating in parade i>595 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

sition of ^1 1 
Naval th« parade: 


Following is a roster of the organization and formation of 

Naval Constructor, William J. 

£mil L. Boas 

General Howard Carroll. 

Capt. Robert S. Clark. 

Frederick Coykendall. 

Frederick B. Dalzell. 

Com. William Butler Duncan, 

John M. Emery. 

Charles E. Heitman. 

August F. Jaccaci. 

Henry L. Joyce. 

Carl W. Jungen. 

Dr. George F. Kunz. 

Hon. WilUam Loeb, Jr 

William J. McKay. 

Samuel W. Fairchild. 
Senior Captain O. C. Hamlet, 
Henry Hornbostel. 
Lieutenant L. M. Josephthal. 
Commander A. £. Kalbach. 

Captain Jacob W. Miller, Chairman. 
Baxter, U. S. N. 


Rear Admiral George W. Melville, U S. N. 

Captain J. B. Murdock, U. S. N. 

Eugene F. Moran. 

Capt. Henry O. Nickerson. 

Charles R. Norman. 

Commander R. E. Peary. 

Walter B. Pollock. 

Louis T. Romaine. 

Brigadier-General George Moore Smith. 

Hon. Henry Smith. 

Hon. Allen N. Spooner. 

Col. Robert M. Thompson. 

Lieutenant-Commander Aaron Vanderbilt. 

Captain Aaron Ward, U. S. N. 

Aides to Committee 

George C. Palmer. 
U. S. R. C. S. J. Otis Post. 

Captain A. W. Smith. 
C. J. Wittenberg. 

U. S. S. Gloucester, 
Flagship of Captain J. W. Miller, Commanding Officer of Naval Parade. 


Chief of Staff Hon. Herbert L. Satterlee. 

Fleet Captain Captain Harry George, U. S. N., Retired 

Staff Commander Lieutenant-Commander A. B. Fry, N. M., N. Y. 

Fleet Signal Officer Lieutenant G. B. Townsend, N. M., N. Y. 

Flag Lieutenant Captain J. Frederic Tams. 

Ordnance Officer Lieutenant-Commander R. S. Sloan. 

Fleet Engineer Lieutenant R. J. Beach, N. M., N. Y. 

Fleet Paymaster J. G. Agar, N. M., N. Y. 

Fleet Surgeon Dr. J. C. MacEvitt, N. M., N. Y. 

Surgeon Dr. J. P. McGowan. 

Aide Henry Wise Miller. 

Aide Gilbert Taylor. 

Aide Charles Maass. 

Aide J. P. O'Shea. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 207 

Tenders Owner Compo- 

Tarpon W. Earl Dodge. sition of 

Mohican Naval Militia, New York. Naval 

Guide Collector of Port, New York. Parade 

Mermaid J. P. Morgan, Jr. 

Whirlwind Julius F. Fleischmann. 

Scout August Belmont. 

Grayling John Sherman Hoyt. 

Flag OfEcer, Commander R. P. Forshew. 


Signal Officer Lieutenant A. W. Perry. 

Signal Officer W. E. Butler. 

Secretary T. R. Beal. 

1 1 1§ ship, IT. S. S. Aileen, Lieutenant C. O. BrinkerhoS, Commanding. 
U. S. S. Wasp. 

Atlantic Torpedo Division 
U. S. S. Worden Lieutenant-Commander F. N. Freeman, U. S. N. 

Ensign F. Milner, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Blakely Ensign R. L. Walker, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Shubrick Ensign G. B. Wright, U. S. N. 

Ensign R. W. Mathewson, U. S. N. 
U. S. S. Stockton Lieutenant F. N. Sadler, U. S. N. 

Ensign W. O. Wallace, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Sttingham Lieutenant J. O. Richardson, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Porter Lieutenant H. R. Stark, U. S. N. 

Ensign B. A. Strait, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Dupont Lieutenant W. F. Halsey, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Biddle Ensign V. V. Woodward, U. S. N. 

Atlantic Submarine Division 

V. S. S. Castine Commander G. W. Kline, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Octopus Lieutenant Donald C. Bingham, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Tarantula Lieutenant David A. Weaver, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Cuttlefish Ensign Simeon B. Smith, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Vipei Ensigu Robert A. White, U. S. N. 

U. S. S. Nina (tender) Chief Boatswain John S. Croghan, U. S. N. 

Vessels of Honor Division 

Half Moon Lieutenant-Commander W. Lam, R. N. N., representing Henry 

Hudson, and 
Lieutenant A. de Bruijne, representing Hudson's mate. 

Clermont Captain Ulster Davis, with costumed passengers. 

Dalzell, tug, tender to Half Moon. 
Dalzelline, tug, tender to Clermont. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Compo- Government Division 

sition of Flag Officer Lieutenant-Commander L. H. Everhart, U. S. N. 

Naval Fleet Captain Ensign R. J. Hartung, U. S. N. 

Parade Fleet Surgeon Dr. Charles E. Bruce. 

Aide First Lieutenant W. T. Battle, U. S. A. 

Chief of 2d Division. . Major Edwin P. Brewer, U. S. A. 

Flagship U. S. S. General Meigs (War Department). 

U. S. S. Joseph E. Johnston (War Department) 

U. S. S. Apache (Navy Department) 

U. S. S. Transfer (Navy Department) 

U. S. S. General R. T. Frank (War Department) 

U. S. S. Ordnance (War Department) 

U. S. S. Harvey Brown (War Department) 

Captain Henry C. Daniel, Master. 
Captain Walter J. Bernard, Master. 
Captain Arthur J. Henriques, Master. 
Captain George Roden, Master. 
Captain L. L. Rand, Master. 
Captain George G. Howell, Master. 
Captain Joseph A. Gaw, Master. 


Flag Officer Senior Captain D. P. Foley, U. S. R. C. S. 

Aide First Lieutenant H. G. Hamlet, U. S. R. C. S. 

Flagship U. S. R. C. Seminole, Captain C. S. Cochran, U. S. R. C. S., Commanding. 

List of Vessels 

U. S. R. C. Androscoggin Captain H. M. Broadbent, U. S. R. C. S. 

U. S. R. C. Seneca Captain J. C. Cantwell, U. £. R. C. S. 

U. S. R. C. Itasca Captain J. E. Ranbur;, U. S. R. C. S. 

U. S. R. C. Gresham Captarn P. H. Uberroth, U. S. R. C. S. 

U. S. R. C. Mohawk Captain u. M. Landrey, U. S. R. C. S. 

U. S. R. C. Manhattan First Lieutenant S. P. Edmonds, U. S. R. C. S. 

U. S. R. C. Calumet First Lieutenant F. C. Billard, U. S. R. C. S. 

U. S. R. C. Guide Second Lieutenant J. R. Besse, U. S. R. C. S. 

Flag Officer, Captain Frederick J. Mott, Commanding Harbor Patrol and Police Launcheiii 


(Steamboats and Ferryboats.) 

Flag Officer, Captain George A. White. 


Fleet Captain Horace Wilson. 

Signal Officer F. W. Lovejoy. 

Fleet Surgeon Richard Van Santvoord. 

Secretary S. W. Stanton. 

Aide L. E. White. 

Aide W. Y. Hawley. 

Aide Walter Millard. 

Aide C. V. A. Decker. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 


First Division 

Chief of Division E. F. Murray. 

Fleet Captain H. W. Thorpe. 

Signal Officer Andrew L. Adams. 

Aide C. G. Whiton. 

Providence, Flagship. Rensselaer. 

Hendrick Hudson. Albany. 

Puritan. City of Lowell. 

Robert Fulton. Norwich. 

Second Division 

Chief of Division R. J. Noble. 

Fleet Captain Rueze Hills. 

Signal Officer C. C. Goodrich. 

Aide Foster Tracy. 

North Star, Flagship. City of Worcester. 

C. W. Morse. Grand Republic. 

C. W. Chapin Kaaterskill. 

Plymouth. Columbia. 

Third Division 

Chief of Division H. L. Joyce. 

Fleet Captain Hans M. Larsen. 

Signal Officer George E. Schenck. 

Aide A. A. MacKenzie. 

Asbury Park, Flagship. Homer Ramsdell. 

Richard Peck. Saratoga. 

Sandy Hook. Frank Jones 

Tennessee. Newburgh. 


Fourth Division 

Chief of Division E. H. Snyder. 

Fleet Captain N. Cooper. 

Signal Officer N. H. Frost. 

Aide Charles J. Mather 

Onteora, Flagship. Howard Carroll. 

Sirius. John Sylvester 

Chrystenah. Sea Bird. 

W. F. Romer. Albertina. 

Fifth Division 

Chief of Division C. L. Addison. 

Fleet Captain H. L. DesAnges 

Signal Officer G. Harry Jackson. 

Aide John W. Burns. 

Shinnecock, Flagship. Nantasket. 

Pegasus. Glen. 


sition of 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

sition of 

Montauk. Taurus. 

Majestic. Sagamore. 

Sixth Division. 

Chief of Division Thomas Fatten. 

Fleet Captain W. R. Patten. 

Signal Officer F. Conover. 

Aide W. C. Hayden. 

Thomas Patten, Flagship. Sam Sloan. 

Cetus. Little Silver. 

Mary Patten. Richmond. 

Cepheus. Emeline. 

Seventh Division 

Chief of Division A. A. Schantz. 

Fleet Captain W. E. Campbell. 

Signal Officer B. W. Parker. 

Aide S. Stringham Bigelow. 

Bridgeport, Flagship. Angler. 

Monmouth. Isabel. 

Matteawan. Sea Gull. 

J. S. Warden. Nassau. 

Eighth Division 

Chief of Division C. J. Smith. 

Fleet Captain F. B. Hibbard. 

Signal Officer O. H. Taylor. 

Aide Ed. T. Cypiot. 

Georgia, Flagship. Atlantic. 

Raritan. Manhattan. 

Navesink. Perseus. 

Ninth Division 

Chief of Division Captain A. L. Hickman. 

Fleet Captain Captain A. L. Houseman. 

Signal Officer Leon. H. Griffiths. 

Aide Captain Arthur Compton. 

Manhattan, Flagship. Rochester. 

Philadelphia. South Brooklyn. 

Jamestown. West Brooklyn. 

Ithaca. Reynolds. 

Hopatcong. Quackenbush. 

Lackawanna. Frear. 

Tenth Division 

Chief of Division Captain James Leyland. 

Fleet Captain Captain Moses Collyer. 

Signal Officer Francis T. Lyons. 

Aide Captain Ford Kniskem. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 211 

Middleton, Flagship. Gen'I Putnam. CompO- 

Rosedale. Observation. sition of 

Orient. Wanderer. Naval 

Massasoit. Wm. Fletcher. Parade 

T. C. Millard. Restless. 

Mount Desert. Victor. 

Eleventh Division 

Chief of Division Captain Joe Peene. 

Fleet Captain Captain Monte Kearney. 

Signal OfEcer Ed. R. Esbach. 

Aide Captain Frank F. Collyer 

Ben Franklin, Flagship. Frank and Helen McAvoy. 

Wyandott. Halcyon. 

J. E. Davis. Caswell. 

Seagate. Osprey. 

Clifton. Daisy. 

Gen. J. B. Carr. 

Twelfth Division 

Chief of Division Captain A. W. Smith. 

Fleet Captain Captain J. W. Proctor. 

Signal Officer Captain G. W. Beckwith. 

Aide Captain F. C. W. Smith. 

Commodore, Flagship. Etta May. 

Julia Safford. Martha. 

M. E. Gordon. Cynthia. 

Winthrop. Sylvan Shore. 

Marion. MacAvoy. 


(Steam Yachts) 

Flag Officer W. B. Duncan, Jr. 

Fleet Captain W. H. Stayton. 

Signal Officer R. B. Strassburger. 

Fleet Surgeon S. A. Brown. 

Secretary J. D. Sparkman. 

Aide N. D. Thorne. 

Aide E. M. MacLellan. 

Aide A. T. French. 

First Division 

Corsair, Flagship. 









212 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

CompO- Second Division 

sition of Chief of Division M. F. Plant. 

Naval Fleet Captain C. L. F. Robinson. 

Parade signal Officer W. Grind. 

Aide F. deC. Sullivan. 

lolanda, Flagship. Atreus. 

Gunilda. Carmina. 

Owera. Visitor II. 

Rheclair. Surf. 

Wanderer. Norman. 

Third Division 

Chief of Division R. A. C. Smith. 

Fleet Captain C. A. Moore. 

Signal Officer George T. Wilson. 

Privateer, Flagship. Issaquena. 

Wacondah. Emeline. 

Aria. Idalia. 

Ituna. American. 

Viking. Viking. 

Fourth Division 

Chief of Division E. C. Benedict. 

Fleet Captain F. S. Hastings. 

Signal Officer M. J. Quinn. 

Oneida, Flagship. Vergana. 

Winchester. Old Nassau. 

Parthenia Evelyn. 

Cynthia. Evelyn. 

Elreba. Ardea. 

Fifth Division 

Chief of Division W. Ferguson. 

Christabel, Flagship. Linta. 

Roamer. Edithia. 

Alice. Florence. 

Elsa II. Florette. 

Cayuga. Loando. 

Sixth Division 

Chief of Division R. M. Thompson. 

Signal Officer Charles H. HalL 

Everglades, Flagship. Lieut. Lewis. 

Margaret. Sentinel. 

Maspeth. Duchess. 

Reposo. Gretchen. 

Haida. Inca. 

Nomad. Ballemere. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 


Seventh Division 

Chief of Division E. B. Smith. 

Fleet Captain D. H. Cox. 

Onondaga, Flagship. 



Use III. 







Sioux, Flagship. 









(Motor Boats) 

Flag Officer, Commodore J. Adolph Mollenhauer. 

First Division 

Chief of Division 

Joseph H. 



Osprey II. 


H. M. Champion. 

Augusta II. 





Cynthia II. 


Yankee Doodle. 


Queen City. 





As You Like It. 









Rabecca M. 





La Mascotte. 

Second Division 

Flag Officer, 

Francis M. Wilson 










La Vedette. 



Lt. Ward Cheney. LUlian II. 

Sea Boy. 

Ida Belle. 




James Carroll. 

White Seal. 


Ida Belle. 


Willis T. 





E. R. Oilman. 

M. J. R. 

Lily and May. 


Belle Harbor. 

Lady Hilda. 













Midnight Son. 





Mount Carmel. 

Charles F. Dayton. 

Cara IL 

Miss Innocence. 

Grace H. 




sition of 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


Third Division 

sition of 



Officer, S. W. Granbeiy. 





Si SCO. 

Belle n. 








My Girl II. 

Stella B. 


F. A. Wall 







Rorie II. 



Elmo n. 

Hop It. 





Florence IL 



Elsie Marion. 



Chas. Roedler. 


So So. 



Ethel Jean. 




Florence W. 




Florence F 






W. H. Muff. 

Count Pulaski. 


H. V. Slattery. 




Eddie B. 



Hazel Belle. 




Anna L. 







Jolly Rodger. 


Milton FisheL 



Herbert W. 

George T. 


Ida May. 


Elsie G. 




Anna M. 



Virginia Lee. 


Laura B. 








(Tugs and Steam Lighters) 
Flag Officer, Fred. B. Dalzell. 

Fleet Captain Edgar P. Foster. 

Signal Officer Colonel E. H. Bigelow, Jr. 

Fleet Surgeon Wm. Francis Campbell, M. 

Secretary Fred. B. Dalzell, Jr. 

Aide George Sterling. 

Aide Dr. Jean A. E. Mearther. 

C. P. Raymond, Flagship. 

First Division 

Chief of Division Walter B. Pollock. 

Fleet Captain Reginald Fay. 

Signal Officer B. F. Ward. 

Aide Carl Howe. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 


N. Y. Central No. i. Flagship. Tugs N. Y. Central No. 9. 

Tugs C. M. Depew. N. Y. Central No. 12. 

S. R. Callaway. N. Y. Central No. 13. 

C. C. Clarke. N. Y. Central No. 21. 

N. Y. Central No. 25. N. Y. Central No. 22. 

Second Division 

Chief of Division George Linn. 

Fleet Captain G. J. Eisman. 

Signal Officer John McAuliffe, Jr. 

Aide R. J. Menzies. 

N. Y. Central No. 8, Flagship. Steamlighters No. 6. 

Tugs N. Y. Central No. 18. No. 14. 

N. Y. Central No. 23. No. 16. 

Steamlighters No. 24. No. 15. 

No. 4. 

Third Division 

Chief of Division Richard C. Veil. 

Fleet Captain Philipp Ruprecht. 

Signal Officer O. L. Halenback. 

Aide C. W. McGee. 

Standard, Flagship. Tugs Standard No. 16. 

Tugs Standard No. 4. Standard No. 17. 

Standard No. 11. Standard No. 18. 

Standard No. 14. Standard No. 19. 

Standard No. 15. 

Fourth Division 

Chief of Division F. L. Sheppard. 

Fleet Captain D. C. Chase. 

Signal Officer J. H. Taylor. 

Aide F. L. DuBosque. 

Lancaster, Flagship. Tugs Harrisburg. 

Tugs Pennsylvania R. R. No. 9. Radnor. 


Fifth Division 

Chief of Division A. M. Parker. 

Fleet Captain G. Johnson. 

.Signal Officer W. W. Beebe. 

Aide G. H. Cobb. 

Pennsylvania R. R. No. 7, Flagship. Tug Pennsylvania R. R. No. 14. 
Tugs Pennsylvania R. R. No. 9. Steamlighters No. 153. 
Pennsylvania R. R. No. 10. No. 154. 

Sixth Division 

Chief of Division Frederick Coykendall. 

Fleet Captain Roland B. Bishop. 

sition of 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

sition of 

Signal Officer N. J. Sinnott. 

Aide Charles Lotma. 

Cornell, Flagship. Tugs S. L. Crosby. 

Tugs Townsend. E. H. Mead. 

Pocahontas. Senator Rice. 

Oseola. W. N. Bavier. 

G. W. Washburn. John T. Welch. 

John H. Cordis. Hercules. 
J. C. Ham. 

Seventh Division 

Chief of Division N. S. Baritt. 

Fleet Captain William H. Baniett. 

Signal Officer Timothy J. Donovan. 

Aide J. J. Gilligan. 

Victoria, Flagship. Tugs G. W. Decker. 

Tugs Primrose. Edwin Terry. 

Knickerbocker. Ira M. Hedges. 

J. H. Williams. Robert A. Scott. 

J. G. Rose. William E. Cleary. 

Eighth Division 

Chief of Division Arthur J. Grymes. 

Fleet Captain C. R. Stewart. 

Signal Officer W. H. Holcomb. 

Aide C. K. West. 

Daniel Willard, Flagship. Tugs Rochester. 

Tugs Nanuet. Oradell. 

Waverly. Steam Lighters Sterlington. 

Shohola. Galion 


Ninth Division 

Chief of Division Captain J. M. Emery. 

Fleet Captain J. E. Briggs. 

Signal Officer B. Schoppc. 

Aide J. F. Birmingham. 

Washington, Flagship. Tugs Morristown. 

Tugs Lackawanna. Bemardsville. 

Scranton. Madison. 

Tenth Division 

Chief of Division Captain E. F. Hallock. 

Fleet Captain W. F. Cogan. 

Signal Officer Fred Fowler. 

Aide F. H. Cogan. 

Corning, Flagship. Tugs Montclair. 

Tugs Bath. Syracuse. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 217 

Eleventh Dhision Compo- 

Chief of Division Heniy Clay Davis. sition Of 

Fleet Captain John Gordon. Naval 

Signal Officer F. E. LeBourveau. Parade 

Aide C. A. Singer, Jr. 

Lehigh, Flagship. Tugs Cheektowago. 

Tugs Genesee. Shawanasee. 

Ganoga. Aurora. 

Mahony. Powerful. 

Wyoming. Superior. 

Twelfth Division 

Chief of Division Captain J. M. Cherry. 

Fleet Captain Captain R. N. Cherry. 

Signal Officer Captain C. A. Austin. 

Aide Captain J. S. Arnold. 

Irvington, Flagship. Tug Slatington. 

Tugs Ithaca. Steam Lighters Towanda. 

Owasco. Neshanic. 

Geneva. Packerton. 


Thirteenth Division 

Chief of Division Captain C. T. HoUis. 

Fleet Captain W. T. Bernard. 

Signal Officer Captain S. Demarept. 

Aide Captain A. Hanson. 

Plymouth, Flagship. Tugs Bridgeton. 

Tugs Roselle. Ashley. 

Flemington. Lighters Westfield. 

Freehold. Easton. 

Sea Bright. 

Fourteenth Division 

Chief of Division Captain R. S. Clark. 

Fleet Captain Edward Hill. 

Signal Officer J. P. Hopson. 

Aide W. J. Charles. 

Transfer No. i8, Flagship. Tugs Du Bois. 
Tugs Transfer No. 14. Brandow. 

Transfer No. 15. President. 

Transfer No. 22. Charm. 

Literstate. Fireproofer. 


Fifteenth Division 

Chief of Division James H. Clark. 

Fleet Captain Charles Noyer. 

Signal Officer W. L. Scott. 

Aide A. D. Walcott. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Compo- Oscar G. Murray, Flagship. Lighter Potomac, 

sition of Tugs Cyclops. Tugs Western. 
Naval J. K. Cowen. BuUey. 

Parade Lighter Ohio. Ontario. 

Sixteenth Division 

Chief of Division L. J. Barrett. 

Fleet Captain John G. T. Shoe. 

Signal Officer W. Brown. 

Aide William Zielenbach. 

Bern, Flagship. Tug Katharine. 

Tugs Wyomissing. Lighters Marie. 

Pcncoyd. Florence. 

Asbourne. Nellie. 

Virginia, Commodore. 

Seventeenth Division 

Chief of Division W. F. Dalzell. 

Fleet Captain Robert Aikman, Jr, 

Signal Officer W. Pringle. 

Aide E. Dyckman. 

E. T. Dalzell, Flagship. Tugs J. Rich Steers. 

Tugs Union. Henry Steers. 

E. S. Atwood. Steers. 

H. B. Moore, Jr. Timothy D. Sullivan. 

J. Fred Lohman. Success. 

P. J. T. No. 8. 

Eighteenth Division 

Chief of Division Captain F. Russell. 

Fleet Captain Judge W. Rasquin. 

Signal Officer J. Stillwaggon. 

Aide J. Russell. 

Vigilant, Flagship. Tugs Triumph. 

Tugs Dictator. Neptune. 

Hero. John Fuller. 

Mascot. Edgar Baxter 

Reliance. J. A. Reynolds. 

Nineteenth Division 

Chief of Division Charles McWilliams. 

Fleet Captain R. J. Buchok. 

Signal Officer L R. De Nyse. 

Aide G. K. Mellen. 

Vigilant, Flagship. Tugs Dailey. 

Tugs Bouker. W. J. Dailey. 

Bouker No. i. Mattie. 

Berwind. Dr. Moses. 

Admiral Dewey. Three Brothers. 


Inaugural Naval Parade 219 

Twentieth Division Compo- 

Chief of Division Eugene F. Moran. sition of 

Fleet Captain Joseph N. Moran. Naval 

Signal Officer J. F. Belford. Parade 

Aide J. J. O'Connell, M. D. 

E. F. Moran, Flagship. Tugs N. Y. Dock Company. 

Tugs A. W. Palmer. W. H. Taylor. 

Joseph H. Moran. General Newtown. 

Edmund Moran. Theodore Smith. 

Julia E. Moran. Daniel McElroy. 

M. Moran. Blue Bell. 


Twentyfirst Division 

Chief of Division S. L^Hommedieu. 

Fleet Captain Al Day. 

Signal Officer Emerson Love 

Aide Henry Crew. 

Nonpareil, Flagship. Tugs H. Crew. 

Tugs Guiding Star. Golden Age. 

Charles Runyon. Golden Rod. 

H. B. Rawson. Golden Rule. 

S. L'Hommedieu. Golden Ray. 

R. Palmer. Wade. 

Twenty-second Division 

Chief of Division John Tracey. 

Fleet Captain M. E. Butler. 

Signal Officer J. E. Parsons. 

Aide Frank Oberrender. 

Nellie Tracey, Flagship. Tugs D. McAlister. 
Tugs William Tracey. McAlister. 

Walter Tracey. Lighters Scotia. 

Thomas Tracey Rambler. 

Colerain. Columbia. 


Twenty-third Division 

Chief of Division R. J. Barrett. 

Fleet Captain E. E. Barrett. 

Signal Officer John J. Moore. 

Aide J. Moore. 

Bouker, Flagship. Tugs Kensington. 
Tugs Barrett. W. M. Beach. 

Defiance. Charles J. Davis. 

Hiawatha. Meta. 

W. B. Pollock. Wioma. 



The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

sition of 

Twenty-fourth Division 

Chief of Division 'WiUiam H. Beard. 

Fleet Captain L. B. Zachirias. 

Signal Officer F. B. Fiakes. 

Aide G. H. Barnes. 

C. N. Kimpland, Flagship. Lighters L. Boyer. 

Tugs H. S. Beard. Comport. 

Ideal. Eugene Grasselli. 

Lighters Amelia. Alice. 

Climax. W. J. Rudolph. 

Clara. Mount Morris. 

Twenty-fifth Division 

Chief of Division John Gilkinson. 

Fleet Captain W. H. Lewis. 

Signal Officer Irving G. Keller. 

Aide H. W. Waller, Jr. 

J. K. Gilkinson, Flagship. Tugs Beatrice Bush. 

Tugs W. A. Sherman. O'Brien Bros. 

W. F. Cogan. Henry O'Brien. 

Irving G. Keller. Tom & Joe. 

Nettie L. Tice. John Lee. 

Elinor Bush. James Roy. 

Thomas Flannery. 

Twenty-sixth Division 

Chief of Division James J. McGuirl. 

Fleet Captain D. J. Dugan. 

Signal Officer W. F. Gill. 

Aide Ellis Lavender. 

James J. McGuirl, Flagship. Tugs James Mc Donough. 

Tugs Fulton Market. Henry Lee. 

Robert E. Petty. Adelaide. 

C. Gallagher. Pawnee. 

Agnes. Howard. 

Libbie. Margaret. 

Twenty-seventh Division 

Chief of Division Denis A. Judge. 

Fleet Captain P. F. Skelly. 

Signal Officer C. F. Farley. 

Aide Eugene R. Judge. 

Manhattan, Flagship. Lighters C. L. Marchal. 

Tugs Triumph. Reliance. 

W. H. Childs. J. B. King. 

A. W. Smith. Rancocas. 

Canostato. Leonard J. Busby. 

Lighters Eversly Childs. Guy G. Major. 

Lizzie Henderson. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 


Twenty-eighth Division 

Chief of Division Thomas J. Scully. 

Fleet Captain W. H. Martin. 

Signal Officer James McKee. 

Aide William Johnson. 

Mary F. Scully, Flagship. Tugs Elmer A. Keller. 

Tugs Volunteer. W. E. Gladwich. 

Phoem'x. Charles A. Fox. 

William J. Conway. Annie L. 

Sarah McWilliams. Col. Wickoff. 

D. S. Amott. 

Twenty-ninth Division 

Chief of Division J. F. McLeod. 

Fleet Captain B. W. Hoyt. 

Signal Officer A. N. Chapman. 

Aide J. J. Merritt. 

Relief, Flagship. Tugs Eureka. 

Tugs Champion. Brandon. 

WilUam E. Chapman. J. H. Peterson. 

Hustler. Quick Step. 

Lighters Admiral. T. S. Watkyns. 

Aroma Mills. Stamford. 

General F. Sigel. Norwalk. 

Border City. Greenwich. 

Richmond. Carrie. 

Etta McEIroy. Florence W. 

Tugs Downer. N. R. Ronderset. 

Senator D. G. Chase. M. D. Wheeler. 

Mary Ann. Elizabeth. 

Emma J. Kennedy. T. J. Johnson. 

Charles Kuper. T. B. Johnson. 

Robert White. John J. Hague. 

Harlem River No. i. Archey Crossman. 

Harlem River No. 3. George S. Tice. 

Harlem River No. 4. John Rugge. 
Van Cott. 


(Anchored Vessels.) 

Flag Officer, Captain Howard Patterson. 


Fleet Captain Russell Patterson. 

Signal Officer Charles F. Adae. 

Fleet Surgeon Norman E. Ditman, M. D. 

Secretary Evert J. Wingert. 

Aide William Lansing, Jr. 

Aide William F. Worms. 

sition of 

222 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Compo- The vessels comprising the Fifth Squadron numbered 658, 

Naval ^^^ were assigned anchorages along both the New York and 

Parade the New Jersey sides of the Hudson River, respectively, from 

80th street, New York, to Fort Washington Point, and from 

Guttenberg, New Jersey, to Fort Lee — an extent of seven 


After the anchorage lists were closed on the afternoon of 
September 24th, various yacht clubs along the Hudson River 
requested anchorage assignments in a body for the various 
craft belonging to their respective clubs, and they were granted ; 
but it was too late to issue individual permits, consequently 
the names of such pleasure vessels do not appear, and are not 
counted in the following report. 

Also, on the morning of the parade, September 25th, 
numerous excursion steamers, yachts, barges, and other vessels 
requested berths for anchorage, which were also granted; 
and the total number of such craft not shown by name and 
character on the report of the Fifth Squadron, is over 150, 
which would make the total number of vessels anchored along 
the line of the parade fully 800. In the following are shown 
the types and names of the vessels making up the several 
divisions of the Fifth Squadron: 

First Division 

Chief of Division Charles A. Starbuck. 

Fleet Captain H. A. Smythe Martin. 

Signal Officer A. J. Mcintosh. 

Aide George R. Branson. 

Steam Yachts Auxiliary Yachts Sailing Yachts 

Carmen, Flagship. Alcatorda. Anita. 

Alsacia. Bohemian. Buccaneer. 

Anita. Cygnet. Carmina. 

Aphrodite. Edris. Clarissa. 

Atlanta. Emerald. Dolauradora. 

Carmina. Enchantress. Everglades. 

Condor. Friendship III. Julia. 

Diana. Gladys. Jupiter. 

Emeline. Haida. Margotta. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 


Steam Yachts 



Sailing Yachts 





sition of 











Minnie W. 








New Era. 





















Wakiva L 






Yankee Doodle. 


Motor Yachts 

Abbie IV. 




Agnes S. 

Fire Ball. 















Augusta 11. 




Belle France. 


May Will Ned. 





TUlie B. 

Cannon Ball. 



Tiny H. 







Minnie W. 


Carolyn 11. 



Unome II. 















Osprey IL 

Virginia Red. 








Walter B. 


Just So. 


Wee Wee IL 


John and Anna. 






Wow Wow. 

Dorothy Mine. 

Lady Betty. 

Sans Souci. 

X. Y. Z. 

Elsie May. 

Lady WalUce. 



Emma Manda. 


Shooting Star. 








The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

sition of 

Second Division 

Chief of Division Frederic Thompson. 

Fleet Captain J. B. Probst. 

Signal Officer J. R. Brophy. 

Aide James Rabbins. 

Steam Yachts 
Aerial. Levanter. 

Halcyon. Revery. 

Helenita. Rhedair. 






Richard K. Fox. 

Blue Bell. 

Sarah E. Walton. 




Sophie Harms. 


Southern Cross. 




Sailing Yachts 












Shamrock, Flagship. 

Kenesaw IL 






Ocean Going Steam Vessels 
Brinton. Seneca. 

General G. M. Sorrel. William M. Wadley. 

Excursion Boats 

A. M. Church. 



Shady Side. 

Anna G. Lee. 

George Starr. 


Stanley Howard. 


H. H. Lee. 




James A. Walsh 

P. R. R. No. 32. 

T. L. Sturtevant. 




Thomas S. Breonan. 


Mount Desert. 

Rose R. 

William Rowland. 

Fannie Woodhull. 


Sarah A. Jenks. 

Won son. 

Motor Yachts and Motor Boats 

A. C. Frazer. 



Always Ready. 

Addie H. 

After Me. 







Inaugural Naval Parade 


Motor Yachts 

and Motor Boats 





Jolly Roger. 

sition of 









Just So. 


Amoeba C. IT. 




Ancient Mariner. 

Clear the Way. 

Ethan Allen. 

King Arthur. 



Ethel May. 


Angler II. 








Anna M. 11. 




Annie £. 

Come On. 






Laughing Sally. 



Full Moon. 











Cos Cob. 

Gipsy Queen. 

LUly S. n. 




Little Nemo. 


Crowing Hen. 


Look Out. 




Louis and Anna. 



Green Mountain Boy. 








Half Maen. 

Mabel Holland. 



Happy Days. 


Belle D. 


Happy Hours. 















Dorothy T. 

Helen and Amy. 




Helen II. 

Margaret B. 

Beetter Half. 


Helen Hazel. 






Billy Baby. 




Billy Boy. 

Eddie B. 

Hendrick Hudson. 

Mary Ellen. 



Henry Hudson. 


Brooklyn Girl. 

Edna G. 







Bumble Bee. 




Burtis Junior II. 


Horse Shoe. 





Mother Carey. 


Eleanor S. 









Idle Hours. 



Elizabeth R. 


Nellie C. 


Elizabeth P. 

Indian Chief. 





New York Girl. 










Emma and Maud. 

Jersey Belle. 

North Star. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


Motor Yachts 

and Motor Boats 

sition of 


Red Cross. 




Not So. 

Red Eagle. 




Old Dutch. 




Old Glory. 








On Time. 


















Spread Eagle. 



Run Away. 

Spuyten Duyvil. 





West End. 


Saint Lawrence. 





Stormy Petrel. 

White Cap. 







Tappan Zee. 

Will O' the Wisp. 


Sarah Blaisdale. 

T. A. WaU. 



Sarah E. 




Sea Cliff. 

Ting How. 

X. L. 


Sea Gull. 



Quarter Back. 

Sea Mew. 

Tom and Jerry. 


Quarter Moon. 

Sea Robin. 






A. A. Low, 



A. Meitz. 




Third Division 

Chief of Division Edward A. Sumner 

Fleet Captain Francis Holly. 

Signal Officer Clarence Backus. 

Aide Harry Warren. 

Auxiliary Yachts 

Camilla. Rose. 

Dawn IL Tioga. 

Osceola. Ursa. 

Sailing Yachts 

Helena IT. Marclare. 

Kiaora, Flagship. Nymph. 

Motor Yachts 

Anna. Bethel. Bonnie Jean. 

Anna B. Big Chief. Bonnie K. 

Anna L. Billikin. Brunhilda. 

Anna M. Blamar. Brunhilde. 

Annie A. Bob. Caroline. 

Ariel. Bonifide. Chief Justice. 

Best Girl. Bonita. Clytie. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 


Motor Yachts 


Ida May. 




Idle Hour. 


Sea Foam. 







Nell in. 





Silver Heels. 

Edna T. 



Silvia S. 

Elsie Marian. 







So So. 

Emma V. 


Pearl D. 




Peggy Too. 

Stella Mavis. 






Margaret D. 




Marie H. 







Half Moon. 



Virginia Lee. 

Happy Two. 














Rozie II. 


Hendrick Hudson. 


Sadie B. 


Hop It. 


sition of 


Rear Admiral Seaton Schroeder, U. S. N., Commander-in-Chief, U. S. S. Connecticut, Flagship. 

First Division 

Rear Admiral Seaton Schroeder, Commander. 

Connecticut, Flagship Captain W. C. Cowles. 

Vermont Captain F. F. Fletcher. 

Kansas Captain C. J. Badger. 

Louisiana Captain W. I. Chambers. 

Second Division 

Captain Hugo Osterhaus, Commander. 

Minnesota, Flagship Commander W. S. Sims. 

New Hampshire Captain C. McR. Winslow. 

Mississippi Captain J. C. Fremont. 

Idaho Captain J. M. Helm. 

Third Division 

Rear Admiral Richard Wainwright, Commander. 

Georgia, Flagship Captain T. M. Potts. 

New Jersey Captain D. W. Coifman. 

Nebraska Captain J. T. Newton. 

Rhode Island Captain T. D. Griffin. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

sition of 

Fourth Division 
Captain S. P. Comly, Commander. 

Virginia, Flagship Captain Alex. Sharp. 

Wisconsin Captain F. E. Beatty. 

Maine Captain W. B. Caperton. 

Ohio Captain C. J. Boush. 

Armored Cruiser Division 

Captain W. A. Marshall, Commander. 

North Carolina Captain W. A. MarshalL 

New York Commander S. S. Wood. 

Montana Captain Alfred Reynolds. 

Scout Cruiser Division 
Commander Henry B. Wilson, Commander. 

Chester Commander H. B. Wilson. 

Birmingham Commander W. L. Howard. 

Salem Conmiander A. L. Key. 

Fleet Auxiliaries 

Celtic, supply ship Commander H. P. Huse. 

Panther, repair ship Commander C. H. Harlow. 

Culgoa, supply ship Commander Harry Phelps. 

Yankton, tender Lieut.-Comdr. C. B. McVay, Jr. 

Prairie, transport Commander F. W. Kellogg. 

Montgomery, torpedo ship Commander Joseph Strauss. 

Patuxent, tug Lieutenant Owen Hill. 

Potomac, tug Chief Boatswain E. V. Sandstrom. 

Dixie Lieutenant Paul Foley. 



Admiral of the Fleet Sir Edward Hobart Seymour, G. C. B. 

H. M. S. Inflexible Captain Henry H. Torlesse. 

H. M. S. Argyll Captain Cecil F. Lambert. 

H. M. S. Duke of Edinburgh Captain Hon. Robert F. Boyle, M. V. O. 

H. M. S. Drake Rear Admiral Frederick T. Hamilton, C. V. O. 

Captain Hon. Hubert G. Brand, M. V. O. 

Grossadmiral von Koester. 

H. M. S. Victoria Luise Kapitan zur See Mauve. 

H. M. S. Hertha Kapitan zur See Engelhardt. 

H. M. S. Bremen Fregattenkapitan Goette. 

H. M. S. Dresden Fregattenkapitan Varrentrapp. 

H. M. S. Utrecht Captain G. P. van Hecking Colenbrander. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 229 

France CompO- 

Rear Admiral Jules L. M. Le Pord. ^*'°° °* 

Justice Capitaine de Vaisseau Le Fevre. Haval 

Liberie Capitaine de Vaisseau Huguet. Parade 

V^rit6 Capitaine de Vaisseau Tracou. 


H. M. S. Etruria Capitano Leonardi di Casalino. 

Cadet Schoolship Etna Capitano di Vascello Marchese Filippo Baggio 


Morelos Captain Manuel Castellanos. 

Argentine Republic 
Presidente Sarmiento Captain Alniada. 

At 10.30 A. M. several divisions of parade assembled with Begin- 
the Half Moon and Clermont in the Kill van Kull off Constable ^^^ 
Point, N. J., and during the morning and early afternoon 
hours manoeuvred along the northern shore of Staten Island 
and the Bay Ridge shore of Long Island, in order to give the 
citizens of Richmond and Brooklyn Boroughs a sight of the 
reproductions of the two famous vessels. 

Soon after the Half Moon and Clermont left their anchor- Collision 
ages to join the squadron, the former moving under her ownjjo^^ 
sails and the latter propelled by her own steam power, the and 
engine of the Clermont slipped a set-screw in a cam on the *'™°° 
valve-gear rock-shaft, and came to a stop to make repairs. 
While thus lying-to near Tompkinsville, about 10.40 a. m., 
the Half Moon bore down on the Clermont's port quarter, and, 
unable to avoid her, rammed her just abaft the boiler, breaking 
the rail, tearing away a stanchion, and staving in a plank 
below the wearing piece. The Half Moon carried away her 
own figurehead and some of her stays. For a while the Half 
Moon was locked into the Clermont's sail with her anchor, 
but presently the vessels were separated. Meanwhile, the tug 
Dalzelline, while assisting in clearing away the Half Moon, 
collided with the main boom of the Half Moon and carried it 

230 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

away at the sheet. The collision of the Half Moon and Cler- 
mont caused more amusement than damage, suggesting the 
idea that the spirit of the old Half Moon rather resented the 
new-fangled idea represented by the Clermont and was gently 
hinting to the latter to "clear the track" so that the ship could 
show what she was capable of doing. The slight repairs 
having quickly been made, the vessels proceeded on their way, 
from the very start the objects of continuous gun salutes and 
cheering, to which the Half Moon responded with the firing 
of her guns. 
Ceremo- As the Half Moon drew near Stapleton, S. I., the Hon. 
staten George Cromwell, President of the Borough of Richmond, 
Island Mr. Eugene Lamb Richards, Jr., Chairman of the Richmond 
Committee of the Commission, and a delegation of the Rich- 
mond Citizens' Committee put off in a launch to greet her. 
Arriving at the Half Moon, Mr. Richards said to Lieutenant- 
Commander Lam, impersonating Henry Hudson: 

"Henry Hudson, when you came to our shores three hundred 
years ago we met you with poisoned arrows. To-day we greet you 
and grant you full freedom of our shores." 

President Cromwell also offered his felicitations. "Henry 
Hudson" made appropriate reply, and the crew of the Half 
Moon at his order gave "three American cheers." 

Similar greetings at this point were planned for the Cler- 
mont, but she lay disabled at a distance, and when her repairs 
were completed she proceeded directly to Bay Ridge, Brooklyn. 

Meanwhile, the Richmond Committee returned to the 
Municipal Dock at Stapleton, where a stand had been erected 
for further ceremonies. Mr. Richards, who presided, spoke as 
follows : 

"Fellow-Citizens of Richmond, Ladies and Gentlemen: Richmond 
Borough has been given the honor of opening the official ceremonies 
of this Celebration. This is appropriate, for here on our shores it 
was that Hudson first landed. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 231 

"But we are here to pay tribute to more than either Hudson or 
Fulton. We are here to pay tribute to the spirit of progress, the 
spirit of endeavor, a spirit which comes from three things which are 
at least worth while, and in which we Americans lead the world — 
perseverance, courage and love of country. 

"These events and these ceremonies are big enough for all. All 
nations, creeds and conditions are represented here to-day, and 
all will do their share to encourage progress, and to acclaim the 
man of endeavor who through untold hardships and obstacles 
reaches the reward of his own conscience and the approval of his 

"Fellow-Citizens, Ladies and Gentlemen: We will now be favored 
with addresses by representatives of the Holland Society and of the 
other patriotic societies on the Island." 

Addresses were then delivered by Hon. George Cromvv^ell, 
Hon. Calvin D. Van Name, Mr. Ira K. Morris, Hon. Howard 
R. Bayne, and Mr. Charles Barton. 

Staten Island's participation in the Naval Parade was in 
charge of Messrs. Lewis Nixon, William Horn, Pliny E. Davis, 
William J. Davidson, and Thomas A. Fulton. 

The Half Moon and escorting vessels then proceeded across Ceremo- 
the head of the Narrows to the Brooklyn shore. Here, for °'®® ** 
miles, every pier, bulkhead and other advantageous place was 
thronged with spectators. On the Shore Drive and in the 
grounds of the Crescent Athletic Club at Bay Ridge, in which 
latter the local ceremonies took place, the throngs were par- 
ticularly dense. 

When the boats came in view of the Athletic Club grounds, 
the Third Battery, which was stationed there, fired a salute 
of 21 guns, and a chorus led the multitude in singing the Star 
Spangled Banner and other patriotic airs. In the intervals 
there was enthusiastic cheering. When the Half Moon and 
Clermont reached a point opposite the Club House, Hon. 
Bird S. Coler, Borough President; Col. Willis L. Ogden, 
Chairman of the Brooklyn Committee; Col. William Hester, 

232 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Commander Herbert L. Bridgman, Dr. N. S. Boynton, and 
other prominent citizens put off in a launch to the two historic 
replicas, at which President Coler and Chairman Ogden made 
brief speeches of compliment. 
Squad- While the foregoing manoeuvres of the Half Moon, the 
rons Fall- Qgj.jjjQjjj. ^^d escorting vessels and the ceremonies attending 
Line them were taking place, the First Squadron assembled in 
column heading southward, the leading vessel being at bell- 
buoy No. 12^-, in mid-stream between St. George, S. I., and 
Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, and the remaining vessels to the north- 
ward along the westerly line of the General Eastern Anchorage 
of the Upper Bay; the Second Squadron, on the same line to 
the rear of the First Squadron; the Third and Fourth Squad- 
rons in and near the Southeastern Triangle of the General 
Eastern Anchorage Grounds; and the Fifth Squadron to the 
eastward of the westerly Hne of the General Eastern Anchorage 
Grounds. The Police and Public Safety, Patrol and Scout 
Squadrons, except such vessels as were detailed elsewhere on 
special duty, assembled northward of red buoys No. 14 and 
S. "A." 

About 1. 1 5 p. M. the leading vessel of the First Squadron 
turned with port helm and proceeded up the bay, every other 
vessel of this squadron and of the Second Squadron turning in 
like manner and falling into line when passed by its prede- 
cessors. By other manoeuvres the vessels of the Third, Fourth 
and Fifth Squadrons successively took their positions in the 
moving column. 

While these operations were taking place, the Scout and 
Escort Squadrons accompanying the Half Moon and Clermont 
proceeded northward along the Brooklyn shore and through 
the Red Hook channel, and passing Governor's Island took 
their places at the head of the procession. The Patrol Squad- 
ron and the Police and Public Safety Squadron were disposed 
where necessity required. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 233 

The whole procession, presenting an impressive spectacle, Proces- 
then steamed up the river at the rate of about eight miles an hour ^jj^ ^^^ 
until it reached the southermost of the anchored men-of-war, 
and thence the speed was about five miles an hour. Upon 
reaching the men-of-war, the Scout Squadron and the Escort 
Squadron turned to the eastward of the men-of-war and 
steamed to the vicinity of the Official Landing at iioth street, 
the men-of-war successively saluting the Half Moon and 
Clermont with 21 guns. The Half Moon anchored near the 
northern pier of the Official Landing and the Clermont near 
the southern pier, amid the cheers of hundreds of thousands of 
throats, the booming of cannon, and the music of the band at 
the reviewing stand. 

Meanwhile, the Squadrons which had followed the Escort 
Squadron as far as the southern end of the war fleet, at that 
point turned to the westward and steamed northward between 
the war-ships and the New Jersey shore. Upon reaching the 
northern end of the war fleet, they turned eastward and south- 
ward and passed in stately procession before the officials on 
the stand at the Official Landing and the crowds gathered in 
Riverside Park. 

Before the arrival of the Half Moon and Clermont at the 
Official Landing, the Commanding Officer of the Naval 
Parade and his staff landed and announced the approach of 
the Half Moon and Clermont, and soon thereafter the formal 
reception of the two vessels took place. 

First, the quaint little ship's-boat of the Half Moon, pulled Presenta- 
by lusty Dutch sailors, brought ashore "Henry Hudson" and ^°° °* 
his mate, dressed, as were all the crew, in the picturesque Moon 
costumes of the period which they represented. In a similar 
manner other representatives of the Netherlands were brought 
to the landing, the President of the Commission, General 
Woodford, descending from his seat and greeting them on 
the pier. 

234 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

"Captain Hudson" then said: 

"I have the honor to report my arrival to the gentlemen of the 
Netherlands Commission, who built the Half Moon." 

Thereupon, the Hon. S. P. van Eeghen, President of the 
Amsterdam Chamber of Commerce and President of the 
Netherlands Hudson-Fulton Commission, addressing General 
Woodford, said: 

"Mr. President and Members of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission: The President and the members of the Netherland 
Hudson-Fulton Commission have honored me by appointing me to 
be their representative, and in this capacity I have much pleasure 
in addressing myself to-day to the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Docu- Mr. van Eeghen then continued in the vpords of the engrossed 

ment address which he subsequently delivered and which is given 
Confirm- , /. . i i • 

ing Gift hereafter, addmg: 

of Half "J herewith have the honor in the name of the Netherland Hudson- 
Fulton Commission to present you with a document confirming the 
donation of the replica of the Halve Maen and beg you to accept it, 
together with this book, containing the names of those who con- 
tributed in the gift. 

"The Linschoten Society, whose members have given themselves 
the task of collecting the old journals of our brave sea-fathers and 
publishing them in book form, has requested me to present the 
Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission with the first volume of 
their work. This volume contains the journal of Jan Cornelis May, 
who in 1611 made a voyage to the American shores as Hudson had 
done two years previously. I now have the honor of fulfilling their 
commission and beg your acceptance of their work." 

Mr. van Eeghen thereupon delivered to General Woodford 
a superbly engrossed and illuminated address, enclosed in a 
gilt frame and measuring 26 by 38 inches inside the frame. 

Surrounding three sides of the text is an elaborate oak-leaf 
border in which at intervals are depicted the following devices: 

In the upper left-hand corner is the seal of the East India 


Inaugural Naval Parade 235 

Company, Amsterdam Chamber, with the legend: "Segel van Docu- 
d'Oost-Indische Compagnie tot Amsterdam. 1602." Confinn. 

In the center of the top border is a device copied from a ing Gift 
silver coin which in olden times was presented by the States" 
General to foreign ambassadors. It bears the coat of arms of 
the United Netherlands, with the motto: "Concordia res 
parvae crescunt." 

In the upper right-hand corner is a design copied from a 
silver coin of the early 17th century, representing a ship of the 
type of the Half Moon, surrounded by the motto: "Nauta 
aequora verrit turbida." In the midst of the motto is the coat 
of arms of Amsterdam. 

In the middle of the left-hand border is a device taken from 
a silver coin — the Holland guilder, or three guilder coin — 
representing the figure of the Netherlands Virgin. She holds 
in her right hand a spear surmounted by a liberty cap, and 
with her left arm leans on a Bible, indicated by the word 
" Biblia." Surrounding the figure is the motto: " Hanc tuemur 
hac nitimur." 

In the middle of the right-hand border is a design copied 
from a bronze counter coin of 1608 commemorating the unity 
of the states of Friesland. It represents two clasped hands 
holding a bundle of arrows and surrounded by the motto: 
"Concordia Frisiae libertas." 

In the lower left-hand corner is the coat of arms of New 
Amsterdam, surmounted by a beaver and supported on the 
dexter side by a lion with a sword, and on the sinister side by 
a lion with a bundle of arrows. Above all are the initials of 
the Incorporated West India Company, "G. W. C." (Geoc- 
troyed West-Indische Compagnie). 

The coin designs are copied from originals in the Royal 
Cabinet of Medals at the Hague. 

Occupying the bottom quarter of the memorial is a picture 
of "Nieuw Amsterdam, 1640," made from a water-color 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

D0C11- drawing of about that date at present in the archives of State, 
Confirm- ^on^pl^ted according to old pictures. The view, from the 
ing Gift direction of Governor's Island, shows the water and ships in 
of Half jjjg foreground. On the southern point of the Island are the 
scaffold and crane. Farther back, the walls of Fort Amsterdam 
appear above the roofs of the surrounding houses. Above the 
walls of the fort are depicted the flagstaff, the roof of the Gover- 
nor's house, and, by artistic license, the roof of the church 
which was erected in the fort in 1642. Above the southwest 
bastion appears the windmill which stood north of the Fort in 
what is now Battery Place. 

Enclosed within these elaborate embellishments is the text, 
engrossed in parallel columns in Dutch and English, reading 
as follows: 

De feestviering ter herinnering aan 

The festivities in commemoration of 

den koenen zeevaarder, die in dienst der 
Nederlandsche Oost-Indische Compagnie, nu 
drie-honderd jaren geleden, de grondslagen 
legde voor de kennis van de streken, waar thans 
het hart der Vereenigde Staten van Noord- 
Amerika zoo krachtig klopt, heeft in Nederland 
levendige belangstelling gewekt. 

Het Volk van Nederland herinnert zich met 
trots, dat een aantal der beste burgers van de 
oude roemrijke Republick der Vereenigde Ned- 
erlanden, een zoo aanzieUijk deel heeft mogen 
hebben aan de stichting van de wereldstad New 
York, eenmal Nieuw Amsterdam. Het heeft 
niet vergeten, dat de afstammelingen van vele 
Nederlandsche Geslachten goed en bloed heb- 
ben veil gehad in den Strijd voor de Vrijheid 
en Onafhankelijkheid der roemrijke Republick 
der Vereenigde Staten van Noord-Amerika, 
terwijl nog tot op den huidigen dag zoo vele 
zijner zonen en dochteren, die zich naar de 
overzijde van den Oceaan begeven en als trouwe 
burgers in die RepubHck wonen, de levendige 
betrekkingen onderhouden, die Nederland aan 
de Vereenigde Staten verbinden op het gebied 


the bold navigator, who, in the service of the 
Dutch East India Company, now three hun- 
dred years ago, laid the foundation of our 
knowledge of that part of the world, where the 
heart of the United States beats so loudly, have 
aroused a lively interest throughout the Nether- 

The Netherlands people look back with 
pride to the number of the best of the burghers 
of the famous old Republic of the United 
Netherlands who played such an influential 
part in the establishment of the Metropolis 
New York, once known as New Amsterdam. 
They have not forgotten that, among those who 
were ready to sacrifice their property and their 
lives in the conflict for Freedom and Inde- 
pendence of the renowned Republic of the 
United States of America, there were the 
descendants of many Dutch families; while at 
the present day very many of Holland's sons 
and daughters, who have crossed the ocean and 
now reside as loyal citizens of that Republic, 
maintain the lively relations, which unite the 
Netherlands and the United States of America 

Inaugural Naval Parade 


van Godsdienst en Staatkundige Viijheid, van 
Handel en Nijverheid, van Wetenschap en 

Teneinde dit alles in tastbaren vorm aan bet 
groote en macbtige Zustervolk der Vereenigde 
Staten te toonen, stelde bet Nederlandscbe 
Volk de, voor dese gedachtenisvieiing gevonnde 
Commissie, waarvan bet Zijne Koninklijke 
Hoogbcid den Frins der Nederlanden bebaagde 
bet Beschermheerscbap te aanvaarden in staat 
aan de 

in one bond of fellow feeh'ng in respect to DOCII- 
Religion and Political Liberty, Commerce and ment 
Industry, Science and Art. Confiim- 

In order to give expression to tbese senti- ing Gift 
ments in some tangible form to tbe great and of Half 
migbty nation of the United States, the Nether- MoOn 
lands People formed, under the Patronage of 
His Royal Highness, Prince Hendrik of the 
Netherlands, a Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Committee, with the object of sending to tbe 


te New York te zenden eene zoo getrouw 
mogelijke nabootsing der "Halve Maen" die, 
nu drie eeuwen geleden, uit Amsterdam, over 
den Oceaan Hudson Toerde langs de boorden 
van de groote rivier, die zijn naam draagt. 

Moge het aanbod van deze berinnering aan 
dat kleine schip, dien notedop, welks komst in 
die wateren van zoo groot belang is geweest 
voor de ontwikkeling der Vereenigde Staten van 
Noord-Amerika welgevallig zijn aan de Hud- 
son-Fulton Celebration Commission als eene 
geteugenis van vriendscbappelijke gezindheid, 
van bloedverwantschap en van gemeenschap 
van belangen, die nog altijd Nederland en de 
Vereenigde Staten met elkander verbinden. 

at New York, as faithful as possible a repro- 
duction of the "Halve Maen,'* which now three 
centuries ago, sailing from Amsterdam, crossed 
the Ocean and conveyed Hudson up the river, 
that bears bis name. 

May this presentation of a model of that 
little vessel, that nut-shell, whose arrival in 
those waters has become of such vast impor- 
tance in tbe development of the United States 
of America, be acceptable to the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission, as an indica- 
tion of tbe friendly feeling of the kinship and 
unity of interests which have ever held and still 
hold the Netherlands and tbe United States of 
America in one mutual bond. 

The Netherlands Hudson Fulton Celebration Committee 

Honory President 



M. Mackay 

Ficc Presidents 
J. T. Cremer S. P. van Eeghen 

R. van Rees 

J. W. P. Van Hoogstraten 

Assistant Secretary 
John Heldring 

The book which Mr. van Eeghen delivered to President ^**^ *** 
Woodford measures ii by 13^ inches in size, is bound in vsrhiteg^if 
russia leather and is stamped in gold. On the front cover isMooQ 

238 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Book of a figure of the Half Moon and the dates 1609 and 1909. The 

Donors of 

Half . ^ , , 

Hoon and red, on the right-hand pages only. The title-page reads 

„ „ book contains 43 heavy leaves, beautifully engrossed in black 







The succeeding pages contain the following names suitably 
displayed : 


Honoraiy President: Vice-Admiral A. G. Ellis, Aide de Camp to Her 
Majesty the Queen. 

President: Baron M. Mackay, Minister of State. 

Vice-Presidents: J. T. Cremer, President of the Netherlands Trading 
Society, Amsterdam; S. P. van Eeghen, Chairman of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, Amsterdam; E. P. de Monchy, Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce, 

Treasurer: R. van Rees. 

Secretary: J. W. P. van Hoogstraten, Aide de Camp to Her Majesty the 

Assistant Secretary: J. Heldring. 


The Managing Directors of the Holland-America Line. 
The Managing Directors of the Dutch West India Mail. 
Baron W. D. H. van Asbeck, Captain R. N. 

Baron J. d'AuInis de Bourouill, Professor at the University of Utrecht. 
Dr. H. Bavinck, Professor at the Free University of Amsterdam. 
Dr. P. J. Blok, Professor at the University of Leiden. 
Dr. A. Kuyper, Minister of State. 
W. F. van Leeuwen, Mayor of Amsterdam. 

J. F. van Beek, Superintendent of Shipbuilding at the Department of the 

F. S. van Nierop, Member of the First Chamber of Representatives. 
J. C. de Marez Oyens, ex-Secretary of State for Commerce. 
L. H. W. Regout, Secretary of State for Commerce. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 239 

Baron W. J. van Welderen Rengers, Member of the First Chamber of Book of 
T> , .• Donors 

Representatives. r -a it 

J. Roell, President of the Second Chamber of Representatives. Moon 

Vice-Admiral J. A. Roell, Aide de Camp to Her Majesty the Queen. 

Baron J. E. N. Schimmelpenninck van der Oye van Hoevelaken, President 
of the First Chamber of Representatives. 

J. E. Scholten, Member of the First Chamber of Representatives. 

D. W. Stork, Member of the First Chamber of Representatives. 

Vice-Admiral Baron J. H. L. J. Sweerts de Landas Wyborgh, Aide-de- 
(iamp to Her Majesty the Queen. 

Baron C. J. van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Comptroller of the Crown Lands. 

Baron J. J. G. van Voorst tot Voorst, Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty the 

Jonkheer P. J. J. S. M. van der Does de Willebois, Member of the First 
Chamber of Representatives. 

A. R. Zimmerman, Mayor of Rotterdam. 


Alsberg, Goldberg & Co.; American Petroleum Company; Amsterdam Deli 
Tobacco Company; Amsterdamsche Bank; M. G. van der Arend; Arnold S. 
van den Berg Ld.; W. H. Teding van Berkhout; J. G. van Beuningen; Blanken- 
heym & Nolet; Adolph Boissevain & Co.; H. Braakman & Co.; Count F. 
van Bylandt; J. T. Cremer; Deli Tobacco Company; Deli Batavia Tobacco 
Company; C. Th. van Deventer; Th. C. Dentz; S. P. van Eeghen; A. E. H. 
Goekoop; Ed. H. H. Goosens; Heldring & Pierson; J. van Hoboken; M. W. H. 
Hooft; P. Th. van Hoorn; Hope & Co.; Hudig & Pieters; Incasso Bank; 
Internationale Crediet en Handelsvereeniging " Rotterdam; " W. Jiskoot; H. 
de Jongh; H. Kruthoffer; Kuyper, van der Dam & Smeer; J. A. Laan; Labou- 
chere, Oyens &Co.'s Bank; H.J. van der Leeuw; E. A.Lehmann;F.Lieftinck; 
Lippman, Rosenthal & Co.; H. Loudon; Baron R. Melvil van Lynden; Baron 
^.Mackay;R.Mees & Sons; J.H.Menten; S. J.R.deMonchy; A. de Monchy; 
E. P. de Monchy; Wm.H.MuUer & Co.; Netherlands Trading Society; Steam- 
ship Company "Nederland;" Nederlandsch Indische Handelsbank; Ph. van 
Ommeren; H. Oyens & Sons; J. C. de Marez Oyens; Willem Pluygers; G. van 
der Pot; Mrs. F. J. Randebrock; W. Ruys & Sons; J. Roell; Royal Packet 
Mail Company; Royal Dutch West India Mail; Rotterdamsche Bank; Scheur- 
leer & Sons; Baron J. E. N. Schimmelpenninck van der Oye van Hoevelaken; 
Baron A. Schimmelpenninck van der Oye van Nyenbeek en de Poll; F. C. 
Stoop; J. E. Scholten; D. W. Stork; Baron C. Sweerts de Landas Wyborgh; 
Teixeira de Mattos Brothers; Twentsche Bank Vereeniging (B. W. Blijden- 
stein & Co.); Vermeer & Co; M. P. Voute; J. C. G. A. de Vogel; Baron W. J. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Book of van Welderen Rengers; C. H. A. van der Wyck; H. L. van der Wyck; Wam- 

of Half 

bersie & Sons. 


Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands. 

Her Majesty the Queen Mother of the Netherlands. 

His Royal Highness Prince Henry of the Netherlands, Duke of Mecklenburg. 

Baroness d'Ablaing van Giesenburg; Baron F. C. van Aersen Beyeren; 
Baron H. W. J. E. Taets van Amerongen; Baron J. N. A. Taets van Amer- 
ongen; Baron H. E. van Asbeck; Baron J. d'AuInis de Bourouill; E. H. Baay; 
H. L. A. van den Wall Bake; H. W. A. van den Wall Bake; Dr. E. J. F. Bav- 
inck; J. B. de Beaufort; W. H. de Beaufort; F. A. G. Beelaerts van Blokland; 
M. G. Bicker Caarten; Louis Bienfait & Sons; Dr. J. C. J. Bierens de Haan; 
Professor P. J. Blok; D. Blooker; A. E. van Boelens van Eys; Boissevain Broth- 
ers; G. M. Boissevain; Eau de Cologne Factory J. C. Boldoot; Lucas Bols 
successors; H. G. Bom; W. G. van der Boor; J. A. L. van den Bosch; C. Bos- 
man; L. C. van den Brandeler; Dr. A. Bredius; P. van der Burg; Burgersdijk 
& Niermans; P. J. van den Burgh; P. J. Buyskes; Mrs. de la Basfecour Coan; 
F. T. Cleton; Professor H. Cop; J. W. H. Crommelin; E. H. Crone; L. J. 
Daendels; Dr. C. E. Daniels; P. J. J. S. M. van der Does de Willebois; G. 
Doncker; R. P. Dojes; Professor H. L. Drucker; A. J. Dijkhorn; G. J. Dijk- 
man; A. W. van Eeghen; Chr. P. van Eeghen; B. E. Eitje; A. G. Ellis; E. 
Elias; B. A. Engelbrecht; W. A. Engelbrecht; F. B. Enthoven; van Es & van 
Ommeren; G. Eschauzier; H. H. Everts; E. ten Cate Fennema; Fichet; Fraser 
& Suermondt; Establissement Fijenoord; W. O. Gallois; Joan Gelderman; 
J. van Gennep; Dr. J. R. van Geuns; K. G. Goedewagen; R. H. Cockinga; 
D. H. van der Goot; D. S. Granaat; Baron J. E. N. Sirtema van Grovestins; 
J. H. Gunning; J. L. Gunning; S. van Gijn; Haagsche Commissiebank; Baron 
J. W. J. van Haersolte; Herrius Halbertsma; S. Hannema Lzn; Jac. Hannema; 
S. Hannema; W. Harmen Czn; R. C. C. van Hasfelt; M. J. van Hattum; D. 
H. Havelaar; Jan Havelaar & Son; C. J. van Heek; H. van Heek; J. J. Henny; 
Ottho Henrici; A. H. Hoekwater; Dr. C. Hofstede de Groot; C. G. 't Hooft; 
J. S. F. van Hoogstraten; J. W. P. van Hoogstraten; A. H. ter Horst; D. van 
Hoytema; D. Hudig; D. Hudig Pzn.; W. N. M. Huart; D. J. de HuUie; Hulsinga 
Brothers; A. J. Immink; Jacobson, van den Berg & Co.; E. Jannink; G. J. 
Jannink; M. de Jong; Dr. R. de Josselin de Jong; N. V. Stoom-Brood-en 
Scheepsbeschuitfabriek v. h. Wed. J. de Jonge; Professor D. Josephus Jitta; 
J. Kalff; Mrs. Kappeyne van de Coppello; J. Ph. van der Kellen; Mrs. van 
der Kemp; D. W. van Andringa de Kempenaer; Mrs. J. B. Aug. Kessler; A. 
P. C. van Karnebeek; A. Keeser & Son; A. W. Keyser & Sons; W. J. P. A. 
Kiersch; Kon. Nederl. Mij. tot Exploitatie van Petroleumbronner in Ned. 

Inaugural Naval Parade 241 

Indie; Kon. Nederl. Grossmederij; E. van Konijnenburg; P. C. Kool; B. van Book of 
Marwijk Kooy; K. Croiset van der Kop; Dr. P. C. Korteweg; J. J. Krantz & Donors 
Son; Dr. A. Kuiper; S. van Leer; Mrs. Loudon-de Steurs; Dr. J. Loudon; „ 
C. L. M. Lambrechtsen van Ritthem; C. de Lange; W. F. Leemans; W. F. 
van Leeuvyen; J. F. van der Lek de Clercq; A. G. van Lennep; D. van Leyden; 
F. B. Coninck Liefsting; Mrs. A. van Linden van den Heuvel; J. Lips & Son; 
C. L. Loder; J. A. LoefF; E. Luitsz; Mij. tot Exploitatie van Fijnhouthandel 
& Stoomzagerij; B. W. Manus; W. van Marken; W. W. van Marie; P. A. Mees; 
R. Mees; A W. M. Mensing; J. J. van Stuyvesant Meyen; Professor R. S. 
Tjaden Modderman; M. J. de Monchy; M R. de Monchy; A Mos; Abr. 
MuUer; Nederlandsch Indische Gas Maatschappij; Nederlandsche Scheeps- 
bouw Maatschappij; Nederlandsche Fabriek van Werktuigen en Spoorweg- 
materieel; F. van Nispen; Nolst Trenite; Tutein Nolthenius; P. van Notten; 
Baron E. J. B. van Pallandt; J. A. N. Patijn; Peck & Co.; F. J. W. de Westein 
Pfister; K. M. PhafF; Dr. A. Pit; J. R. Planten; Richard Polak; A. Polak; 
J. C. Quarles van IJfFord; E. J. Radius; F. van Reenen; L. W. W. Regout; 
O. J. A. Repelaer van Driel; B. W. F. van Riemsdijk; Willem Rikkers; Baron 
W. Roell; Vice-Admiral J. A. Roell; J. A. Roessingh van Iterson; J. F Graadt 
van Roggen; Rotterdamsche Transport Maatschappij; J. G. M. Royaards; 
J. W. van Royen; A. J. Rijk; Schlesing & Co.; van Schmid; P. W. Scholten; 
Sentanen Lor Java Sugar Factories; B. W. N. Servatius; N. Simons; W. Six; 
Sluis & Groot; N. Sluis; J. F. Snelleman; W. Spakler; B. F. K. Spiering; 
F. W. J. G. Spiering; M. L. C. Staring; A. Stoop; F. Stoop; F. Stork; D. D. 
Stuten; Baron A A. Sweerts de Landas Wyborgh; J. C. Sweijs; P. J. van Swin» 
deren; R. de Marees van Swinderen; W. Tabingh Suermondt; Louis Tas; 
Jos. Thors; C. T. F. Thurkow; W. Laman Trip; A. W. Tromp; Baron H. W. J. 
van Tuyll van Serooskerken; Baron C. J. van Tuyll van Serooskerken; M 
Tydeman; Miss C. J E. M. Vaillant; F. J. Vegelin van Claerbergen; Vereen- 
iging "Onze Vloot; " E. G. Verkade; C. J. N. Verloren van Themaat; A. W. 
van Reigersberg Versluys; J. F. Verster; J. J. Verwijnen; L. Volker; Professor 
C. van Vollenhoven; Baron J. J. G. van Voorst tot Voorst; T. Vorstius; Caesar 
Voute; Baron van Vredenburgh; A. Vrijburg; M. de Vries van Buren; F. van 
de Wall; Dr. G. Waller; M. J. Waller; F. G. Waller; Baron J. D. van Wasse- 
naer van Rosande; N. W. van Waveren; F. von Weckherlin; D. K. Welt; Jan 
van Wesel & Son; J. V. Wierdsma; Colonel J. C. Wilbrenninck; J. R. Wiiste; 
var Wijk Brothers; J. de Wijs; Professor P. Zeeman; W. Zillesen.* 

* This book and the engrossed certificate are deposited with the archives of the Com- 
mission in the New York Historical Society. 


242 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Accept- In receiving these testimonials, General Woodford said : 

flIlCfi Ox 

Hj^lf "Gentlemen: The Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission of New 

Moon York appreciates all that our friends and kinsfolk in Holland have 
done to help us keep this three-hundredth birthday of our city, and 
it is with the feelings of profoundest gratitude that I accept the 
Half Moon and these other testimonials of your generosity and good 
will toward the State which, like a great and strong oak tree, has 
grown from the acorn which your forefathers planted here. We 
welcome you to our hearts and our homes and hope that you will be 
pleased with our city and the sister communities along the Hudson 
Valley, who are anxiously awaiting the opportunity to entertain you. 
We greet you with affectionate friendship. In behalf of all New 
York, I bid God-speed to Holland, and may the richest blessings of 
Heaven forever rest upon the brow of your fair young Queen." 

Then turning to the Commander of the Half Moon, General 
Woodford said: 

"Monsieur le Capitaine: There has been and always will be, when 
the fleets of nations meet, some question as to precedence. But 
to-day Captain Henry Hudson, who has come from the grave to bid 
us welcome, is the first among our naval guests." 

Recep- Following the presentation of the Half Moon, Captain Miller, 

*I°°^*!* as Chairman of the Naval Parade Committee, under whose 

the Cler- ,. . , ^ 

mont direction the Clermont was built, addressed General Wood- 
ford and formally announced the arrival of the Clermont, at 
the same time presenting to him the Rev. C. S. Bullock, who 
impersonated Robert Fulton, and Miss Evelyn Bullock, who 
took the character of Miss Harriet Livingston, Fulton's fiancee. 
General Woodford said : 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: Since I welcomed Henry Hudson, arisen 
from his grave, two hundred years have passed; and now Robert 
Fulton with Miss Livingston, before their fortunate marriage, comes 
to bid New York greeting. The grave has seldom restored fairer 
and braver representatives of a bygone generation, and I bid you and 
your fellow passengers hearty welcome. 

"Captain Miller, in behalf of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission, I accept the Clermont from the Naval Parade Com- 

Inaugural Naval Parade 243 

tnittee and commit it to the care of the Clermont Committee; and I 
congratulate you and your colaborers on the success of your difficult 
undertaking in reproducing this famous vessel." 

Dr. Jokichi Takamine, representing the Japanese residents Presenta- 

of New York, then addressed General Woodford as follows: ^°° ° 

' Japanese 

"Gentlemen and Members of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Cherry 
Commission: Your honorable Commission and the government of 
your great city have graciously signified to the undersigned com- 
mittee of Japanese residents their pleasure in permitting us to take 
part in the momentous Hudson-Fulton Celebration by accepting our 
offering of 2,100 cherry trees from Japan, to be planted along your 
beautiful and unique Riverside Drive. We beg hereby to tender 
them to you in the fullest and warmest spirit of affection, gratitude 
and good will. 

"What the cherry tree is to Japan we would wish it to symbolize 
to you — the ever-living spirit of the land, bringing with every spring 
a world of blossom and joy. Along the banks of the mighty stream 
whose discoverer and first steam navigator we celebrate to-day, and 
around the tomb of General Grant, whose memory we of Japan hold 
dear, may the river of Japanese blooms flow year after year a flower- 
ing witness to all time of our affection for New York and the United 

"We thank you and the municipal authorities for the precious 
privilege of taking this humble part in the great and historic cele- 
bration, and feelingly subscribe ourselves : 

Dr. JoKicHi Takamine, 


RioiCHiRO Arai, 


Daijiro Ushikubo, 
" Committee of Japanese Residents of New York." 

General Woodford replied : 

"Dr. Takamine, and Gentlemen: To-day is doubly — triply — Accep- 
fortunate for New York. To-day we keep the three-hundredth ^^^^^ <* 
birthday of our city. To-day we keep the hundredth anniversary-, "^ 
of the application of steam to navigation upon these waters, and 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 




to-day we count ourselves fortunate, that as the founders of our city 
came from across the Atlantic, our friends who bring this greeting come 
from across the Pacific. New York welcomes you as she welcomes 
them. We understand that the cherry tree and blossoms in your 
beautiful land of Japan are symbols of truth, loyalty and honor. 
We understand that the cherry tree lives from 250 to about 300 
years of age; and we sincerely trust that when the six-hundredth 
birthday of our city comes, still by the banks of the Hudson and in 
our parks there will be, if not your trees, at least their scions and 
descendants; and that truth, purity and honor may still find a flower- 
ing spot here as they find a flowering spot in your beautiful land 
across the sea. 

"Now, Ladies and Gentlemen, in behalf of the Commission, I 
wish to thank Mayor McClellan, who has honored us with his pres- 
ence; the Governor of our State, who has also done such great work, 
and all of your representatives of foreign countries and citizens of 
our own. We bid you thanks for coming to our birthday, and give 
you greetings and good wishes." 

During these ceremonies at the OiRcial Landing, the scene 
presented by the American and Foreign officials resplendent in 
their military, naval and diplomatic uniforms, the Half Moon 
representatives in their quaint attire of 300 years ago, and the 
group of passengers from the Clermont in their many hued 
costumes of a century ago, v^as brilliant and picturesque in 
the extreme. 

In the evening the naval parade, vsrith the exception of the 
Scout and Escort Squadrons, v^as substantially repeated, the 
procession forming in the upper bay, sailing up the river and 
circumnavigating the war fleet as in the afternoon. The effect 
of the evening parade v?as heightened by the illumination of 
the war fleet and the fireworks, described in Chapter X. 

Speaking of these parades. Captain Miller says: "The 
parade of Saturday, September 25, has never been equalled, 
in numbers or extent, either upon the waters of this country or 
perhaps those of the world. The scene and ceremonies of the 
morning as the Half Moon and Clermont started from Staten 

Inaugural Naval Parade 245 

Island, receiving an ovation at Tompkinsville and Bay Ridge, 
was most impressive; while the formation of the various squad- 
rons and divisions in the lower bay presented a fine marine 
picture. The head of the fleet, led by revenue cutters, 
torpedo boats, submarines, the Gloucester, and other craft, 
acting as an escorting squadron to the Half Moon and Cler- 
mont, from the Battery to iioth street, was started on time. 
The ten miles of men-of-war extending from Spuyten Duyvil 
to 42d street; the 800 anchored vessels on either shore; the 
millions of people on the water front; the moving panorama of 
742 merchant ships, yachts and motor boats, navigating by the 
Government ships, and passing in review at iioth street, 
furnished a pageant never to be forgotten — unless it were 
excelled by the repetition of the moving parade in the evening, 
past the illuminated ships, amidst the brilliancy of pyrotechnics 
and searchlights in unsurpassable effects on a perfect night. 
To the men who assisted the Naval Parade Committee in 
rendering such a success without injury to person or property 
too much credit cannot be given." * 

* On September 13, 1910, the Executive Committee of the Commission voted to sell the Final 
Clermont to the Hudson River Day Line in consideration of a cash payment and repairs to Disposi- 
the vessel equivalent to $2,361.85, and in further consideration of that company's agreement tion Of 
to maintain, care for, exhibit, and, when practicable, operate the Clermont as an object Clermont 
lesson in the science of steam navigation. The final disposition of the Half Moon is 
recorded on page 104. 




ATURDAY, September 25, and Sunday, September 26, 
were especially designated for religious services by 
those accustomed to worship on the seventh and first 
days of the week. 

In February, 1909, the Committee on Religious Services, of 
which Hon. John G. Agar is Chairman, sent out to several 
hundred clergymen of all denominations a circular letter which 
called attention to the approaching Celebration of the dis- 
covery of the Hudson River and the invention of the steamboat, 
and continued as follows: 

Circular "This Commission, in acknowledgment of the Divine guidance 

Letter to j^j ^^^^^ ^^^ g^g^^ events, has set apart the first two days of the cele- 

*'^ bration, namely, Saturday, September 25, and Sunday, September 

26, for religious observance by those accustomed to worship on 

the seventh and first days of the week respeccively. 

"We therefore invite you to call the attention of your people to 
the approach of this important celebration and also to deliver a 
special sermon or address on this occasion, and to arrange such other 
services suitable to your form of worship as will permit your people 
to make due acknowledgment in prayer of God's wisdom in direct- 
ing the events commemorated; one opened up our State and gave 
birth to our Commonwealth; the other laid the foundation of the 
water-borne commerce upon which the prosperity of the State and 
City so largely depends, and both combined to extend the blessings 
of civilization throughout our country. 

"It is the earnest wish of this Commission that, in the midst of 
the abounding prosperity of the times, this Celebration shall not be 
too largely of a material qualify. Therefore, the universities, colleges, 
schools and learned societies throughout the State will be requested 
to hold commemorative exercises suited to such institutions; but to 
the spiritual advisers we look for those ceremonious observances 


Religious Services 247 

which will inspire our people with the spirit of gratitude for their 
legacy from the past, of happiness and contentment in the blessings 
of the present, and of their duty to transmit this heritage unimpaired 
to the future." 

The clergy of the State responded sympathetically to this General 
appeal and generally took cognizance of the Celebration, not obswv"^ 
only on the two days especially mentioned in the letter, butance 
also on other religious days during the following fortnight. 
The Most Reverend John M. Farley, Roman Catholic Arch- 
bishop of New York, and the Right Reverend David H. Greer, 
Bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of New York, 
authorized certain special prayers for the occasion. 

The Reformed Protestant Dutch Church of the City of New 
York, organized in 1628, two years after the first permanent 
settlement of Manhattan Island by the Dutch, took especial 
interest in the Celebration as the oldest Church organization in 
the Metropolis, and held commemorative services on Sunday 
morning and evening, September 26, in its churches at Second 
avenue and 7th street. Fifth avenue and 29th street. Fifth 
avenue and 48th street, and West End avenue and 77th street. 

Services were also held very generally throughout the State, 
more particular references to some of which will be found in 
the accounts of the local celebrations north of New York City. 




"HE public Official Reception of the foreign guests was 
held at the Metropolitan Opera House, in New York 
City, on the evening of Monday, September 27, 1909, 
beginning at 8.30 o'clock. 
Literary In its original plan, the Commission had intended to devote 
Exercises ^^^ evening of the Celebration exclusively to literary exercises, 
Merged ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ arrangements for such a meeting had been 
made by the Committee on Official Literary Exercises, of 
which Gen. James Grant Wilson was Chairman. Later, how- 
ever, is was deemed advisable, in view of the numerous literary 
features of other parts of the Celebration and the close crowd- 
ing of events, to dispense with the special literary evening as 
such, and in connection with the Official Reception, to avail 
the Commission of such arrangements as already had been 
made by General Wilson's Committee. This being done, the 
detailed arrangements for the public Official Reception of for- 
eign representatives were made by the Reception Committee, 
of which the Hon. Seth Low is Chairman. 

Admission to the Opera House was by ticket, and a cordon 
of police and Naval Reserve men — the latter under com- 
mand of Capt. Jacob W. Miller — surrounded the building 
and permitted only authorized persons to enter. 

The interior of the auditorium was simply but tastefully 
adorned with wreaths and garlands of laurel and the official 
colors of the Celebration — orange, white and blue. The 
stage, which was open to its full extent, was also garnished 
with masses of laurel, streamers of incandescent lights, and 
two panels, one representing the Half Moon and one the 
Clermont. The scene upon the stage, which was occupied by 


Official Reception of Foreign Guests 249 

the foreign representatives in their various uniforms, was very 

Franko's orchestra rendered instrumental music, and the 
New York Banks Glee Club, occupying the front rows of the 
orchestra seats, kindly gave their services in rendering vocal 

After an overture by the orchestra, General Woodford, Mayor 
President of the Commission, presented in the following words j p^^_ 
the Mayor of the City of New York as the presiding officer of sented 
the evening: 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: On behalf of the Hudson-Fulton Cele- 
bration Commission, it is my pleasure, as it is my privilege, to 
present the presiding oflScer of the evening, His Honor, George B. 
McCIellan, the Mayor of the City of New York. It is my double 
pleasure, for memory awakes to-night, to present to you the son 
and the namesake of my old Commander in the Army of the Potomac, 
George B. McCIellan." 

Mayor McCIellan then assumed the Chair, and the pro- 
ceedings continued in the following order: 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "Invocation will be offered by the 
Right Reverend David H. Greer, D.D., Bishop of New York." 

BISHOP GREER: "Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, inlnvoca- 
whom we live and move and have our being, and by whose might *'°° ''y 
Thy pioneers in the wilderness didst lead the way of empire; we „ ^ 
humbly approach Thee with praise and thanksgiving for all that 
Thou hast done for the children of men. Especially do we thank 
Thee for the gifts vouchsafed to that discoverer and that inventor 
whose achievements we are moved at this time to commemorate. 

"And while we meditate in grateful homage on our debt to Thee 
through these, Thy servants, who by their brave persistence in 
venturing all things did so extend to us the benefits of navigation, 
we pray that Thou wilt give us the understanding heart to know 
that Thine is the power which makes and moves the wheels of prog- 
ress. Prosper all research that delves more and more deeply into 
the mine of knowledge and strengthen our grasp of the truth that 
without Thee, our labor is but lost. Bless our land with honorable 

250 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

industry, sound learning and pure manners. Fashion into one happy 
people the multitude brought hither out of many kindreds and 
tongues. Imbue with the spirit of wisdom those whom we entrust 
in Thy name with the authority of governance, that all things may 
be so ordered and settled by their endeavors upon the best and surest 
foundations that peace and happiness, truth and justice, religion 
and piety, may be established among us all for all generations. 

" Bind the nations of the earth in the bonds of Brotherhood and 
Peace; make wars to cease and righteousness to reign. In the time 
of prosperity, fill our hearts with thankfulness; and in the day of 
trouble, suffer not our trust in Thee to fail. All which we ask for 
His sake, Who has taught us to say: 

"Our Father, who art In Heaven, hallowed be Thy name; Thy 
Kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give 
us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses, as we 
forgive those who trespass against us; and lead us not into tempta- 
tion, but deliver us from evil; for Thine is the Kingdom and the 
power and the glory, for ever and ever. Amen." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "The New York Banks Glee Club 
will now sing 'Excelsior.'" 

The Glee Club sang "Excelsior" to the words of Long- 
fellow's poem of that title. 

Address MAYOR McCLELLAN: "It may be possible that Hudson was 
by Mayor ^qj. jjjg g^^-gj European to see New York Harbor and that Fulton was 
j^ not the first to utilize the steam engine in navigation. Yet for all 

practical purposes, Hudson did discover the river which bears his 
name, and Fulton was the first to make steam navigation a com- 
mercial success. And so, to Hudson we owe the possibility of the 
existence of our City, and to Fulton we owe the possibility of her 

"When Hudson sailed through the Narrows he must have realized 
that the Island of Manhattan, which faced him, was destined some 
day, because of his discovery, to be the site of a great city. He 
could not know, as he steered past the west end of Long Island, that 
he beheld the site of another great city, now part of our own and 
destined to be the home of the man who should, three hundred years 
after his time, perform a deed of exploration, fraught with more 
hardships and daring than his own. The discovery of the North 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 251 

Pole does not give to the world what Hudson gave it, yet we all Address 

feel proud to claim for New York a feat which has been essayed in °^ Mayor 

• u J • f 1 • McClel- 

vam by daring men irom almost every great nation. jj^jj 

"When Fulton launched the Clermont, he must have realized 
that the New York he knew was destined some day, because of his 
invention, to grow into a mighty capital. And because of the dis- 
covery of the one and the invention of the other. New York has 
become the City she is to-day. 

"I like to think that the spirits of Hudson and of Fulton have 
watched the progress from small beginnings to great realizations 
of the harbor and the town of the long ago. I Hke to think that in 
life they had some anticipation of the forces and the progress they 
were setting in motion, and that now they appreciate their own 

"Then they saw through a glass darkly; now they know. I like 
to think that they are content with the child they knew, in the full 
development of her maturity. For the New York of to-day, our 
New York, is a wondrous place. She is rich and strong and mighty 
among ail the cities of the earth. She is the center of wealth, and 
art, and thought, and power upon the western continent. Those 
who do not know her say that she is inhospitable, cold and selfish. 

"We, who are her children, know that she has a heart, and that 
it beats strong and true. Beauty she has, but not as other cities, 
for hers is a barbaric and a lawless beauty that is all in all her own. 
It has been the confusion of artists and the despair of critics. It is a 
beauty that knows neither rules nor laws, for it violates every rule 
of architecture and every canon of art. Those who have made art 
their life work have exclaimed in horror when first they have seen 
her skyscrapers and her sky line. Those who know nothing of art, 
who never heard of Scamozzi or of Palladio, who cannot distinguish 
between the Romanesque and the Renaissance, have none the less 
proclaimed her as an ugly city. 

"But once the first surprise is over, artist and Philistine alike have 
found themselves, shamefacedly perhaps, confessing that New York 
is beautiful with a beauty unlike that of any other city in the world. 
For, as Venice is the queen of the Renaissance, alone and splendid 
and Oriental, so New York is the queen of the Twentieth Century, 
alone and splendid in her architectural barbarism of to-day. 

252 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Address "There are comparatively few buildings in New York City which, 
iw ri*f**' when taken by themselves, are not architecturally incorrect; there 
jgji are only a few buildings that even by a stretch of the imagination 

can of themselves be called beautiful. But, take the city altogether, 
the general effect of the city as a whole, the contrast of its blotches of 
vivid color, with the bright blue of the sky in the background, and 
of the waters of the harbor in the foreground, the huge masses of 
its office buildings, towering peak on peak and pinnacle above pinnacle 
to the sky, making of lower Manhattan, to the eye, at least, a city 
that is set on a hill, and New York does possess a beauty of her own, 
a beauty that is indescribable, that seizes one's sense of imagination 
and holds one in its grip in a way as does that of no other city. 

"And there is a charm about New York which is as compelling 
as is her beauty. The City possesses the mysterious power of the 
magnet to draw to herself all sorts and conditions of men, the force 
of the whirlpool to gather them to her bosom and to hold them there. 
Men have left New York and have been unable to stay away, for 
the lure of the town has called them back and they have returned, 
some for good and some for ill. Men and women have lived and 
worked and died for New York, some have found Heaven through 
her, and some have deserved Hell because of her. 

"Is it surprising that her children take pride in this wonder city 
and delight to serve her ? Is it surprising that she is well served — 
that merchant, financier, lawyer, physician, clergyman, official, from 
highest to lowest, all honor and love her .'' The service of such a 
city either in private or public life is well worth while and well worth 
the cost, no matter what that cost may be. And as the years go by, 
and the days of our service reach their term, even if the cost of service 
has been youth and health and life itself, hopes disappointed, ambition 
crushed, worldly prospects brought to naught, the consciousness of 
our service well performed is of itself worth while — the memories 
of our youth and of our strength, of which no man can deprive use 
and which will endure always. 

"Let me assure you, our guests, that we are very proud that you 
should have come, representing almost every country on earth, to 
join with us in this tribute of affection to our mother city. I sincerely 
trust that the impression made upon you by this assemblage will 
help the nations of the world to a more perfect understandmg of 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 253 

the real hopes and aspirations of the American people. For, as we Address 
believe that the chief end of life is the attainment of happiness, so °^ p,^**' 
we know that happiness in this world can only be achieved j^^^ 
through peace on earth and good will toward men. And as 
we respect ourselves and expect others to respect us, so we earnestly 
strive to respect the rights of the sister peoples of the earth. 

"On behalf of the people of the City of New York, I, the Mayor, 
bid you welcome. It is our most earnest hope that you also may 
fall under the spell of our City's charm, so that at the end of this 
celebration, if you must leave us, you will not fail, some day, to 

After a selection of music by the Glee Club Mayor McClellan 

'' We have now reached a very interesting number upon our pro- 
gram. Mrs. JuHa Ward Howe, who needs no introduction in this 
country, and scarcely in any part of the world, will read a poem she 
has prepared specially for this occasion. Mrs. Julia Ward Howe." 

Thereupon the entire gathering stood while Mrs. Howe read Poem 
the following original poem: 

by Mrs. 


A river flashing like a gem, 
Crowned with a mountain diadem, 
Invites an unaccustomed guest 
To launch his shallop on her crest — 
A pilgrim whose exploring mind 
Must leave his tardy pace behind 
'^My bark creeps slow, the world is vast, 
How shall its space be overpassed i" 

Responsive to his cry appears 
A visionary, young in years, 
Commissioned with prophetic brain 
The mystic problem to explain: 
"Where fire and water closest blend, 
There find a servant and a friend." 

Yet many a moon must wax and wane, 
With sleepless nights and days of pain, 
Pleading a monarch's court before, 
Shrewd processes and study sore, 
Ere on the silver tide shall float. 
Swifter than thought, young Fulton's boat. 

254 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Poem And not alone for Hudson^s stream 

by Mrs. Avails the magic power of steam. 

Howe Blessings of unimagined worth 

Its speed shall carry round the earth; 

Knowledge shall on its pinions ily, 

Nor land nor race in darkness lie; 

Commerce her hoards shall freely bring 

To many an urgent summoning, 

And Want and Wealth, in sundered lands, 

Shall closely clasp redeeming hands, 

While master minds^ new gospels span 

The holy brotherhood of man. 

Rest, Fulton, in thine honored grave. 
Remembered with the wise and brave; 
Thy message visits every sea. 
Herald of benefits to be. 
So nearly may our world relate 
The mighty movements of her fate, 
So Doom and Dangers wide apart 
Appeal to every human heart. 

And, as one sun doth compass all 
That shall arise or may befall, 
One fiat on creation's night 
Bestowed the blessed boon of light. 
So shall all life one promise fill 
For Freedom, Justice, and Good will. 

The New York Banks Glee Club then sang Mrs Howe's 
"Battle Hymn of the Republic," after which Mayor McClellan 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "The address of welcome on behalf of 
the Commission will be delivered by General Stewart L. Woodford." 
Welcome GENERAL STEWART L. WOODFORD: "Mr. Chairman, 
by Gen. Honored Guests: My words shall be very few. We have asked the 
" nations of the world to come here and keep our birthday with us, 
and we are gratefully glad that you are here. In the western par- 
lance, the latch string is. yours; our hearts are in our hands; we want 
you to have the best of good times while you are here, to carry back 
some pleasant memory of the old Holland city, and if, by the gathering 
of the fleets of all the world in the river that bears Hudson's name, 
we shall contribute somewhat, no matter how little, to the brother- 
hood of all nations, we shall be glad that you have come. 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 255 

"As Daniel Webster said upon another occasion: 'Light the 
beacons, kindle the bonfires, let music ring out'— and for one week 
let New York be glad and proud altogether and when the week is 
over, let us go back to our daily work, the better for having had a 
good family festival, with larger thought of what New York 
should be. 

" Let us make New York better and worthier of the greeting that 
the world gives it. We have been given great opportunity. A 
better harbor there is not on our coast. Easier communication up 
the Hudson and throughout the Mohawk Valley and over the great 
lakes there is not, for industry and commerce. More men of every 
race have come here than gather in any nation of Christendom. 
Great is our opportunity; great is our responsibility. And, in the 
glory of all the friends to-night, the sons across the sea, a warning 
from the man whose language we speak — * Lest we forget. Lest 
we forget.' 

"The dust of ages gathers on human tombs. The story of what 
has been replaces the dream of what is. Shall New York be great 
only as New York is dust ? As New York is law-abiding, as New 
York seizes the ideals that are forever before us, God grant that our 
New York, the New York we love, may be not merely the New York 
of commercial stress, not merely the New York of industrial endeavor, 
but the New York of human brotherhood, the New York of human 
aspiration, the New York that shall prove in the distant centuries 
that cities like nations, and nations like men, are only rich as their 
ideals are high." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "We are greatly honored that twenty- 
seven of the nations of the earth should be represented here to-night. 
Responses to the address of welcome will be made by the Special 
Delegates representing the nations.* 

" I have the honor to introduce to you the Special Delegate of the Argen- 
Argentine Republic, Senor Don Julio Carrie." *"^^ 

As Senor Carrie was introduced, he stepped forward and in 
turn bowed to Mayor McClellan, General Woodward and the 
audience, being greeted with cordial applause. Similar cere- 

* Only the representatives of foreign governments who were appointed as Special Delegates were 
called upon at this function. 

256 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

mony was observed and similar applause was given as each 
delegate was presented. Several of the delegates made no 
formal reply. Where replies were made, they are given in 
the following pages. After Senor Carrie had resumed his 
seat, Mayor McClellan continued the introductions, calling 
upon the delegates in the alphabetical order of the names of 
their countries. 

Belgian MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce to you 
Delegate ,.j^g Count deBuisseret, Special Delegate of Belgium." 

COUNT deBUISSERET: "Allow me to express my gratification 

at having been appointed by His Majesty, the King, to represent 

Belgium, at this magnificent celebration, so truly American in its 


Chilian MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce to you 

Delegate {{jg Special Delegate from Chili, Senor Don Jose Francisco Vergara." 

Senor Vergara bowed his acknowledgments. 
Colom- MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce Special 
bian Delegate from the Republic of Colombia, Mr. Eduardo Pombo." 

Delegate y^^ EDUARDO POMBO: "It is a great honor for me as the 
delegate from the Republic of Colombia, to extend to you on this 
memorable occasion the sincere congratulations of the Colombian 
Government and people, as well as mine. I beg also to convey 
through you such congratulations to the State and City of New York." 
Costa MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce the 

Rican Special Delegate from Costa Rica, Dr. Juan J. Ulloa." 
Delegate pR juan J. ULLOA: "Mr. Chairman, President and Mem- 
bers of the Commission, Fellow Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen: 
At this most important gathering of all the nations of the world, 
come together to greet and to admire this great emporium upon the 
celebration in honor of two great men, important because of its 
history, I have the honor to be the official carrier of the greetings 
of the President and of the people of Costa Rica, who send you through 
me their good will and their fervent wishes for your welfare, and for 
the ever-increasing prosperity of New York. 

"The tremendous progress achieved by this City demonstrates 
fully how it has developed to its great advantage the gifts of Hudson 
and of Fulton, thanks to which the frail Indian child, adopted by 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 257 

Dutchmen, brought up by England, was crowned when of age 
the mighty queen of progress and of civilization in the new world. 

"The discovery of Hudson of this magnificent highway which has 
developed New York into the greatest commercial City which time 
has seen, and the great steam navigation, whose constant whistling 
has been calling for a hundred years the nations of the world to a 
life of work and of progress, are indeed the greatest achievements to 
be commemorated by this most wonderful center of human activity. 
That the celebration of the anniversary of the great accomplishments 
of Hudson and Fulton is a great success, nobody doubts, and it 
could not be otherwise when we consider that New York has the 
brain to direct, the arm to execute and the means to accomplish. 

"Mr. President and Members of the Commission for the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration, in the name of Costa Rica, I extend to you my 
hearty congratulations." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to Introduce the Cuban 
Special Delegate from Cuba, Brigadier-General Gerardo Machado." ^^'egate 

President: By decree of President Gomez, dated the 13th instant, I 
have had the honor of being appointed delegate of the Republic of 
Cuba, to attend the festivals in commemoration of the third cen- 
tenary of the discovery of the Hudson river and the centennial of 
steam navigation on said river. 

"The Cuban people send their most cordial solicitations to the 
people of the State of New York for the happy idea of celebrating 
in such a magnificent way these two remarkable events which are 
prominently recorded in the history of civilization, and also for the 
brilliant manner with which all nations have answered the invitations 
extended to them by the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

"Cuba, as a sovereign country, joins in this celebration with as 
much enthusiasm as is felt by any other nation or any State of the 
Union, not only on account of its keen interest in the world progress 
and the advancement of science, but also because of the everlasting 
friendship and of the close relations which exist between the Island 
Republic and the United States of America." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce Count Danish 
C. Moltke, Special Delegate from Denmark." Delegate 

COUNT C. MOLTKE: "Mr. President: In the name of His 

258 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Danish Danish Majesty's Government I convey to you as President of the 
Delegate Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission their most cordial greetings 
and congratulations on the great meeting that you have so success- 
fully convened in commemoration of the great discoverer and great 
inventor of the past. Danes have from the earliest periods of explora- 
tions and settlements of these shores been under their particular 
spell, and Danish names figure in the records of this country long 
before the Federation of States took place. Later years have con- 
tinued and developed the efforts of the first Danish pioneers into the 
great Danish speaking population that now-a-days has made its 
home on this side of the Atlantic, and has to no small degree, I dare 
say, shared your sacrifices in opening up the country to its present 
state of economic and social conditions. 

"It is, therefore, with pride and affectionate admiration that we 
watch every event that serves to magnify this great Republic and that 
we rejoice in your continuation of the high traditions established in 
her already glorious infancy and in your splendid achievements of 
the present day. 

"These are the sentiments which my Government are happy to 
express to you through my modest voice." 
Ecuador MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to present Senor 
Delegate Don Esteban Carbo, Special Delegate of Ecuador." 

SENOR DON ESTEBAN CARBO: "His Excellence, Eloy 
Alfaro, President of the Republic of Ecuador, through your kind 
offices, sends greetings and good wishes to the gentlemen of the Com- 
mittee in charge of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, and heartily 
joins in the commemoration of events of such transcendental 
and far-reaching consequences. Ecuador, having been the first 
country south of the Isthmus of Panama where steam was applied 
to the propulsion of vessels, considers itself justified in rejoicing 
and commemorating the wonderful achievement of Robert Fulton. 
(Addressing General Woodford.) I assure you it is a great honor 
for me to have the opportunity to present the assurances of my 
country and to add my best wishes for the welfare and continued 
prosperity of New York." 
French MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to present M. Jean 
Delegate Gaston Darboux, Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of Sciences, 
Special Delegate of France." 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 259 

M. JEAN GASTON DARBOUX: "To the Governor of the French 
State of New York, the Mayor and the Members of the Hudson- Delegate 
Fulton Commission, Gentlemen: Of the two men whom you unite 
in one anniversary, one was a bold navigator, the other a fearless 
engineer. The discoveries to which they have attached their names 
seem at first not to be compared, and yet there is many a point com- 
mon in their destinies. Both have had the merit of reaching definite 
and lasting achievements, both have had precursors who had 
prepared the way; both died prematurely without obtaining the 
reward due to their efforts or to their genius, above all, without 
seeing their discoveries given some of the result which they had 

"Hendrick Hudson, valiant captain, was the first to explore this 
river which bears his name and the romantic beauties of which have 
been seductive to all those who have been over it. If he had a prede- 
cessor, — the Florentine Verrazzano, who on the ship La Dauphine, 
chartered by our King Francis I, explored in 1524 the Bay of New 
York, and recognized the mouth of the river, — it is from Hudson, 
incontestably, that the first occupation of your country by Europeans 
here dates, so that this region, after being called for a time, short 
indeed, 'New France,' after having seen the variations of its shores, 
endowed on the Verrazzanian maps with names borrowed from the 
geography of our country, or that of the neighborhood of Florence, 
was called successively. New Holland, then New England, has 
become the Empire State, the [heart itself of free and powerful 

"Robert Fulton, likewise, before launching on the river Hudson 
the small boat which in honor of his friend Livingston he called 
the 'Clermont,' and which some of the inhabitants of New York 
had surnamed 'Fulton's Folly,' Fulton, before inaugurating this 
steam navigation which was to the nineteenth century the pre- 
ponderating factor of the progress of civilization, Fulton had also 
his predecessors in different countries. You may point out more 
than one in America itself In France, we would have to recall the 
names of Denis Papin, the inventor of the steam engine; of the Marquis 
de Jouffroy d'Abbans; but to-day we wish particularly to remember 
that Fulton lived some time among us, that it was in Paris that he 
gave the primor of his discovery, that it was on the Seine that he 

26o The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

French appeared for the first time with the steamboat, of which he had 
Delegate d^awn the plans, taking care to avoid errors which until then had 
damaged or rendered useless all previous attempts. The account 
of the session, held August 8, 1803, by our Academy of Sciences, 
which was then called the First Class of the Institute, contains the 
following passage: 

"'Robert Fulton invites the class to see the experiment of a boat 
going up the river by means of a steam engine. He joins to his 
invention several remarks relative to his process. The citizens 
Bossut, Bougainville, Perier, and Carnot are specially charged to 
be present at the experiment and to report the same to the class.' 

"The experiment was held the next day, August 9th; it met with 
full success. 'At six o'clock in the evening,' tells a visual witness, 
'Fulton, aided by only three persons, started his boat and the two 
others tied behind, and during an hour and a half he gave the 
sightseers this strange spectacle of a boat moved by wheels like a 
chariot, these wheels armed with shuttlecocks and flat blades moved 
by a fire pump.' 

"Among the sightseers of whom speaks this visual witness, were 
the delegates of the Academy of Sciences, some of whom had difficulty 
in following the progress of Fulton's ship. Although the contrary 
was stated, they took pleasure in ascertaining the success of the 
American invention, for one month later, on September 12th follow- 
ing, the section of mechanics of the Academy proposed him for a 
place of correspondent; and besides, our great Carnot, the one who, 
by saving France from invasion, has deserved the beautiful title 
of 'organizer of victory,' Carnot, who, during his incumbency as 
Minister of War, had known of the plunging boats of Fulton, 
wrote to him the following letter: 

"'If I had still the honor to be Minister of War, I should not 
hesitate a moment to give you the means of making an attempt, the 
complete success of which is indubitable and of which I forsee the 
immense results for the future.' 

"Unfortunately, at the time when Carnot was writing this pro- 
phetic letter, France had a master who was to become for some time 
the master of Continental Europe. Napoleon, in whom Fulton had 
first hoped, for genius naturally turns toward genius, had at that time 
many other anxieties. Besides, as chief of State, he could await 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 261 

but few immediate results in the gigantic struggle which he was about French 
to undertake, from the different discoveries of Fulton. Delegate 

"Moreover, economic reasons, which strike the least in form, 
explain naturally why the attempt which Fulton made on the Seine, 
did not find response in our country. It is not upon our peaceful 
rivers of France, it is not upon our beautiful canals where trans- 
portation had been so strongly organized for so long a time, that 
Fulton's attempt had chance to impose itself through sheer struggle. 
He needed a country like yours, almost devoid of roads, possessing 
immense lakes, the longest and widest rivers in the world; it was 
there and there only, that from the first day, victory could attend 
a method of navigation which can vanquish the violence of the winds, 
as also that of the tides, and which finds in itself the force necessary, 
without need of these hauling roads which we have traced at home 
with such care, and which it would have been impossible for you to 
establish on the indetermine shores of your great rivers. It was 
a miracle which was naturally called to become the scene where the 
great discovery of Fulton could give its full measure, where it could 
develop its full power. 

"To-day, the ships with which he has endowed us are met by the 
thousands upon all the lakes, upon all the rivers of the old and the 
new worlds. Surpassing the first hopes of their inventor, they have 
long since challenged the open seas. Following the expressions 
which Homer applied to the ship of the Phoenicians, the steam 
vessels ride with swiftness the waves of the sea, ever enveloped in 
shade and cloud; they have no fear of meeting any damage or perish- 
ing; but they know the thoughts and desires of men, and they know 
the cities and the fertile fields of all the mortals. The immense sea 
which was formerly a barrier between the peoples has become, 
thanks to Fulton, the principal organ of their drawing closer. 

"If he did not meet with the miserable end of Hudson, abandoned 
by his crew in James Bay with eight of his companions, Fulton, 
however, used up by the struggles and losses, died at the age of fifty 
years without seeing the prodigious extension which the navigation 
created by him was about to take. Less fortunate than Watt whom 
he emulated, he could not enjoy in peace the fruits of his work; he 
did not see the Sirius and the Great Western cross for the first time 
the Atlantic Ocean. 

262 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

French "Your City, which, even on his premature death, rendered to 
Delegate jjjjjj j.jjg honor due to great citizens, has wished to show that it has 
not forgotten him who has so greatly contributed to its marvelous 

"Gentlemen, France is heartily with you. She knows that grati- 
tude is the first duty of a democracy. Besides, your homage goes, 
as should be remarked, to a man who united to the genius of the 
inventor the highest and most rare moral qualities. He who, before 
leaving for Europe, sheltered his old mother from need, who caused 
to be inserted in his agreement with a French Directoire a clause 
requiring that his inventions of torpedoes and submarines must 
never be employed against his country, who limited himself to asking 
that his projects should be fulfilled without stipulating for himself 
any benefit — such a man is entitled to the respect of all, and his 
country must esteem herself fortunate to be able to offer his life, his 
whole life, as an example to her children. 

"Gentlemen, this pious custom which you have taken to honor 
with all circumstance those of your compatriots who have distinguished 
themselves by their toils and by their virtues, is beginning to bear 
results which strike the eyes of all. At the moment when we cele- 
brate with you these glorious anniversaries, others not less glorious 
are being prepared to-day for your country. 

"Fulton was the initiator of navigation over seas; two of your own 
also, Bushnell and Fulton, have contributed to prepare the means 
of submarine navigation. To this double conquest, you have wished 
to join that of the air which surrounds us, and it may be said that the 
Wright Brothers have become the Fulton of aerial navigation by 
heavier-than-air machines. Nor is this all. After being discovered, 
America has wished to discover in her turn; and, first among all the 
nations, she has planted her flag at the point which has been named 
and defined before being reached the 'North Pole' whose deceiving 
conquest was the dream and the torment of so many illustrious 

"Water, land and sea do not even suffice you any longer; you wish 
to know also the universe which surrounds us. Your astronomers 
do as your houses, they scrape the skies. No astral body has escaped 
their investigations or their computations. Using incomparable 
instruments furnished by generous donors, they announce each day 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 263 

discoveries which are denied to our feeble efforts. Your surveyors French 
bring us the most precious information by measuring with an activity ^ *S* ® 
which knows no rest the immense extent of your territory. Of your 
naturalists no more could be said than that they are at the level of 
the marvels of all kinds which your beautiful country offers them. 

"Gentlemen, no nation more than France is happy because of your 
success. The energy, the perseverance, the breadth of views are 
made to win us. The names of your learned men are familiar to 
us. We admire Langley and Newcomb, who, unhappily, are no 
more; but there remain to you such as Agassiz, Bell, Edison, George 
Hale, Hill, Pickering, Michaelson, Osborne, Loeb and many others 
still, who fortunately are living, and living indeed. 

"This admiration, mingled with sympathy which we feel for 
American science, goes back to a time already distant when your 
Franklin lived among us and was the object of a veritable cult on the 
part of Parisians. 'They have multiplied my bust so much,' he 
wrote to his daughter, with his witty good nature, 'that if a price 
were set on my head, it would surely be impossible for me to escape.' 

"As you see, gentlemen, we still keep preciously the least remem- 
brances of a great period. The recent struggles which we have 
undertaken with you on the fields of Bethany and Brescia have 
rendered them still more present and dearer. May we renew often 
these courteous struggles which have no other object than peaceful 
progress and the development of civilization." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce the German 
Special Delegate from Germany, Grossadmiral von Koester." Delegate 

GROSSADMIRAL von KOESTER: "Mr. President and 
Gentlemen of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission: As 
representative of the German Empire, I have the honor of offering 
to you the congratulations of Germany on the occasion of the memor- 
able celebration of the three-hundredth birthday of the City and 
State of New York and the first navigation of the Hudson river. 

"It is the first time that a celebration of a single city has been made 
an international festival by the presence of special delegates of all 
the nations of the world. The enthusiastic reception of your invita- 
tions in our country as well as all over the world may show you that 
we are fully aware of the historical importance of the events you are 
celebrating. The world knows what an enormous influence the 

264 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

German discovery of that gigantic stream has exercised on the development 

Delegate ^f international intercourse by the rise of this mighty emporium for 

commerce on its banks and by the utilization of steam for navigation. 

The magnificent development of New York is the most obvious 

proof of the importance of these facts. 

"Nowhere can sympathy for your celebrations be greater than in 
Germany which is connected with the United States by numerous 
bonds of friendship, of common descent, of commercial intercourse 
and common scientific work, and by the cultivation of friendly 
political relations during more than one hundred years. 

"We admire the extraordinary work that has been accomplished 
in the United States by the irresistible energy and the creative impulse 
of the American people, and we may be proud of the fact that to a 
high degree, the sons of our country have had the privilege of par- 
taking in the development of the magitude of the United States as 
well as the City and the State of New York. 

"We wish that the celebrations which, as a municipal festivity, 
eclipse by their brilliancy everything of the kind that has been under- 
taken until now, may take a most harmonic progress. 

"We thank you for your splendid hospitality, and we may hope 

that the present days will continue to live in the memory of our 

generation and of the following ones as a promise of a happy future 

for the American nation, and for its center. New York, a future 

which is based on great times past." 

Great MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce Admiral 

Britain's ^f jj^g piget Sir Edward Seymour, Special Delegate of His Britannic 
Delegate ,, . , ^ „ 

Majesty s Cjovernment. 

SIR EDWARD SEYMOUR, G. C. B.: "I am charged by His 
Majesty's Government to convey to the State and City of New York 
the cordial greetings of the King and the British people upon the 
occasion of the celebration of two great events in the history of your 
State and your City. 

" The ter-centenary of the first exploration of this noble river and 
the centenary of the placing upon it of a vessel worked by steam 
are anniversaries which mark epochs, not only in the annals of 
New York, but also in the progress of the world. 

"In the long and famous line of navigators who have extended 
our knowledge of the earth by their skill and daring and have brought 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 265 

honor to the race to which you and we belong, there is no more Great 

brilliant name than that of Henry Hudson. He had a wonderful, Britain's 

D dec Ate 
though all too short, career of adventure, and the stainless record 

of his life was crowned by a tragic death in which his dauntless 
spirit showed bright and clear to the last. The glory of his achieve- 
ments belongs partly to the English nation whence he sprang, and 
partly to the Dutch nation under whose flag he was sailing when he 
entered this arm of the sea and traced the course of the river far up 
to the north under the cliffs and forests of regions theretofore unknown. 
He sought, like many another English, Dutch and French explorer, 
a passage to the northwest from the Atlantic to the Pacific. What he 
found has turned out to be scarcely less important, and his discovery 
has realized in another form the hopes and purposes that led him 
along this coast and ultimately into the mighty Bay which bears his 
name and where he met his end. 

"Two hundred years after the voyage of Henry Hudson, the 
enterprising foresight of Robert Fulton, encouraged by the experi- 
ments that had been made upon the canals of Scotland and on the 
rivers of the United States as well as by himself on the Seine, placed 
upon your waters the first vessel propelled by steam as applied to 
the service of commerce. 

"Thirty years before, in 1780, James Watt had made the steam 
engine a power instead of a toy, and thirty years later, in 1838, the 
first steamship crossed the Atlantic to enter the harbor of New York. 
These also were great events fit to be commemorated here one hun- 
dred years after Fulton's steam whistle wakened the echoes of the 

"Through the use which the untiring activity of your people has 
made of the natural advantages of this admirable harbor, the eastern 
gateway of your Continent, and of the inexhaustible resources of 
the country that lies behind it, through steam power which brings 
over the railroads the products of the West and distributes them 
from here by sea to the furthest corners of the earth, your City has 
grown to be the mightiest emporium of the Western Hemisphere. 
The vessels which sail from your port are larger in their tonnage and 
the goods they carry are more valuable than were all the vessels 
employed and all the goods carried in the trade of the whole world 
in the days of Henry Hudson. This growth of commerce has become 

266 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Great a powerful agency in drawing Nations together, in enabling them to 
Britain's know one another better, in promoting good will among them, in 
making them feel they are all interested in one another's welfare 
and that the highest of all their interests is peace. 

"To His Majesty and his Government, it is a particular source 
of pleasure that with the expansion of your City and your Nation 
the ties of respect and affection have grown always stronger between 
the British people and the country to which so much of the best 
blood of England has gone and in which the free spirit of the ancient 
institutions of our race has been so worthily preserved. It is their 
fervent wish that the prosperity with which Providence has blessed 
you may forever flourish and abound, and that the hopeful spirit 
and the versatile energy which we admire in you to-day, and which 
have enabled the United States to make such marvelous progress in 
all the arts of life, may continue to dwell in the hearts and stir the 
pulses of her people, and may be the parent of new and not less 
splendid achievements in the centuries to come." 
Guate- MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce the 
malan Special Delegate of the Republic of Guatemala, Licentiate Don 
^'"Sate ^^^^^1 Arroyo." 

DON MANUEL ARROYO: "To the President of the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission, Mr. President, Ladies and Gentle- 
men: As the representative, and in the name of the Republic of 
Guatemala, I have the honor to tender to you my most cordial, 
respectful salutation on the occasion of this eventful and magnificent 
celebration in commemoration of one of the most important and 
transcendental events, not only to your country, but to the world. 

"My Government considers it a great honor in being invited to 
associate itself in this splendid celebration by a people who are 
among the first in the whole world, and it has conferred upon 
us the great honor of being appointed the bearers of its highest 
esteem, not only for the achievements that are now being commem- 
orated at this time, but also to this great country which you have the 
good fortune to claim for your own. 

"Therefore, in the name of the people and the Government of 
Guatemala, I salute you and assure you of my most sincere good 
wishes for the success of this celebration, which will mark an epoch 
in history." 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 267 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce Pro- Haitian 
fessor Horace Etheart, Special Delegate of the Republic of Haiti," Delegate 

Professor Etheart spoke in French, of which the following 
is a translation: 

PROFESSOR ETHEART: "Mr. President: The Government of 
the Republic of Haiti in charging me to represent the Haitian nation 
at the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, particularly commands me to 
transmit its most lively felicitations to the Organization Committee, 
and to say to it at the same time how sensible of its gracious invita- 
tion Haiti has been. It wishes, by the sending of its representative, 
to assure the participation of Haiti in this solemnity which here 
assembles the delegates of all nations. 

"The Haitian nation, Mr. President, has more than one reason 
why it is not able to remain indifferent to the gracious appeal of the 
Committee. The bonds of friendship which for so long a time have 
united it to the American people, the grand extent which the dis- 
coveries commemorated to-day have given to international relations, 
the powerful influence which they have exerted upon the develop- 
ment of civilization, are also causes which have brought my country 
to participate in this great manifestation. 

"Permit me, Mr. President, to profit by the opportunity which is 
offered, to thank the Committee, in the name of my Government, for 
the reception, so full of cordiality, which I have received in the 
beautiful city of New York." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce thejion. 
Hon. Alan O. Clephane, Special Delegate of the Government of duran 
Honduras." Delegate 

Mr. Clephane bowed his acknowledgments. 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce the Italian 
Special Delegate of Italy, Vice-Admiral Alfonso di Brocchetti." Delegate 

In the absence of Admiral di Brocchetti reply was made by 
Marquis Baggio Ducarne, commanding the Italian warship 

MARQUIS BAGGIO DUCARNE: "Gentlemen of the Navy, of 
the Army, Members of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 
Ladies and Gentlemen: On account of the delay of the arrival of 

268 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Italian Vice-Admiral di Brocchetti, I have the honor of taking his place as 
Delegate legatee of the Italian Government and of speaking on this solemn 
circumstance held "by the City of New York in honor of her great 
men, Hudson and Fulton. The former, a bold and tenacious sailor, 
v^ho, on landing here in this river, vphich later on was given his name, 
saw all the importance of the place at once and how it would likely 
become in future time one of the most conspicuous centers of the 
world's trade. The latter, owing to his own invention, which was 
to improve by degrees, offered the improvement by which Hudson's 
idea could later on be turned out into reality, making thus of that 
beautiful river a source of wonderful activity and life as we see to-day. 

"In the name of the Italian Government, I thank the Committee 
of the City of New York and the Government of the United States 
for the invitation to Italy to be present on this occasion. And it 
is a real pleasure for us Italian sailors to see our colors flying together 
with those of many other friendly nations, to honor the two great 

"Friendship between the United States and Italy seems to become 
stronger every day, emigration and growing trade being the origin 
of a thick net of interests and affections. But I need not speak of 
these things. I simply wish to remember here the great proof of 
friendship which was given to my country in those sad days when 
one of the beautiful parts in southern Italy was lately destroyed by 
a blind force of nature. So allow me to say a few words more just 
to tell a sentiment which I strongly feel in my heart. 

"I always thought since I was a school boy that the American 
people were a people of boldness and dash; in my mature age I 
could persuade myself by experience how true this is. I feel I admire 
Americans, whose dash is a matter of fact in every branch of human 
activity and for which they are second to no other people on the 
broad path of progress. And it is, indeed, a wonderful fact, the one 
we see along this river now — that under our own eyes; looking at 
the Clermont by the side of the big steamers, which, starting from 
England, Holland, Germany, France and Italy in quick succession 
make up just Hke a bridge between Europe and America, we see 
at once the history of the progress of the world during a century. 

"The argosies of the sea of to-day all come here along the sides of 
this river, being here attracted by the wonderful activity of life and 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 269 

trade. That life and trade which were begun here by the first passage 
of the Clermont up the Hudson between New York and Albany, 
at the speed of five knots an hour, has actually grown up by degrees 
to be very thick in these days, between Europe and America, across 
the ocean, at the wonderful speed of twenty-five knots an hour. 

"In the name of Italy I wish peace and prosperity to the United 
States and to all other Nations here present, which are all likewise 
conspicuous factors of progress and civilization in the history of 
the world." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to present His Japanese 
Imperial Highness Prince Kunihoshi Kuni, Special Delegate of Japan." ® ^^* * 

Prince Kuni handed to Gen. Woodford a paper which the 
latter read as follows : 

"His Imperial Majestry, my august Sovereign, has commissioned 
me to assist in this Celebration and to extend his cordial congratula- 
tions on the material progress that has followed the discovery of 
Hudson and the inventive genius of Fulton." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce the Luxem- 
Special Delegate from Luxemburg, the Hon. Maurice Pescatore." ^^^ ® 

Mr. Pescatore bowed his acknowledgments. 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce Senor Mexican 
Don Carlos Pereyra, Special Delegate of Mexico." ^ ^^* * 

SENOR DON CARLOS PEREYRA: "Mexico joins with the 
American people in the commemoration of two great events, which 
belong equally to the history of the United States and to the history 
of all peoples. In the prowess of Hudson you glorify the man of 
action, and in Fulton's invention the marvelous power of a creative 
imagination. These two heroes of civilization represent the two 
integral forces of human conquests — will and genius. 

" Hudson displayed the flag of a mercantile country while looking 
for routes by which to reach the countries of the medieval dreamers. 
Instead of reaching the chimerical treasures of Marco Polo, which 
seduced him as they seduced the Italians, Spaniards and Portuguese 
of the glorious transatlantic Odyssey, he placed foot in a land richer 
than all the land of dreams, in which there are many characteristics 
of greatness, of which the most wonderful is the spirit of liberty. 

"Fulton, with his invention, reduced the earth to the dimensions 

270 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mexican assigned to it by the contemporaneous cartographers of Hudson. 

Delegate Civilizations, which in their origin were pluvial and later mastered 
the mediterranean basins of the world, had reached the period of 
oceanic extension. Fulton furnished the instrument to completely 
realize the intercontinental corporation of peoples. 

"We are in the midst of a celebration in which all humanity feels 
as one. We praise you for presenting to the world the credentials 
which entitle you to be classed as an illustrious nation. All that is 
genuinely American is great and deserves admiration. It shines 
in the virtues of Washington; in the wonderful far-sightedness of 
Jefferson; in the poHtical science of John Quincy Adams; in the 
eloquence of Webster; in the magnetic force of Clay; in the fortitude 
of Lincoln; in the genius of your inventors; in the daring of your 
explorers, and in your love for all that means a victorious effort of 
the inteUigence and of the will to reach the harmony of nations and 
the peace of peoples. 

"Mexico, in active development, singularly favored by sympathy 
toward all peoples, which bring to her elements of happiness and 
culture, and by a government that stimulates all legitimate activities, 
earnestly desires that in this continent, this movement shall not 
cease until perfection is reached." 

Nether- MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce to you 

D^lf ate *^ Special Delegate of the Netherlands, Mr. J. T. Cremer." 
^^^* ^ MR. J. T. CREMER: "Her Majesty, the Queen of the Nether- 
lands has desired me to convey to the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission the expression of her people's great sympathy with the 
commemoration of events of such vast importance as the discovery 
of the Hudson River and the inauguration of steam navigation. 

"The flag of the Netherlands was the first to fly on this noble 
river and on the settlements of New Netherland, now the justly 
proud Empire State and City of New York. 

"This discovery was owing to the spirit of enterprise of the burghers 
of the Lowlands, nutured in eighty years' struggle for freedom; and 
to their leaders in this war, the Princes of the House of Orange- 
Nassau, who encouraged trade as the mainspring of the resources of 
the country. The name of the great soldier-prince Maurits once 
was given to this river, and the forts on its banks were named Orange 
and Nassau, facts which are well remembered by our Queen. 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 271 

"The memory of those days is still vivid on both sides of the ocean. 
Her Majesty knows that a great number of your worthiest citizens 
still cherish the country where their forefathers lived and practiced 
the old home virtues and customs; that tokens of friendship are 
constantly being offered by your citizens to hers in the interest of 
peace and good will amongst nations; and also that the one official 
flag, adopted by your Commission, is the old flag of the Netherlands, 
thus most closely associating to this Celebration the country which 
feels most for it. 

"The sympathy of that country which had the hardest struggle 
for freedom has always been strong for the Great Republic of the 
New World during and after its fight for independence and liberty; 
and Her Majesty, the Queen of the Netherlands, remembering that 
on the 17th day of November, 1776, Fort Orange on the Island 
of St. Eustatius was the first to salute the flag of the United 
States, flying on the Andrea Doria, has authorized me here to salute 
the emblem of your grand Celebration, our old flag, which now, 
Mr. President, is your flag." 

Mr. Cremer, at the conclusion of his address, stepped to a 
flag draped at the side of the stage, and, raising its folds to 
his lips, respectfully kissed it. 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "As the Mayor of the daughter city Mayor of 
of New Amsterdam, I have the great privilege and honor of intro- Amster- 
ducing to you the Burgomaster of the mother city of Amsterdam." 

HON. W. F. VAN LEEUWEN: "Mr. Mayor, Honored Col- 
leagues: I have not felt a moment's hesitation to cross the ocean, 
in order to transmit on this occasion the friendly greetings from the 
City of Old Amsterdam to the City of New Amsterdam. If I feel 
a certain predeliction in using the name which the mighty metropolis 
of the Union bore in her youth, it is not only because this name 
conjures up historical facts pleasing to the Dutch mind, but rather 
because this name explains and accounts for those three-centuries- 
old bonds of friendship which join Holland and America. 

"I am quite well aware of the fact that the Amsterdam Chamber of 
the East India Company did not send out Hudson in the Half Moon 
in search of new lands, and that Hudson's discovery of the river 
which now bears his name might, to a certain extent, be attributed 

272 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mayor of to chance, and if the Hollanders of those days had been of the kind 
^^®*®''" such as some historians represent, then they would calmly have put 
Hudson's account of his voyage aside. The spirit of enterprise, 
however, which moved the Dutch of that age, made them equip 
ships in order to derive advantage from Hudson's discovery to trade 
with the newly-discovered countries and to found settlements there, 
of which the foundation of New Netherland and of New Amsterdam 
have been the immediate outcome. 

"Among those ships was the Amsterdam vessel. The Tiger, com- 
manded by the well-known Captain Adrian Block. Unfortunately, 
Block's ship was burned in the Fall of 1613 just as he was making 
ready to return in her to Holland. This was a great disappointment 
to the Dutch who did not come here for their health. If Block and 
his men had been of a ruminating habit, the habit which Washington 
Irving has ascribed to the Dutch in general, they would have gone 
on meditating all through the Winter upon that disaster that had 
overtaken them, with their hands in their pockets and their pipes 
in their mouths. What they actually did do was to set to work 
instantly to build another vessel, and by the Springtime of the year 
161 4 a ship was finished and launched large enough to venture out 
upon the ocean. 

"There was a nice touch of prophetic fitness in the fact that the 
very first product of skilled labor on this Island was a ship; 
for a ship in the three centures that lie behind us has formed the 
bridge between this and other continents, and which will continue 
to do so in the centuries still to come unless the aeroplane shall take 
its place. 

"And the spirit of prophecy was upon the Dutch builders of that 
first little vessel when they named her 'Onrust,' 'Unrest.' Probably 
they wished to designate the circumstances under which the vessel 
was constructed; but 'Onrust' or 'Unrest,' which can also be trans- 
lated by ' Restless ' and ' Rustless ' in the sense of untiringly energetic, 
at once describes the characteristic most essential of, and the motto 
most fit for the City of New York. This untiring energy, which has 
ever since characterized the majority of the inhabitants of this City, 
has made her the Metropolis which rightly rouses the admiration of 
fellow countrymen and foreigners — the Metropolis which by her 
precept and example has contributed no little to make this country 


Official Reception of Foreign Guests 273 

the most powerful, the most prosperous country in the world in every Mayor of 
respect. Am^'er- 

" Holland, more especially Amsterdam, Old Amsterdam, rejoices 
at this. Old Amsterdam is proud that she has been privileged to 
lay the first small foundation stone of this grand structure of sturdy 
human labor, and I am second to none in uttering the well-meant 
and heartfelt wishes for this great City, speaking as I do for and on 
behalf of the Old City of Amsterdam. May the word 'Restless,' 
which thus far has been the motto of this City, continue to remain 
her motto in the future. May this City continue to prosper and 
thrive to the advantage of the United States of America, and to the 
benefit of mankind in general. This is the ardent wish of the City 
of Amsterdam for the City of New — permit me once more to call 
her by the name of her youth — the City of New Amsterdam." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce SenorNica- 
Don Pio Bolanos, Special Delegate of Nicaragua." 

SENOR DON PIO BOLANOS: "Mr. President: The Supreme 
Government of Nicaragua, in accepting the invitation extended to 
it by your honorable Committee to attend the celebration of the third 
centennial of the discovery of the Hudson River and of the first century 
of the application of steam to navigation, has appointed me its Special 

"In performing the honorable service thus imposed on me by my 
Government, I may be permitted tostate to your honorable Chairman 
of the Committee and to its worthy members, that the Nicaragua 
Government and people send to you through me as their Commis- 
sioner their most cordial salutations, and command me to give expres- 
sion to their hearty sympathy with you in this great festival, by which 
this generation in the full enjoyment of its wonderful development 
and progress seeks to honor the memory of Henry Hudson and 
Robert Fulton. 

"The achievements of these two figures in the history of the world, 
as has been the case frequently with the greatest of human accom- 
plishments, were at first scarcely appreciated and often made the 
subject of the ironical jests of those who would decry them. It is 
necessary that centuries should pass for society, in its inevitable 
evolution, to realize that the accomplishments which at the time of 
their realization were considered of little or no importance have 

274 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Kica- finally bequeathed to posterity a heritage of undreamed-of splendor 

raguan ^jjj magnificence, 
eegae "jj^isou could not have imagined the great accumulation of 
material wealth, the evidences of which we see about us in this great 
Metropolis of the twentieth century, nor could Fulton's mind have 
conceived the wonderful application which future centuries could 
make of his discovery. Columbus himself, in his wildest dreams of 
enthusiasm, could not have conceived what the Western Hemisphere 
would mean to the Old World, or to what extent its power and 
richest progress would be developed. 

"Nicaragua, therefore, fully mindful of the significance of these 
commemorative ceremonies which will become memorable in the 
history of America, takes pleasure in contributing to this occasion, 
by means of which this generation of the twentieth century expresses 
its appreciation of the discovery made by the daring Dutch mariner 
and the scientific invention of Fulton; and my country offers you the 
most cordial wishes that this Metropolis of America may continue 
to be the gateway of this hospitable soil where all the races of the world 
are received, and that she may continue without interruption in 
that pathway of prosperity and progress which have always char- 
acterized her. All honor and glory to these two excellent types of 

Nor- MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce Minister 

wegian O. Gude, Special Delegate of Norway." 

Delegate MINISTER O. GUDE: "Mr. President: Norway, the country of 
ships and sailors, the country which in olden times sent her daring 
sons, the vikings, to the rich shores of this continent long before any 
other European people knew that it existed, this, my country, 
through its King and Government, sends me as its Special 
Delegate to express its deeply felt friendship and sympathy with the 
American people and especially with the people of the State and City 
of New York on the occasion of the Hudson-Fulton Ter-centenary 
Celebration in joyful remembrance of the first anchoring of a 
European ship in this mighty river, where now the flags of all nations 
wave gaily in the breeze. 

"It is natural that my seagoing people should wish to be among 
the foremost to congratulate this great and wealthy State and City 
on the grand results obtained in these past three hundred years, 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 275 

the Norwegian ships and crews showing their flag the whole year Nor- 
round on the river and in this port. wegian 

"Also his Majesty, the King of Norway, my most gracious sov- 
ereign, himself as a sailor, has been pleased to send me the following 
telegram, which I herewith have the honor to communicate to you, 
Mr. President. 

" ' Minister Gude, Delegate of Norway, 
" ' Hudson-Fulton Celebration : 

" ' Present my sincerest congratulations to the President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration on 
the occasion of the historical jubilee. 

" ' (Signed) Haakon, R.' 

"Please accept, Mr. President, the assurance of my highest 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce the Pan- 
Special Delegate of the Government of Panama, Senor Don Ramon ?™^ ® 
M. Valdes." ^ ^^^ " 

Senor Valdes bowed his acknowledgments. 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce thePara- 
Hon. Rodman Wanamaker, Special Delegate of the Government Stay's 
of Paraguay." ^"'^S*** 

Mr. Wanamaker bowed his acknowledgments. 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce to you Peruvian 
the Special Delegate from Peru, Senor Eduardo Higginson." ^ ®^* ^ 

SENOR EDUARDO HIGGINSON: "Mr. President: Please 
convey to the American people the congratulations of all Peru upon 
this notable occasion commemorating, on the one hand, the dis- 
covery of Henry Hudson, which gave to the United States the greatest 
city of the Western Hemisphere, and on the other hand, the invention 
of Robert Fulton, which made possible to the world the magnificent 
commerce of modern times." 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to present Senor Salva- 
Don Federico Mejia, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- dor's 
tiary of Salvador, Special Delegate." 

SENOR DON FEDERICO MEJIA: "Mr. Chairman and Gentle- 
men: It is with singular satisfaction that I find myself here as the 
specially accredited representative of the Republic of Salvador, to 

276 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Salva- do honor on this occasion to the memory of Hendrick Hudson and 

^"'^'^ Robert Fulton and their achievements. As a schoolboy on the New 

Jersey side of yonder river, named after the great discoverer, I v?as 

privileged to see pass up and down the vast number of the steamers, 

made possible through the inventive genius of Fulton. To both of 

these men may be ascribed in marked degree the greatness of New 

York, its wealth, its power, truly the Empire State of the Union. 

And I am proud to do honor to two men who have contributed so 

largely towards the rise of all America." 

Turkish MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce His 

Delegate Excellency Youssouf Zia Pasha, Special Delegate of Turkey." 

dent: I take particular pleasure in informing you that I have been 
intrusted by my Government with the task of expressing to you all 
the pleasure that they have experienced at the extreme courtesy 
with which Constitutional Turkey has been invited to be present at 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, organized, as I already had occasion 
of ascertaining, with such eclat, in view of commemorating the 
discovery of the Hudson River and the application of steam to 

" I take advantage, Mr. President, of the opportunity to tell you how 
happy lam personally to have been invested with my present mission 
which will be at the same time a voyage of instruction concerning 
the admirable institutions which have made the grandeur of the 
United States. 

"I beg you to accept, Mr. President, the expression of my high 
Uru- MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce Senor 

guay's Dojj Rafael J. Fosalba, Special Delegate of the Government of 
Delegate tt " 

" Uruguay. 

Senor Fosalba bowed his acknowledgments. 

Vene- MAYOR McCLELLAN: "I have the honor to introduce Senor 

zuelan Don Manuel Agualla, Special Delegate from Venezuela." 
Delegate ^q^ MANUEL AGUALLA: "Mr. President: I am instructed 
by my Government to present to you and through you to the City 
of New York, on this occasion, the best wishes of the Venezuelan 
people who have always felt for this country a most friendly feeling 
and admiration." 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 277 

The New York Banks Glee Club then sang, to the air of Mrs. 
"America," the following verse written by Mrs. Spencer Trask : y^^^g '^ 

Ml folk upon the earth 
Sprang from one common birth, 

Children of God. 
Lord of Humanity, 
Teach us Fraternity; 
Peace let the watchword be 
In all the earth. 

MAYOR McCLELLAN: "The exercises will be concluded byBenedic 

a Benediction pronounced by Rabbi Pereira Mendes — Rabbi ^^°^ ^y 

Mendes." ^^^' 

RABBI PEREIRA MENDES: "Our Father in Heaven, we ask 

Thy benediction to-day upon this our loved America, as three cen- 
turies ago Thou didst grant it to England and to Holland, whose 
world-work have made possible America's joy to-night. 

"For Thou it wast who didst nerve England for her fight for 
religious and civil Hberty. Thy storm and tempest had already 
helped to break the Armada's chains, but it was strength from Thee 
and courage from Thee that inspired her brave sea-captains to cross 
wide seas and made possible the foundations of human progress 
here, and in other far off lands. 

"Above all, it was Thy love and Thy blessing which, three cen- 
turies ago, gave to her in her own language the noble version of our 
Book of Books, the Bible, whose cry 'to your tents O Israel' heralded 
that revolution which made possible the birth of this great Nation. 
For then it was that England's Puritan sons carried to these shores 
the hope, the courage, the faith which made them continue the fight 
of their sires for liberty, for freedom of conscience, for freedom of 
thought, of which America is to-day a world-champion. Through 
those Puritans, whose very breath of life was that Book of Books, 
Thou didst found this blessed America upon the lines of Reverence, 
Righteousness and Responsibility. 

"That loving protection, that courage, that hope, that faith, Thou 
didst also graciously grant to the sons and daughters of brave Holland 
so that she also fought for religious liberty, for freedom of thought, 
for freedom of conscience. Yea, both countries and this country 
didst Thou bless when Henry Hudson, the son of England, carried 

278 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Benedic- the flag of Holland to the mighty stream that laves this imperial 
tion by City, whose waters bear the argosies of the world. 
Mend s "Thy blessing hath ever rested upon this land. Thy inspiration 
hath caused her sons, and Fulton among the greatest of them, to 
utiHze the wonderful powers with which Thou, the source of all 
power, hast invested Nature. Upon human enterprise when sanc- 
tified by Thy spirit, upon the development of those powers of Nature 
when utilized for mankind's progress and safeguarded by righteous- 
ness in the use thereof, upon this our loved America, yea upon all 
countries we ask Thy benediction. 

"Father in heaven, for thus the prophets have taught the world 
to call Thee, we praise Thee with the inspiration of the ancient 
prayer, which for twenty-five centuries we have daily uttered; 
'Aggrandized and hallowed be Thy great name in this world which 
was created with Thy will; may Thy Kingdom be established thereon; 
may Thy redemption of all mankind spring forth to save us from 
temptation, error and darkness, and may Thy Messiah come,' so 
that, in truth, war shall cease, 'nation shall not lift up sword against 
nation, neither shall they learn war any more; all earth shall be filled 
with the knowledge of the Lord as the waters cover the seas; ' yea, 
'loving kindness and truth shall meet, righteousness and peace 
shall embrace, truth shall spring forth from earth and charity shall 
look down from heaven.' Give us, we pray Thee, this fulfillment of 
Thy benediction, upon all mankind. Amen." 

Gov- In addition to the attentions to the official guests mentioned 

ernor's jj^ Chapter XII and the formal reception described in this 
Recep- Chapter, the Reception Committee also had the pleasure of 
tion assisting the guests to attend two other notable receptions 
given in cooperation with the Commission, namely, the recep- 
tion by Major-General Leonard Wood, U. S. A., commanding 
the United States Military Department of the East, and by 
Mrs. Wood, at the Headquarters of the Department on 
Governor's Island in New York Harbor on Monday, Sep- 
tember 27, 1909, and the reception given by Col. Hugh 
L. Scott, U. S. A., Superintendent of the United States Military 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 279 

Academy, at West Point on the Hudson River, on Wednesday, Gov- 

n ^ 1 ernor's 

September 29. ^ ^ ^ ^^^^ 

The reception on Governor's Island was held in Corbin Recep- 
Hall from 4 to 6 p. m. The official guests of the Commission ***"^ 
were taken in cabs from their hotels to the foot of West 40th 
street, and thence to Governor's Island in a United States 
naval tug, kindly placed at the service of the Reception Com- 
mittee by Admiral Murdock. 

All of the officials of the United States Navy Yard at New 
York; Rear- Admiral Seaton Schroeder, U. S. N., Commander- 
in-Chief of the United States Atlantic Fleet; Admiral of the 
Fleet Sir Edward Seymour, G. C. B., of Great Britain; Gross- 
admiral von Koester of Germany; Vice- Admiral Alfonso di 
Brocchetti of Italy; and many other distinguished officials, 
American and foreign, were present. The inauspicious weather 
which prevailed during the day did not interfere with the 
success of the reception, and the four hundred or more guests 
soon forgot the Inclemency of the elements out-of-doors in the 
cordiality of the hospitality of the host and hostess. The 
scene under the warm lights of the reception room, filled with 
a distinguished company and glittering with the uniforms of 
the naval and military services, was very brilliant. 

In the evening a dance was given. 

The reception by Col. Scott at the United States Military West 
Academy at West Point on Wednesday, September 29, pos-^°"^' 
sessed a peculiar interest for the foreign visitors who had ation 
natural desire to see this famous school in which the future 
officers of the United States Army are receiving their military 
education. The official guests of the Commission were taken 
to West Point by train, arriving about i P. m. Col. Scott and 
staff, and the Military Academy Detachment of the United 
States Cavalry, mounted and in full dress uniform, met the 
arriving guests at the railroad station and escorted them to the 
campus. The public buildings of the Academy were decorated 

28o The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

West with the flags of all nations. Upon the arrival of the visitors 
^°'°* opposite the Library, a salute of 19 guns vsras fired. From 
tion I-I5 to 2.15 P. M. a reception was held and luncheon was 

served in Memorial Hall, all officers and instructors of the 
Academy being in attendance in military full dress. During 
the reception, the Military Academy Band played the national 
airs of all nations represented in the company. During the 
reception and luncheon, care was taken to have the visitors 
meet all the officers of the Academy and the freest opportunity 
was given for the exchange of views on questions of military 
education and the visitors were permitted to ask any questions 
as to the methods and system of the Academy. 

From 2.15 to 3.15 the guests were escorted through the 
various buildings, the officers' mess, library, ordnance museum, 
chapel, headquarters, offices, academic buildings, cadet mess 
and kitchens, and the cadet barracks. 

By special orders, the following named officers assisted at 
the reception and inspection of public buildings : 

Major Wirt Robinson, Coast Artillery Corps. 

Captain Thomas W. Darrah, 27th Infantry. 

Captain William F. Nesbitt, 4th Infantry. 

Captain George B. Pillsbury, Corps of Engineers. 

Captain Charles B. Clark, 24th Infantry. 

Captain Henry C. Jewett, Corps of Engineers. 

First Lieutenant William A. Mitchell, Corps of Engineers. 

First Lieutenant Harold C. Fiske, Corps of Engineers. 

First Lieutenant Julian L. Schley, Corps of Engineers. 

First Lieutenant Charles R. Pettis, Corps of Engineers. 

First Lieutenant William D. A. Anderson, Corps of Engineers. 

First Lieutenant Samuel Frankenberger, 3d Field Artillery. 

First Lieutenant Frederic H. Smith, Coast Artillery Corps. 

First Lieutenant Clifford Jones, Coast Artillery Corps. 

First Lieutenant Charles R. Alley, Coast Artillery Corps. 

First Lieutenant Chauncey L. Fenton, Coast Artillery Corps. 

First Lieutenant William Bryden, 5th Field Artillery. 

First Lieutenant Francis W. Honeycutt, 5th Field Artillery. 

First Lieutenant George M. Morrow, Jr., Coast Artillery Corps. 

Official Reception of Foreign Guests 281 

First Lieutenant Samuel W. Parker, 20th Infantry. West 

Second Lieutenant Vaughn W. Cooper, 12th Cavalry. Point 

After the inspection of buildings the visitors were conducted *'°° 
to the grand stand on the plateau and the Cadet Corps was 
paraded for review at 3.15 p. m. As usual, the parade of the 
cadets elicited the highest encomiums from the delighted 

The party left on a special train for New York City with 
expressions of appreciation to the authorities of the Military 
Academy for their courtesy and kindness and for their interest- 
ing and instructive visit. * 

* Col. Hugh L. Scott, U. S. A., Superintendent of the United States Military Academy at 
West Point, in his annual report to the Secretary of War, presented since the foregoing 
was written, mentions the fact that during the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Admiral of the 
Fleet Sir Edward Seymour of England, Grossadmiral von Koester of Germany and Rear 
Admiral Le Pord of France visited West Point officially. Subsequently a photograph of the 
review of the Cadet Corps, given in honor of them, was mailed to each. Admiral von 
Koester presented his photograph to Emperor William and the Kaiser mailed it back to West 
Point with the following in his own handwriting: 

" A fine body of promising young gentlemen. 
A sight delightful to a soldier's heart. 

William, I. R., 1909.'' 

" The three Admirals," Col. Scott observes, " joined in saying that they had not such a 
military school in their countries. Field Marshal Lord Kitchener of the British Army rec- 
ommended that the Commonwealth of Australia erect a ' West Point ' in Australia, and sent 
Col. W. T. Bridges of the British Army to inspect the Military Academy to get ideas to 
put in practice in that Commonwealth. He was furnished all information passible and 
spent some time at West Point examining into every branch of instruction. About a month 
later Field Marshal Kitchener made an inspection of the Military Academy in person, and 
stated that he made his recommendations to Australia on the reputation of West Point Mili- 
tary Academy abroad, but that after having seen it he 'felt that the half had not been told 




^HE principal event of Tuesday, September 28, 1909, was 
the Historical Parade in Manhattan Borough, New 
York City. The preparations for this parade were made 
under the direction of the Historical and Carnival Parades 
Committee of which Mr. Herman Ridder is Chairman. The 
historical floats were constructed with the cooperation of the 
Historical Committee, of which Mr. Samuel V. HoflFman, 
President of the New York Historical Society, is President. 
The latter committee passed upon the historical accuracy of 
the designs before the construction of the floats began. 
Fonn of The idea of a civic parade with floats bearing a series of 
Derided historical tableaux was suggested at the very first meeting of the 
Executive Committee of the Hudson Ter-centenary Joint Com- 
mittee on December 16, 1905, but the exact form of the pageant 
was undecided for some time. In the summer of 1908, while 
the subject was under consideration, the ter-centenary of the 
founding of Quebec was commemorated with a celebration 
which included historical pageants directed by Mr. Frank 
Lascelles on the Plains of Abraham after the English plan, 
that is to say, historical scenes enacted within a limited area 
to which admission was restricted by ticket. Upon careful 
consideration, that form of pageant did not seem to be adapted 
to a large city like New York where it was desired to present 
the scenes to the view of the largest number of spectators 
possible and free of charge. It was therefore decided to 
produce the historical scenes upon movable "floats" in a 
procession moving through six miles of the principal thorough- 
fares of the city. 

2 82 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 283 

On September 18, 1908, Mr. A. H. Stoddard of New Orleans, Captain 

of Pa- 

who for many years had been Master of the Mardi Gras" * 

pageants in New Orleans, appeared before the Executive 
Committee and explained the methods pursued in the parades 
which have made New Orleans famous as the Carnival City, and 
on November 20, 1908, his engagement as Captain of Pageantry 
was authorized. Two months more were consumed in pre- 
liminary planning before the work of physical preparation for 
the Historical Parade — and for the Carnival Parade which 
was also adopted later — actually began. The arduous labors, 
involving a vast amount of detail, of organizing these two 
parades and designing and building the floats were therefore 
performed in less than eight months. 

On January 20, 1909, the Commission rented from the Erie Building 
Railroad Company two frame buildings on the north side of * ^ 
149th street at the Harlem River in the Borough of the Bronx 
for a factory. The buildings were joined together and other- 
wise altered to meet the necessities of a work-shop, forming 
one large building about 337 feet long and 117 feet wide, 
which was called, after the New Orleans custom, "the Den." 
The Den and all of the work of float construction were under 
the Immediate charge of Capt. Stoddard. As soon as the 
factory was ready, several artists and artisans skilled by many 
years' occupation in this kind of work were brought on from 
New Orleans and were not only used on the actual work of 
float construction, but were also employed as instructors to 
teach a larger number of persons employed locally. In fact, 
a school of float-construction was established and trained a 
working force which, at the height of the work in July, num- 
bered 160 persons, men and women, including designers, 
modelers, papier mache workers, carpenters, constructors, 
painters, decorators, costume makers, watchmen, etc. 

The general system pursued in producing the historical 
floats was as follows: First, the subjects were chosen by the 

284 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Building Historical and Carnival Parades Committee, with the aid of 
_,^ persons familiar with the history of the City and State. They 

were then submitted to Mr. B. A. Wikstrom,* the artist, who 
drew "plates" or colored designs about 17 by 22 inches in 
size, embodying his conception of the subjects selected. These 
were in turn submitted to the Historical Committee for revision 
as to the accuracy of details, and when finally approved were 
placed in the hands of the master-workmen at the "Den," 
for construction. Here every part of the floats — except the 
trucks on which they were built — was constructed. With a 
truck as a base, a rough foundation for the design was made 
of timber and covered with wire mesh. Upon this rude out- 
line the stucco or papier mache was applied, as the case might 
require. The high parts were next built up, and the positions 
of the live or lay figures were accurately marked from the 
complete artist's design. 

Meanwhile, the manufacture of the smaller objects which 
were to be added was prosecuted in the modeling room. This 
room, in which three master modelers and a large corps of 
assistants, men and women, modeled the objects in plaster 
or clay, was one of the most interesting departments of the 
Den. The rough skeleton of a figure was first built of lath 
and wire mesh, and then masses of green modeling clay were 
patted on that framework. The assistants next moulded the 
clay into the semblance of the design with their hands, wooden 
paddles and wire scrapers; and then the sculptor carefully 
modeled the face and form of the figure or the exact outline 
of the object to be produced. The next step was the taking 
of a plaster mould of the clay model. The papier mache 
workers then took possession of the cast. Five or six layers 

* Mr. Wikstrom was bom and educated in Sweden, having graduated from the University at 
Stockholm. He had a studio in Stockholm, but his principal residence had long been in New 
Orleans, where for many years he had designed the floats for the Mardi Gras pageants. In this 
department of art he was regarded as a master. Mr. Wikstrom died in New York City on April 
26, 1909, after he had completed substantially all the designs for the Historical Parade. 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 285 

of thin, tough paper were pasted over every part of the cast Building 
and allowed to dry perfectly. The papier mache was then split _, 
in two by cutting through the layers, and the plaster cast 
removed, whereupon the parts of the papier mache mould 
were carefully joined and sewed with fine wire and the place 
of opening covered with more layers of pasted paper. When 
finished and dried the papier mache figure was able to stand 
a remarkable amount of rough usage and retain every line of 
the original clay model. These papier mache forms were then 
painted and were ready to be applied to the floats. 

Almost every conceivable object was modelled and made 
into papier mache in that model room, from imitation flames 
and cabbages to heroic figures of men and women, a life-sized 
cow and horse, or an eagle that stood 18 feet high and measured 
15 feet from tip to tip. The figures and objects that were too 
large to be carried out of the model room through the small 
doors or were too large for convenience in handling, were cut 
into small sections, and each section was carefully numbered, 
while a drawing of the figure or object, with the sections 
correspondingly numbered, was filed in the office to facilitate 
the reassembling of the parts. 

The main part of the workshop was a busy scene. In one 
corner was a forge, with blacksmiths busily engaged in making 
chains and many kinds of iron parts for the floats; in another 
were two buzz-saws and a lathe, while in the center were 
carpenters' benches and the paint shop. Wandering con- 
stantly around the shop were watchmen, patrolling, day and 
night, on the outlook for fire or danger of any kind. From 
the girders stretched a network of fire hose, always attached 
to hydrants, ready for instant use; and on convenient shelves, 
at short intervals, were fire extinguishers and hand grenades. 
In surroundings like these the smaller objects and figures were 
added to the floats, and the final decoration with paint, tinsel 
and gilding added. 

286 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Building The floats were made unusually substantial, in order that 
' ® they might be used in parades in other cities along the river 

and might withstand the strain and wear of hauling over 
country roads from town to town. 

As the Den was not large enough to accommodate the 104 
floats built for both the Historical and the Carnival Parades, 
over half of them, as soon as completed, were taken across 
the Harlem River to Manhattan Island and stored at 155th 
street, under the viaduct, being protected from the elements 
by canvas hung on the viaduct. 
Scale of For the benefit of others who may desire to profit by the 
Floats experience of this Commission, it may be said that the scale 
adopted by the designers of these floats was in many cases 
unnecessarily large. The floats were 14 feet wide, 32 feet 
long, and from 20 to 40 feet high. Some of them were prob- 
ably the largest of the kind ever built. The designers thought 
that on account of the scale of buildings in New York City 
the floats should be unusually large. As a matter of fact, 
the streets of New York are not wider than the streets of many 
other smaller cities, and the floats were not seen in such per- 
spective in relation to the buildings as to cause any relative 
diminution of the former in comparison with the latter. In 
fact, the floats, confined between the walls of the tall buildings 
which rose so far above them, seemed to crowd the streets 
through which they moved and to be even larger than they 
really were. Smaller floats would have vibrated less and stood 
the wear and tear of travel better than the large ones, and 
would have cost less. 
Artistic As to the artistic quality of the floats — they were not 
Quality intended to be beaux arts productions nor was it expected 
that the modeling and coloring would be according to fine 
arts standards. They were, however, designed and con- 
structed by the most expert artisans available in this kind 
of pageant work and no pains were spared to have the work- 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 287 

manship conform to the best standard of this class of handi- 
craft. In this effort the Committee on Historical and Carnival 
Parades was very successful. 

The Historical Parade had two special objects in view: Two 
One was to illustrate by moving tableaux memorable scenes in ^^ p^jaje 
the history of the City and State for public education and enter- 
tainment. The second object was to unite in the procession 
the representatives of as many as possible of the nationalities 
composing the cosmopolitan population of the State, so as to 
make them feel that the heritage of the State's history belonged 
to them as well as to those more distinctively American. 
As a result, not only were the historical characters on the 
floats impersonated by students from the Universities, descend- 
ants of the old families of New York and members of the 
leading patriotic and hereditary societies, but about twenty 
different nationalities were represented in the marching bodies 
constituting the escorts of honor. To many of the spectators, 
not the least educational feature of the parade was the striking 
illustration of the composite character of the population of 
New York afforded by the successive phalanxes of citizens 
of African, Bohemian, Danish, Dutch, English, French, 
German, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Scotch, 
Swedish and Syrian descent. In several of the organizations, 
not classified by nationalities, were representatives of several 
other nations. The aboriginal possessors of New York State 
were represented by 70 real Iroquois Indians — men, women 
and children — who were secured from the Indian reservations 
for the Commission by Mr. F. E. Moore and who took the char- 
acters on the floats representing the Indian period. These 
Indians, dressed in their picturesque native costumes, and still 
speaking the language of their ancestors, were the objects of 
intense interest alike to the American spectators and to the 
official representatives of foreign nations at the Court of Honor, 
before whom they paused and executed a ceremonial dance. 

288 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Order of The order of the floats in the Historical Parade was some- 
what disarranged by the elements. The inclement weather 

ranged of Monday, the 27th, was followed by such threatening indica- 

''y tions and at times light showers in the early hours of Tuesday, 

Weather ..& -..i j , , 

that tor a time it was uncertain whether the parade could 

take place on the latter day. When, at length, advices from 
the Weather Bureau reassured the Committee on this point, 
so much time had elapsed that it was impossible to haul the 
floats out from their shelters and arrange them in the chrono- 
logical order of the events protrayed, without delaying the 
parade for two or three hours, to the great inconvenience of 
the waiting multitudes and particularly the visitors from out 
of town. It was therefore decided to form the procession as 
rapidly as possible, regardless of the chronological order of 
the floats, as the public was advised of the correct order in 
the descriptive programs and public prints. 
The The parade was formed at Central Park West and iioth 

Line of street and in the streets adjacent thereto, and started almost at 
the hour announced, i p. m. The line of march was down 
Central Park West to Central Park South (59th street), thence 
to Fifth avenue, and thence to Washington Square, where the 
procession was disbanded. From beginning to end the route 
was lined on either side with dense masses of spectators, 
either standing on the sidewalks and in the parks or sitting 
upon observation stands. Great enthusiasm prevailed all 
along the line, and particularly in the vicinity of the Court of 
Honor between 40th and 42nd streets on Fifth avenue, where 
the official review took place. 

The procession was marshaled and commanded by the 
veteran soldier, Major-General Charles F. Roe, commanding 
the National Guard of the State of New York. Ambulances 
were stationed along the route of the parade at points indicated 
by flags, the arrangements for their service being made by 
Lieut.-Col. Wm. G. LeBoutillier; and a signal service for the 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 289 

purpose of reporting the progress of the procession was arranged 
by Lieut.-Col. Frederick T. Leigh. The order of march was 
as follows: 

Platoon of Mounted Police CompO- 

Platoon of Police sition of 

His Honor, George B. McClellan, Mayor Parade 

Mr. Herman Ridder, Chairman of the Historical Parade Committee 
Grand Marshal 
Major-Gencral Charles F. Roe 
Chief of Staff 
Lieutenant-Colonel George Albert Wingate 

Lieutenant-Colonel William W. Ladd 
Lieutenant -Colonel Gilford Hurry 
Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel B. Thurston 
Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Chapin 
Lieutenant-Colonel John N. Stearns, Jr. 
Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Bunnell 
Lieutenant-Colonel William G. LeBoutiUier 
Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick T. Leigh 
Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin B. McAIpin 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chauncey P. Williams 
Major John B. Holland 
Captain Louis M. Creer 
Captain Cornelius Vanderbilt 
Captain Adrian H. Mather 

Captain Albert H. Stoddard, Captain of Pageantry 
Mr. David T, WeUs 

Commission Band, loo pieces 

First Division 

Mr. Thomas Kelly, Grand Marshal of all Irish Societies 

Friendly Sous of St. Patrick, 4C0 men 

Ancient Order of Hibernians of New York County, 600 men 

Ward's Band, 25 pieces 

Ancient Order of Hibernians of New York County, 2,000 men 

Italian Band, 50 pieces 

Italian Societies, 1,500 men 

Bohemian Band, 50 pieces 

Bohemian Societies, 1,500 men 

Polish Band, 25 pieces 

Polish Societies, 250 men 

Hungarian Band, 25 pieces 

Hungarian Societies, 250 men 

Float No. I, Title Car, ** History of New York" 

Escort, Norwegian Societies, 250 men 

Norwegian Band, 25 pieces 


290 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Compo- Red Men Band, 25 pieces 

sition of Float No. 2, Title Car, "Indian Period." Characters, Iroquois Indians 

Parade Escort, Improved Order of Red Men, 150 members 

Float No. 3, "Legend of Hiawatha.'' Characters, Iroquois Indians 

Escort, Improved Order of Red Men, 150 members 

Red Men Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 4, "The Five Nations." Characters, Iroquois Indians 

Escort, Improved Order of Red Men, 150 members 

Float No. S, " The First Sachem." Characters, Iroquois Indians 

Escort, Improved Order of Red Men, 150 members 

Band of Society of Tammany or Columbian Order, 100 pieces 

Float No. 6, "Season of Blossoms." Characters, Iroquois Indians 

Escort, Society of Tammany or Columbian Order, 200 men 

Float No. 7, "Season of Fruit." Characters, Iroquois Indians 

Escort, Society of Tammany or Columbian Order, 200 men 

Band of Society of Tammany or Columbian Order, 100 pieces 

Float No. 8, " Season of Hunting." Characters, Iroquois Indians 

Escort, Society of Tammany or Columbian Order, 200 men 
Float No. 9, "Season of Snows." Characters, Iroquois Indians 

Escort, Society of Tammany or Columbian Order, 200 men 

Float No. 10, "The War Dance." Characters, Iroquois Indians 

Escort, Society of Tammany or Columbian Order, 200 men 

Second Division 
Italian Societies Band, 50 pieces 

Italian Societies, 1,000 men 

Irish Societies Band, 50 pieces 

Ancient Order of Hibernians of Kings, Queens and Richmond Counties, 1,000 men 

Float No. n, Title Car, "Dutch Period " 

Dutch Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 12, "The Half Moon." Characters, United Holland Societies 

Float No. 13, "Fate of Henry Hudson." Characters, United Holland Societies 

Float No. 14, "First Vessel Built on Manhattan Island." Characters, United Holland Societies 

Danish Society Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 15, "The Purchase of Manhattan Island." Characters, United Holland Societies 

Float No. 16, "Bronck's Treaty with the Indians." Characters, United Holland Societies 

Escort, Danish Societies, 300 men 

Float No. 17, "Reception of Stuyvesant." Characters, United Holland Societies 

Float No. 18, "Bowling on Bowling Green." Characters, United Holland Societies 

Commission Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 19, "Gov. Leisler and the Huguenots." Characters, Huguenot Society 

Escort, Huguenot Society, 50 men 

Float No. 20, "A Dutch Doorway." Characters, United Holland Societies 

Float No. 21, "New Amsterdam becomes New York." Characters, United Holland Societies 

Escort, 250 New York University Students 

Float No. 22, "Saint Nicholas." Characters, City History Club 

Escort, City History Club, 250 children 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 291 

Third Division CompO- 

Irish Societies Band, 50 pieces sition of 

Clan-na-gael Society, 1,500 men Parade 

Commission Band, 50 pieces 

Swedish Societies, 250 men 

Float No. 23, Title Car "Colonial Period." 

Escort, English Societies, 250 men 

Float No. 14, "Schuyler and Indians at Court of St. James." Characters, Society of Colonial Wars 

Escort, Society of Colonial Wars, mounted 

Scotch Band, 50 pieces 

Scotch Societies, 250 men 

Float No. 25, "Trial of John Peter Zenger." Characters, Scotch Societies 

Escort, Scotch Societies, 250 men 

Float No. 26, "The Stamp Act." Characters, Junior Order of American Mechanics 

Escort, Junior Order of American Mechanics, 250 men 

Float No. 27, "A Colonial Home." Characters, Patriotic Order of Sons of America 

Escort, Patriotic Order of Sons of America, 250 men 

Irish Band, 50 pieces 

United Irish League, 250 men 

Float No, 28, "Governor Dongan.'" Characters, United Irish League 

Escort United Irish League 250 men 

Float No. 29, " Philipse Manor Hall." 

Sons of the Revolution Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 30, " Exploit of Marinus Willett." Characters, Sons of the Revolution 

Escort, Sons of the Revolution, 150 men 

Float No. 31, "Pulling Down George III Statue." Characters, Sons of American Revolution 

Escort, Sons of American Revolution, 150 men 

Float No. 32, "Publishing the Constitution.'' Characters, Sons of the American Revolution 

Escort, Sons of the American Revolution, 150 men 

Commission Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 33, "Storming of Stony Point." Characters, Founders and Patriots of America 

Escort, American Continentals, 75 men 

Float No. 34, "Capture of Andre." Characters, descendants of Paulding and Van Wart, two of 

the Captors 

Float No. 35, " Order of the Cincinnati." Characters, members of the Order 

Escort, Order of the Cincinnati 

Float No. 36, "Hamilton's Harangue." Characters, Columbia University Students 

Escort, 150 Columbia University Students 

Band of Patriotic Order of Sons of America, 50 pieces 

Float No. 37, "Old Time Punishments." Characters, Sons of America 

Escort, Patriotic Order of Sons of America, 250 men 

Float No. 38, "Washington Taking Oath of Office." Characters, Washington Continental Guard 

Escort, City Cavalry 

Sons of American Revolution Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 39, "Washington's Coach." Characters, Sons of the American Revolution 

Escort, Sons of the American Revolution 

Commission Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 40, "Nathan Hale." Characters, Students of College of City of New York 

Escort, 150 Students of College of City of New York 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Compo- Float No. 41, "Washington's Farewell." Characters, Sons of the Revolution 

sition of Escort, Sons of the Revolution, i;o men 

Parade Float No. 42, "Legend of Rip Van Winkle." Characters, City History Club 

Float No. 43, "Legend of Sleepy Hollow." 

Fourth Division 

Commission Band, 100 pieces 

Patriotic Order, Sons of America, 500 men 

Float No. 44, Title Car "United States Period." 

Irish-American Athletic Club, 250 men 

Float No. 45, "The Clermont." Characters, Irish-American Athletic Club 

Escort, Irish-American Athletic Club, 250 men 

Scotch Color Guard 

Float No. 46, "Fulton's Ferry." Characters, United Scotch Societies 

Escort, United Scotch Societies 

French Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 47, "Reception of Lafayette." Characters, United French Societies. 

Escort, Um'ted French Societies, 200 men 

Float No. 48, " Erie Canal Boat." Characters, United Irish Societies. 

Escort, Irish Counties Athletic Union, 250 men 

Veteran Firemen's Band, 50 pieces 

Veteran Firemen, 150 men 

Float No. 49, "Old Fire Engine.'' Characters, Exempt and Volunteer Firemen's Organization 

Escort, Veteran Firemen, 150 men 

Float No. 50, "Old Broadway Sleigh." Characters, United Danish Societies 

Italian Band, 50 pieces 

Italian Societies, 250 men 

Float No. 51, "Garibaldi Home, Staten Island" Characters, United Italian Societies 

Escort, Italian Societies, 250 men 

Colored Band, 50 pieces 

Colored Citizens' Societies, 250 men 

Syrian Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 52, " Introduction of Croton Water." 

Escort, Syrian Societies, 250 men 

French Band, 50 pieces 

Float No. 53, "Bartholdi's Statue of Liberty." Characters, United French Societies 

Escort, French Societies, 200 men 

Float No. 54, "Father Knickerbocker." 

Platoon of Mounted Police. 

tion of 

Following are brief explanatory notes aoout the floats in 
the parade: 

I. Title Car of "The Empire State." This float represented 
the State of New York from the day of the canoe to the modern 
skyscraper. A seated female figure represented the State. In 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 


her lap she held an open book, representing history. UponDescrip- 
the back of her throne was perched an owl, signifying wisdom. p°° " 
Behind her, a wigwam and a "Skyscraper" represented the 
progress in architecture. From under the scroll at her feet 
issued the prows of a canoe and a battleship, symbolizing the 
progress in shipbuilding and navigation. 

2. Title Car of "Indian Period." This float symbolized 
the League of the Iroquois who dominated the territory of the 
State at the time of Hudson's advent. A huge Indian head- 
dress, resting on a rocky mound embellished with Indian corn 
and foliage, was the principal feature. On the front of the 
mound were the clan totems of the Five Nations — the beaver, 
the tortoise, the bear, the wolf, and the deer. 

3. Legend of Hiawatha. This float represented the legend 
concerning the formation of the League of the Iroquois. At 
the front was the canoe in which Hiawatha arrived in the land 
of the Iroquois, bearing with him his beautiful daughter. At 
the prow of the canoe, just landed, stood Hiawatha. Upon 
a rock lay the maiden, in the clutches of an enormous eagle 
which crushed her to death. Behind them was the council 
fire, around which stood a group of Indians. The legend is 
to the eff"ect that after Hiawatha had mourned his daughter 
three days, he rose in council and formed the League of the 

4. The Five Nations. The Iroquois Confederacy was 
originally composed of five related nations, called the Mohawks, 
Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas and Senecas. In 1714 the 
cognate Tuscaroras, driven out of North Carolina, were received 
into the Iroquois Confederacy, which thereafter became known 
as the Six Nations. The float represented a group of Indians 
before a wigwam, and upon a shield in front of them life- 
sized figures of a deer, a bear, a wolf, a beaver and a tortoise. 

5. The First Sachem of the Iroquois. The first Sachem of 
the League was the venerable Ato-tar-ho, a famous Onondaga 

294 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Bescrip- chief. The Indian traditions represented him as living in a 
Fi*** te swamp, where his dishes and drinking cups were made of the 
skulls of his enemies. He was unapproachable because he 
was clothed with hissing snakes. The float represented 
Ato-tar-ho, seated amid bulrushes, surrounded by snakes 
and frogs, and approached by Indians bearing propitiatory 

6. Season of Blossoms. The tableau of the Season of Blos- 
soms, or Spring, showed the Indians at work manufacturing 
implements of war and the chase, making moccasins, tilling 
the fields, making their birch-bark canoes, etc. 

7. Season of Fruits. The summer season to the Indians 
was known as the Season of Fruits. The two important 
crops were celebrated by the festivals "Ha-men-da-yo," or 
the Berry Festival, and "Ah-dake-wa-o," or Green-Corn 
Festival. The float represented a festival dance by the 

8. Season of Hunting. The Season of Hunting was what 
we call fall. At this season hunting was indulged in to the 
exclusion of all else. The float represented a hfe-sized moose 
upon a crag, birds flying in the air, and Indians hunting with 
bows and arrows on land and in a canoe. 

9. Season of Snows. This float represented the dance to 
propitiate the Great Spirit, in order that he might mitigate 
the rigors of winter, which at one time killed many Indians. 
In the background was a typical bark cabin of the New York 

10. Indian War Dance. This float represented a group of 
Indians engaged in a war dance under a great tree. The war 
dance was used to arouse the enthusiasm and to enlist warriors 
for dangerous expeditions before the departure of war parties. 
The dance was held in the evening, fifteen men being sufficient, 
but as many as twenty-five or thirty could perform. 

11. Title Car of "Dutch Period." This float represented 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 295 

the prow of an ancient ship, upon which two lions supported Descrip- 
tion of 
' Floats 

a shield bearing the arms of the Netherlands. At the side l*"*^ 

and rear were draperies of Dutch colors. 

12. The Half Moon. This float was a reproduction on a 
slightly reduced scale of the ship in which Hudson explored 
the Hudson River. 

13. Fate of Henry Hudson. Henry Hudson was set adrift 
in Hudson's Bay in June, 161 1, by his mutinous crew, and 
with a few companions met an unknown fate. The float 
represented Hudson's boat struggling among icebergs and floes. 
Upon the highest berg were two polar bears. 

14. First Vessel of Manhattan. The first vessel of Man- 
hattan was the ship Restless, built on the island by Adrian 
Block, in the year 1614, to replace his ship the Tiger in 
which he arrived and which was destroyed by fire. The float 
represented the nearly completed hull of a small ship of ancient 
design, propped up on stocks. Some standing trees and some 
felled suggested the source of the timber and the beginning 
of the conquest of the wilderness. 

15. Purchase of Manhattan Island. In 1626 Peter Minuit, 
the first Dutch Governor-General of New Netherlands, pur- 
chased the whole of Manhattan Island from the Indians for 
the equivalent of $2^. The float represented a group of 
Indians under a spreading tree, approached by a number of 
Dutchmen just landed from a shallop. Between the white 
men and the natives were displayed chests of European wares 
offered in trafiic. 

16. Branch's Treaty. In 1639 Jonas Bronck, after whom 
the Borough of the Bronx and the Bronx River are named, 
purchased land in that Borough from the Indians. In 1642, 
after many hostilities, a treaty with the Indians was signed in 
his house. The float represented part of the exterior and part 
of the interior of Bronck's house, surrounded by palisades. 
Seated at the table was van Tienhoven, the interpreter, and 

296 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Descrip- around him were Bronck, his clerk, Dominie Bogardus, 
Ensign van Dyke, and the Indian chiefs. In front of the 
house was a well with an old-fashioned well-sweep, and 
some pigs. 

17. Reception of Stuyvesant. Peter Stuyvesant, the fourth 
and most famous of the Dutch Governors-General, was 
appointed in 1647. He lost a leg in the Dutch service at the 
Island of St. Martin. It was his lot to be obliged to surrender 
New Netherland to the English in 1664. The float represented 
a Dutch house with crow-step gables in New Amsterdam. 
Upon the porch, under the Dutch flag, stood Stuyvesant, 
surrounded by subordinates and soldiers, addressing the cheer- 
ing citizens before him. In the foreground was a flag-staff 
bearing the arms of New Netherland and the flag of the Dutch 
West India Company. 

18. Bowling on Bowling Green. Bowling Green, at the foot 
of Broadway, is the oldest park in New York City. It had 
been used as a public place for many years when, in 1732, 
it was laid out especially as a Bowling Green. The float 
represented a party of Dutchmen bowling on the green before 
the advent of the English. By poetical license, the windmill 
which once stood a little to the westward of Bowling Green 
was introduced in the background of the float. 

19. Governor Leisler and the Huguenots. When William 
and Mary were crowned King and Queen of England in 1689, 
Governor Nicholson fled from New York and Jacob Leisler 
assumed the reins of government in behalf of the people. In 
1690 he deeded his property at New Rochelle, N. Y., to 
Huguenot emigrants. In 1691 Leisler was hanged as a traitor 
but later the stigma was oflicially removed. The float depicted 
the transfer of the deeds by Leisler to the Huguenots in front 
of the gate to Fort James at the Battery. 

20. Dutch Doorway. This float represented a picturesque 
cottage of the days of New Amsterdam. In the porch stood a 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 297 

burgher and his boy, while on the step stood the burgher's Descrip- 
tion of 

wife feeding the chickens in the dooryard. In the foreground *'°° ° 

stood the life-sized figure of a cow, beside which a buxom 
Dutch maiden sat on a milking stool. 

21. New Amsterdam Becomes Isfew York. This scene 
represented the evacuation of Fort Amsterdam by the Dutch 
garrison, led by Gov. Stuyvesant, in 1664 when New Amster- 
dam was surrendered to the English. Stuyvesant and his 
troops were represented as issuing from the gate of the fort, 
while within the fortification the colors of the Netherlands 
were being hauled down. 

22. St. Nicholas. The patron saint of the Dutch children 
was represented by Santa Claus in a sleigh filled with toys, 
drawn over the snow by six reindeer. 

23. Colonial Period. This float symbolized the English 
regime, which, with a single brief interruption, extended from 
1664 to the American Revolution. In front of a colonnade 
draped with British flags, a crowned lion and a banner bearing 
the arms of Great Britain represented the successors of the 
Dutch. Radiating from the base in the foreground, the 
muzzles of several cannon suggested Great Britain's military 
power on land and sea, while chests of tea In the background 
recalled the system of taxation which was one of the causes 
of her loss of the colonies. 

24. Schuyler and Indians at the Palace of St. James. This 
float depicted the scene when in 1692 Col. Peter Schuyler took 
five Iroquois chiefs to London, partly to impress them with 
the power of England and partly to arouse the home govern- 
ment to a stronger policy toward the French in Canada. The 
float represented royalty seated on a gorgeous throne, and 
upon the steps to the throne, illuminated by candelabra, stood 
Schuyler and a group of Indians in their picturesque native 
costumes. At the four corners of the float were lions support- 
ing shields bearing the arms of Great Britain. 

298 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Descrip- 25. Trial of John Peter Zenger. John Peter Zenger edited 
^° ° a little paper called the Weekly Journal, in which he freely 
criticised the arbitrary acts of the royal government. In 1735 
he was tried for libel, but acquitted in a verdict which is 
commonly said to have been the establishment of the principle 
of the free press. The float represented the scene in the court- 
room in the old City Hall which stood at the corner of Nassau 
and Wall streets, New York. The robed judges on the bench, 
the lawyers at the bar, and the spectators in colonial costume, 
presented a realistic picture. 

26. The Stamp Act. When Great Britain enacted the Stamp 
Act, in 1765, the citizens of New York were so indignant that 
they hanged Acting Governor Colden in effigy, burned his 
coach, paraded the streets with copies of the Stamp Act on 
poles, labeled "England's Folly and America's Ruin." The 
float represented the bonfire in which the coach was burned 
at Bowling Green. 

27. Colonial Home. This was designed to give an idea of 
domestic life In New York City during the English period 
near the time of the Revolution. It represented both the 
exterior and interior of a house of the period. Indoors a 
woman sat spinning. On the porch, beside the mistress of 
the house, stood the master, just returned from the hunt, 
while before him in the foreground stood a colored servant 
holding the hounds. 

28. Governor Dongan. Thomas Dongan, Earl of Limerick, 
by royal permission granted to the people of New York the 
famous Dongan Charter in 1683. It contained many liberal 
provisions and was regarded as a great advance toward popular 
government. The float represented the Governor delivering 
the Charter to the representatives of the Colony. 

29. Philipse Manor House. In 1693 Frederick Philipse's 
possessions, extending from the Spuyten Duyvil Creek to 
the Croton River, were erected by Royal Charter into the 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 299 

Manor of Philipsburg. The float was a large model of the old Descrip- 
tion of 

house in Yonkers, called the Manor Hall, which is said to 

have been built in 1686. 

30. Exploit of Marinus Willett. When the British troops 
withdrew from their barracks in New York City in June, 1775, 
they attempted to take on board ship several cartloads of 
spare arms. Marinus Willett and other citizens detained the 
arms and they were used to equip some of the American 
troops. The float represented two carts, filled with arms 
and driven by British soldiers, halted on their way by Willett 
and other citizens. 

31. Destruction of the Statue of George III. After the repeal 
of the Stamp Act, the people of New York erected in Bowling 
Green in 1770 a leaden statue of George III. After the 
Declaration of Independence the patriots pulled the statue 
down, July 9, 1776, and melted it into bullets. The float 
represented a group of citizens pulling the equestrian statue 
from its base by means of ropes. 

32. Publishing the State Constitution. The publishing of 
the Constitution of New York State was done at Kingston, 
in April, 1777. This famous document was begun at White 
Plains, matured at Fishkill and finished and proclaimed at 
Kingston — the Convention having gradually retreated north- 
ward to escape the British. The float represented the exterior 
of the Court-house at Kingston, in front of which, upon a 
barrel, stood Robert Benson, Secretary, reading the Constitu- 
tion to a group of citizens. 

33. Storming of Stony Point. At midnight, July 15-16, 
1779, General Anthony Wayne and about twelve hundred men 
captured by surprise and assault the almost impregnable posi- 
tion of the British on Stony Point on the Hudson River. By 
this daring feat Wayne won the applause not only of the 
Americans but also of some of the foremost generals of Europe. 
The float represented a fort on a craggy height, surmounted 

300 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Sescrip- by a British flag and occupied by British soldiers, who 
pj"* ° defended it against the Continental soldiers scaling the rocky 

34. Capture of Andre. Major Andre, of the British Army, 
was the intermediary through whom Benedict Arnold and the 
British Commander-in-Chief conducted their scrret negotia- 
tions for the betrayal of West Point. Andre was captured by 
the Americans near Tarrytown in 1780 and was hanged at 
Tappan. The scene represented the three captors halting 
Andre on horse-back. 

35. Order of the Cincinnati. The Order of the Cincinnati, 
composed of descendants of officers in the allied American 
and French armies and the oldest hereditary society in the 
United States, was formed in "the Temple," near Newburgh, 
in 1783. The float represented the exterior of the Temple, 
before which a number of Continental officers, with raised 
hands, took the oath of membership. The well-known 
insignia of the Order of the Cincinnati adorned the sides of 
the float. 

36. Hamilton's Harangue. On July 18, 1795, a public 
mass meeting was held in front of the old City Hall, on the 
site of the present Sub-Treasury in New York, to discuss the 
proposed Jay treaty with Great Britain. The meeting broke 
up in disorder, during which Alexander Hamilton mounted 
the stoop of an old Dutch house in Broad street and tried to 
quiet the mob. His attempt was requited with violence, as 
he was knocked down and dragged through the streets. The 
float represented the front of a building, upon the porch of 
which stood Hamilton addressing a crowd of citizens. 

37. Old-Time Punishments. This float gave realistic rep- 
resentations of the ducking-stool, pillory and stocks. 

38. Washington Taking Oath of Office. Washington was 
inaugurated as first President of the United States on April 30, 
1789, in Federal Hall, which formerly stood on the site of the 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 301 

present United States Sub-Treasury, at the corner of Wall and Descrip- 
tion of 

Nassau streets, New York City. The oath of office was 

administered to him by Chancellor Livingston from the bal- 
cony facing Broad street. The float was a realistic represen- 
tation of the front of Federal Hall, upon the balcony of 
which stood Washington and members of Congress, while in 
the foreground below stood a number of citizens. From a 
staff over the balcony hung an American flag. This float 
aroused great interest among both foreign and American 
spectators, many raising their hats respectfully as it passed. 

39. Washington s Coach. This float was a full-sized repre- 
sentation of the picturesque "chariot" drawn by four horses 
and mounted by two footmen in the rear, in which Washington 
rode to his inauguration in 1789. 

40. Nathan Hale. In September, 1776, when Washington 
desired to get information concerning the British designs, 
Capt. Nathan Hale volunteered to enter the enemy's lines. 
Disguised as a school-teacher — his own profession — he went 
by way of Connecticut, the Sound and Long Island to New 
York, where he was discovered and hanged, September 22, 
1776, regretting that he had but one life to give for his country. 
The float represented the British Commander seated at a 
camp-table before a tent, and before him a guard of British 
soldiers who had just arrived with their captive. 

41. Washington s Farewell to His Officers. This float rep- 
resented the interior of Fraunces' Tavern, in New York City, 
and the scene on December 4, 1783, when the Commander-in- 
Chief formally bade farewell to his officers before proceeding 
to Annapolis to resign his commission. 

42. Legend of Rip Van Winkle. This float represented the 
story of Rip Van Winkle, the good-natured but intemperate 
Dutchman, who drank liquor with Hudson's ghostly crew in 
the Catskill Mountains and slept twenty years — written by 
Irving and made doubly famous by Joseph Jefferson's imper- 

302 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Deecrip- sonation — probably the most celebrated legend of the Hudson 

Floats River. Upon the rocky mountain heights were represented 

Hudson and his eerie crew, drinking with Rip Van Winkle the 

sleep-producing liquor which the latter had carried up the 

mountain at the request of one of the crew. 

43. Legend of Sleepy Hollow. The float represented the 
story of the nocturnal pursuit of Ichabod Crane by a "headless 
horseman," who carried his head under his arm and hurled it 
at Ichabod as he crossed the Sleepy Hollow bridge, near 
Tarrytown. In the background stood the front of the Sleepy 
Hollow Church, surrounded by gravestones, while in the fore- 
ground were represented Ichabod and the headless Hessian 
on horseback dashing over the Sleepy Hollow bridge. 

44. Title Car of the United States and Modern Period. Upon 
this float a huge American eagle held in its beak a scroll 
bearing the national motto. Around a flaming altar in the 
foreground were arranged shields bearing the arms of the 
different States of the Union. The float was profusely orna- 
mented with American flags, shields, and five-pointed stars. 

45. The Clermont. This float was a reproduction of the 
Clermont on a small scale. The characters on board repre- 
sented Robert Fulton, Chancellor Livingston, and others. 

46. Fulton s Ferry. In like manner this float represented 
Fulton's ferryboat of 1812. This boat was built on the cata- 
maran principle, with two hulls, was only 80 feet long, and 
required twenty minutes on the average to cross the Hudson 
River from Cortlandt street to Jersey City. 

47. Reception of Lafayette. Lafayette, the friend of Wash- 
ington, returned to France after the American Revolution, but 
revisited this country in 1824 ^nd 1825 ^"'^ ^^^ received with 
popular demonstrations of afi"ection wherever he went. The 
float represented an arch of welcome, under which Lafayette 
was being received. The arch was profusely decorated with 
American and French colors. In the foreground was the 

Historical Parade in Manhattan 303 

barge in which the distinguished guest landed, and in theDescrip- 
background was a saluting cannon. 

48. Erie Canal Boat. The Erie Canal, connecting Lake 
Erie with the Hudson River, was begun in 18 17 and completed 
in 1825. By this enterprise New York Harbor was connected 
by water with the remotest regions of the Great Lakes, com- 
merce was greatly increased, and New York, which formerly 
ranked second to Philadelphia in size, soon became the metrop- 
olis of the New World. The float represented a canal boat 
drawn by horses. On the boat were several passengers, while 
twr> or three more trudged along the towpath behind the 

49. Old Fire Engine. This float was modeled after a hand 
engine which was in use in New York before the introduction 
of Croton water and the invention of the steam fire engine. 
The original engine is now at the headquarters of the veteran 
firemen, 59th street. New York. 

50. Old Broadway Sleigh. This float represented a period 
long gone by in New York City, before river tunnels, subways, 
elevated roads, electric trolleys or horse cars, when winters 
were more severe than now, when the snow was not removed 
from the streets, and when the omnibus in summer and sleigh 
in winter were the common modes of public transportation. 
Upon the float was a veritable old-fashioned sleigh, filled with 
passengers and drawn over the snow by four horses. 

51. Garibaldi's Home, Staten Island. Garibaldi, the Italian 
patriot, lived at one time in Clifton, Staten Island, after his 
unsuccessful revolutionary efforts in 1849. There he was 
associated with Meucci, the telephone inventor, in making 
candles. The float represented the Garibaldi cottage, in front 
of which stood Garibaldi and several of his compatriots. 

52. Introduction of Croton Water. This float represented 
the introduction of Croton water in the City of New York in 
1842. In the background a female figure poured water from 


304 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Descrip- a cornucopia into a reservoir, from the front of which the 
F^^t* water issued in streams. Several female figures v^ith jars, in 
the foreground, symbolized the use of the vpater. 

53. Statue of Liberty. This float contained a miniature of 
the Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World, vphich stands 
on Bedloe's Island, in New York Harbor, and which was 
presented to the United States by the people of France as a 
memorial of the ties of friendship which have united the two 
nations ever since the French Army and Navy helped the 
Americans win their national independence. In the fore- 
ground two seated female figures symbolized America and 
France, while their friendship was further indicated by other 
figures and by decorations. 

54. Father Knickerbocker Receiving. Knickerbocker, the 
alleged author of Irving's satire, " Knickerbocker's History of 
New York," has been popularly adopted as the patron saint of 
New York. The float represented Father Knickerbocker 
benignantly welcoming to New York all of those who come to 
our shores from foreign lands. 



ON Wednesday, September 29, 1909, were inaugurated 
the Aquatic Sports on the Hudson River. The plan 
for these sports was the natural outgrowth of the two 
fundamental ideas of the Celebration which were inseparably 
associated with the river; but while Hudson's voyage repre- 
sented the hardships and anxieties of the pioneer explorer, and 
Fulton's invention the serious material interests of commerce 
and travel, the aquatic sports offered an opportunity for the 
expression of the spirit of pleasure in friendly competitions of 
skill with various forms of light craft. They were also designed 
to permit the personal participation of the foreign sailors in 
the Celebration on the water in addition to their appearance 
in various functions on land. These sports, which aroused 
wide-spread interest and which were in every way successful, 
were directed by the Aquatic Sports Committee of which 
Lieutenant-Commander Alfred Brooks Fry, N. M., N. Y., is 
Chairman. They were held on three different days and at 
three different places. 

On Wednesday, September 29, pulling races for crews from 
the American and foreign war vessels, the United States Revenue 
Cutter Service and the Naval Militia organizations were held 
at New York. 

On the same day, races for motor boats were held at Yonkers. 

On Thursday, September 30, there were motor boat races at 
New York. 

On Saturday, October 2, rowing races for amateur crews 
and canoe races were held at Yonkers. 

On the same day, there were motor boat races at Newburgh. 

And on the same day there were races for sailing yachts 

at Newburgh. 



The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Races at 

The following details are furnished by Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Fry. 

The pulling races for crews of war vessels, etc., on Wednes- 
day, September 29, were started at a point in the Hudson 
River opposite 137th street. The course for each race was 
two miles, straightaway, and the finish was at a point opposite 
the headquarters of the First Battalion Naval Militia of New 
York, at the foot of 97th street. There were five races and 
the prize winners were as follows: 

Class I: For crews of foreign war vessels only, rowing in twelve-oared 
cutters. First prize, crew of Viktoria Luise, Germany; second prize, crew of 
Etruria, Italy. 

Class II: For crews of United States Revenue Cutters. First prize, crew of 
Gresham; second prize, crew of Seminole. 

Class III: For crews of American war ships only, rowed in twelve-oared 
cutters. First prize, crew of Georgia; second prize, crew of Louisiana. 

Class IV: For crews of Naval Militia organizations. First prize, First 
Battalion, Naval Militia, New York; second prize. Naval Militia, New Jersey, 

Class V: For crews of foreign and American war vessels. United States 
Revenue Cutters and Naval Militia organizations, rowed in twelve-oared 
cutters. First prize, crew of Minnesota, America; second prize, crew repre- 
senting Germany; third prize, crew representing Italy. 

Motor The first of a series of three motor boat races was held at 

v«!lt»ri Yonkers on Wednesday, September 29. Three classes filled. 
The details follow: 

Class A: High Speed Boats over 33 feet over-all length; three starters. 
First prize won by "Dixie II," E. J. Schroeder, Jersey City, N. J. 

Class B: High Speed Boats, over 26 feet and not over 33 feet, over-all length; 
nine starters. First prize won by " Elmer L., " Lansing De Long, Albany, N. Y. 
Second prize won by "Den," Joseph H. Hoadley, New York City. Third 
prize won by "Peter Pan II," James Simpson, New York City. 

Class C: High Speed Boats, 26 feet over-all length and under; six starters. 
First prize won by "Haida Papoose," Max C. Fleischman, Cincinnati. Second 
prize won by "Gunfire II," William J. Brainard, New York City. 

These boats earned Souvenir Medals which were offered 
to all that completed their races but won no prizes : " Barber, " 


Aquatic Sports 307 

Charles Bassett, Syracuse, N. Y.; "Barbara II," Charles A. 
Bird, New York; "Scioto," George C. Sutton, New York; 
"Vivian," George J. Gould, New York; "Arrow," Charles 
F. Scofield, Long Island; "Say," Herbert Smith, New Haven; 
and "Scamp," T. Sprague, Yonkers. 

Eighteen boats in all competed in the races. 

The second series of races was held on the Hudson River Motor 
opposite the upper part of New York City, on Thursday, j?"**^** 
September 30. The starting line was off the New York Motor 
Boat Club House, at the foot of 148th street. One class of 
cruising boats of over 40 feet over-all length raced to Peeks- 
kill and return, a distance of 60 nautical miles. All other 
classes raced around a ten-mile triangle, the high speed boats 
three times and all others twice. The details follow: 

Class A: High Speed Boats, not over 40 feet and over 33 feet, over-all length, 
one starter. Sail-over prize won by " Dixie II," E. J. Schroeder, Jersey City, 

Class B: High Speed Boats, 33 feet over-all length and under; five starters. 
First prize won by "Haida Papoose," Max C. Fleischman, Cincinnati. Second 
prize won by "Elmer L," Lansing De Long, Albany, N. Y. 

Class C: Cabin Cruising Boats, over 40 feet over-all length; five starters. 
First prize won by "Avis," F. C. Havens, Sag Harbor, Long Island. Second 
prize won by "Wanderlust," E. J. Steiner, New York. 

Class D: Cabin Cruising Boats, 40 feet over-all length and under; sixteen 
starters. First prize, won by "Irene II," S. W. Granbery, Newark, N. J. 
Second prize won by "Elmo II," F. D. Giles, Jr., New York City. Third 
prize won by "Mary," Wm. Murphy, New York. 

Class E: Open Launches; six starters. First prize won by "Talequah," 
M. H. Niles, New York City. Second prize won by "Ourselves," Fred N. 
Grafing, Brooklyn. 

In Class E, "Vixen" was first on correct time, but was protested for rac- 
ing with only one person in the boat, c6ntrary to the rules, which stipulated 
that a crew should consist of at least two persons. Therefore "Vixen" was 

These boats were awarded souvenir medals: "Alabama," 
J. H. Hoadley, New York; "Puyram," T. F. Patterson, 

3o8 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Brooklyn-, "Water Witch," C. F. Wigand, Staten Island; 
"Den," J. H. Hoadley, New York; "Say," Herbert Smith, 
New Haven; "Ida May," W. A. Hanson, White Plains, N. Y.; 
"Elvira," Fred Bayer, New York; "Barbara," W. M. Dun- 
can, New York; "Sally," F. L. Salomon, New York; "Haw- 
alia," H. Wallerstedt, New York; "Kid II," C. H. Duglis, 
Jr., New York; "Belle," R. L. Stillson, Nyack, N. Y.; "Twin 
Kid," T. A. Vallance, New York; "Aldred," C. H. Voorhees, 
New York; "Onward," John A. Still, Brooklyn; "Reta," 
George C. Trede; "Anna J," R. Jansson, New York; "Imp," 
Arthur Haas, New York; and " Moondear, " Manuel Klein, 
New York. 

Thirty-three boats in all competed in the New York races. 

Motor The third series of motor boat races was held at Newburgh 

Boats at Saturday, October 2. The course was laid out from a 

burgh pomt below the Fishkill ferry down the river to Cold Spring 

and return. High speed boats raced 20 miles; all others 

10 miles. The details follow: 

Class B: High Speed Boats, 33 feet over-all length and under; seven starters. 
First prize won by "Haida Papoose," Max C. Fleischman, Cincinnati. Second 
prize won by "Gunfire II," Wm. J. Brainard, New York. Third prize won 
by "Elmer L," Lansing De Long, Albany, N. Y. 

Class C: Cabin Cruising Boats over 50 feet over-all length; four starters. 
First prize won by "Avis," F. C. Havens, Sag Harbor, Long Island. Second 
prize won by "Minnie I," A. Traver, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Class D: Cabin Cruising Boats, 50 feet over-all length and under; one 
starter. Sail-over prize won by "Grace," C. Sanford Smith, Grand 
View, N. Y. 

Class E: Hunting Cabin Boats, over 44 feet over-all length; three starters. 
First prize won by "Spindrift," C. R. Butler, Albany, N. Y. 

Class F: Hunting Cabin Boats, 44 feet over-all length and under; two 
starters. First prize, "Irene II," S. W. Granbery, Newark, N. J. 

These boats earned Hudson-Fulton medals : " Wamego," 
M. P. Gould, New York; "Not Yet," E. W. Marshall, New 
York, "Lackawanna II," H. C. Coldwell, Newburgh, N. Y.; 

Aquatic Sports 309 

"Belle," Robert L. Stillson, Nyack, N. Y.; and "Widgeon 
II," Wm. L. Martin, Albany, N. Y. 

Seventeen boats in all took part in these races: 

These races were held at Yonkers on Saturday, October 2. Oarsmen 
The entry list comprised 53 racing shells and 24 canoes, manned canoeists 
by 194 oarsmen and 60 canoeists. The results of the races at Yon- 
were as follows: "^ 

1. Intermediate Single Shell. Won by Metropolitan Rowing Club, New 
York City; time 8.30. Second, Seawanhaka Boat Club, Long Island City; 
time 8.50. 

2. Tandem Double Blade Canoe. Won by Knickerbocker Canoe Club, 
New York City. Second, Fort Washington Canoe Club, New York City. 

3. Senior Quadruple Scull. Won by Nassau Boat Club, New York City; 
time 6.17 2-5. Second, Metropolitan Rowing Club, New York City; time 
6.17 4-5- 

4. Junior Double Gig. Won by Nassau Boat Club, New York City; time, 
7.25 2-5. Second, Hudson Boat Club, New York City. 

5. Tandem Single Blade Canoe. Won by Fort Washington Canoe Club, 
New York City. Second, Knickerbocker Canoe Club, New York City. 

6. Senior Four-Oared Barge. Won by Arundel Boat Club, Baltimore, Md.; 
time, 6.05. Second, Atlantic Boat Club, Hoboken, N. J.; time 6.07 1-5. 

7. Senior Single Shell. Won by Harlem Rowing Club, New York City. 
Second, Harlem Rowing Club, New York City. 

8. Intermediate Four-Oared Gig. Won by Nassau Boat Club, New York 
City; time, 6.52. Second, Columbia University Rowing Club, New York 
City, time, 6.57. 

9. Senior Eight-Oared Shell. Won by Nassau Boat Club, New York City; 
time, 5.44. Second, Wahnetah Boat Club, Flushing, L. I.; time, 5.47. 

10. Club Fours Canoes. Won by Inwood Canoe Club, New York City. 
Second, Fort Washington Canoe Club, New York City. 

11. Senior Octuple Sculls. Won by Metropolitan Rowing Club, New York 
City; time, 5.51. Second, Union Boat Club, New York City; time, 6.01 2-5. 

Races for sailing yachts were held on the Hudson River at Sailing 
Newburgh, N. Y., on Saturday, October 2. Fifty-seven ^^^'^'^ *' 
yachts started. Of these 42 came from Long Island Sound burgh 
ports, two from Gravesend Bay, and 13 from points along the 
Hudson River. Early in the work of preparation for these 

3IO The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Sailing races it became evident that the number of saiHng yachts 
„ along the Hudson River was small, and that it would be neces- 

burgb sary to secure entries from Long Island Sound and Gravesend 
Bay racing fleets in order to make the races successful in point 
of numbers of competitors. This was not easily accomplished, 
partly because the racing season had ended, but mainly because 
of the impossibility, with the extraordinarily augumented 
traffic of the Hudson River, of the yachts proceeding under 
sail from their home ports to Newburgh. It became necessary 
therefore to furnish free towage to yachts entered for the 
races. In no other way could the attendance of a fleet 
commensurate with the importance of the event have been 

Seventeen classes filled, and in accordance with the rules 
adopted for the races, a yacht appearing alone in still another 
class, became entitled to a sail-over prize. The winners were 
as follows: 

Class Q: Three staners. First prize won by "Eleanor," F. T. Bedford, 
New York. Second prize, "Naiad," John Bruno, New York, 

Hudson River Classes C, D, and E, racing as one class: Four starters. 
First prize won by " Wa Wa, " William Lawton, Kingston, N. Y. Second 
prize, "Tanya," John J. Cahill, Newburgh, N. Y. 

Hudson River Classes G and H, racing as one class: Four starters. First 
prize won by "Mohawk," Harry Kernahan, Newburgh, N. Y. Second prize, 
" Wanata," W. D. Baker, New York. 

Handicap Racing Class, first division: Four starters. First prize won by 
"Duchess," J. B. Palmer, New York. Second prize, "Bobtail," Richard A. 
Mouks, New York. 

Handicap Racing Class, second division: Two starters. First prize won by 
"Bedouin," W. J. Fowler, New York City. 

Handicap Racing Class, third division: Three starters. First prize won by 
"Busy Bee," R. L. Cuthbert, New York. Second prize, "Rascal HI," S. C. 
Hopkins, Catskill, N. Y. 

Handicap Racing Class, fourth and fifth divisions racing as one division: 
Four starters. First prize won by " Robin Hood, " W. G. Dowrie, New York. 
Second prize, "Victory," H. A. Jackson, Jr., New York. 

American Yacht Club one design class: Three starters. First prize won by 

Aquatic Sports 311 

"Cricket," W. W. Swan, New Rochelle, N. Y. Second prize, "Jolly Tar," Sailing 
H. S. Duell, New York. Yachts at 

Larchmont Yacht Club, one design class: Two starters. First prize won ^^ 
by "Vaquero," John McCarthy, Mamaroneck, N. Y. '""'^'^ 

New Rochelle Yacht Club, one design class: Three starters. First prize, 
won by "Mischief," J. L. Mitchell, New Rochelle, N. Y. Second prize 
"Virginia," Boyd Decker, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Manhasset Bay Yacht Club, Knockabout Class: Four starters. First 
prize won by "Ahoy," Otto Peters, New York City. Second prize, "Pixy," 
Louis F. Eggers, New York City. 

Class S: Two starters. First prize won by "Sabrina," T. Bache Bleecker, 
New York. 

Manhasset Bay Yacht Club, "Twenties:" Two starters. First prize won 
by "Althea," J. W. Alker, Great Neck, N. Y. 

Manhasset Bay "Bug" Class: Four starters. First prize won by "Dragon 
Fly," Donald Cowl, Great Neck, N. Y. Second prize, "Red Bug," H. H. 
Todd, New Rochelle, N. Y. 

Hudson River Class J: Four starters. First prize won by "Zoe III," 
William Ross, Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. Second prize, "Spray," Nelson 
D. Brown, Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

American Yacht Club Dory Class: Six starters. First prize won by "Tau- 
tog," George Gardiner Fry, Mamaroneck, N. Y. Second prize, "Hunky," 
Wm. McHugh, Norwalk, Conn. 

Hudson River Class N: Catboats: One starter. Sail-over prize won by 
"Arrow," George H. McBride, Newburgh, N. Y. 

Hudson River Class O: Catboats: Two starters. First prize won by 
" Riddle, " H. P. Stamford, Grand View on Hudson. 

These yachts having completed their several courses and 
having won no other prizes vsrere given Hudson-Fulton medals: 
"Joy," G. R. Le Sauvage, New York; "Ramalla," E. H. 
Tucker, New York; "Dart," W. A. Adriance, Jr., New York; 
"Vesta," James O'Brien, New York; "Crescent," L. de B. 
Handley, New York; "Sally IX," A. E. Black, New York; 
"Jolly Roger," Harry I. North, Sea ClifF, N. Y.; "Altair," 
Herbert L. Stone, New York; "Okee," J. A. Mahlstedt, New 
Rochelle, N. Y.; "Maryola," P. V. Griffin, New Rochelle, 
N. Y.; "Houri," D. E. Dealy, New Rochelle, N. Y.; "Madi- 
ana," H. H. Smith, New York; "Edith," Grant S, Kelley, 

312 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Sailing Whitestone, N. Y.; "Kiddo," A. C. Andrews, Bayside, N. Y.; 

Yachts at »^j.jgjjg^» Clarkson Cowl, Great Neck, N. Y.; "Mayflye," 

burgh Alfred Brooks Fry, New York; "Wasp," A. S. Robinson, 

New Rochelle, N. Y.; "Molly," H. I. Westervelt, Fishkill on 

Hudson, N. Y.; "Success," L. K. Wood, Yonkers, N. Y.; 

and "Surprise," Walter Smith, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Five protests were filed immediately after the end of the 
races. In Class Q, "Joy" protested "Eleanor," alleging a 
foul of the stake boat at the end of the first round. This 
protest was dismissed as the case was not proved. 

In the second division of the Handicap Racing Class, "Bed- 
ouin" protested "Juanita," alleging a foul of the up-river 
stake boat. This protest was sustained on the statement 
made by the owner of "Juanita" and "Juanita" was 

In the New Rochelle Yacht Club one design class, "Madiana" 
protested "Virginia," alleging the forcing of the starboard 
tack during manoeuvre immediately preceding the start of the 
class. This protest was dismissed as it was not proved. 

In the Manhasset Bay Yacht Club Knockabout Class, 
"Ahoy" protested "Avis" (which finished first), alleging 
that certain changes had been made in the boat without the 
knowledge or consent of the owners of other boats in the class. 
In accordance with the rules governing the races, this protest 
was referred to the Chairman of the class. That official 
presented the matter to the owners of boats enrolled in the 
class and the protest was sustained. 

In Class S, "Kiddo" protested "Sabrina," alleging that the 
latter had a crew of four persons, the rules allowing only three 
in that class. The protest was dismissed, inasmuch as the 
fourth person in the crew was a woman, while the rules pro- 
vided for a crew of three " men, " and as inasmuch as in the 
opinion of racing men thoroughly familiar with boats of the 
type of "Sabrina" the extra weight carried was, in the con- 

Aquatic Sports 313 

didon of weather prevailing on the day of the race, of no 
advantage whatever. 

All the races referred to were witnessed by thousands of Popular 
people afloat and ashore, the man-of-war races in particular 
exciting popular interest. No accidents of any moment 
marred the affairs, and their success, due to the hearty coopera- 
tion of all concerned, formed one of the marked features of 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration. 




""HE Official Banquet was held in the Hotel Astor, New 
York City, on Wednesday evening, September 29, 1909. 
This brilliant function was arranged by the Banquet 
Committee, of which Mr. Francis Lynde Stetson is Chairman. 
With the exception of the Official Guests and the Legislature 
and State officers in whose honor the banquet was given, attend- 
ance was by subscription upon invitation. The price to every 
other guest including members of the Commission was ^20. 
The banquet was held in the Grand Ballroom which was then 
just completed in the new extension of the Hotel Astor, and 
which was used for the first time on this occasion. The scene 
presented was one of the most brilliant of its kind ever seen in 
New York. 
Deco- The room was decorated for this occasion so as to produce 

Snd °* the effect of a palace finished in Delft china. A large frieze at 
Ballroom the back of the upper gallery represented a fleet of Viking ships, 
painted in Delft blue and gold. At the north and south ends 
of the room, on the wall back of the second gallery, large 
paintings, each about 80 feet long, were placed. The one at 
the north end represented the Holland of Henry Hudson. 
That at the south end represented the New York Harbor of 
to-day, showing the Statue of Liberty and the Lusitania 
coming up the bay, suggesting the result of the voyage of 
Henry Hudson and the invention of Robert Fulton. Under- 
neath these paintings respectively, built out from the upper 
gallery, were two large models of ships, one representing the 
Half Moon, the other the Clermont. These were imbedded 
in masses of orange colored crysanthemums and asparagus 


The Official Banquet 31 5 

vines. The room was relieved still further by large masses of Deco- 
chrysanthemums, sunflowers, dahlias and golden-rod, all the^j.^^^^ 
flowers being yellow or orange. The elaborate scheme of Ballroom 
mural decoration was made possible by the fact that the pro- 
prietor, Mr. William C. Muschenheim, consented to postpone 
the permanent decoration of the ballroom until after the 
banquet, which necessitated the closing of the ballroom to the 
public for at least a month. The decorations were designed 
by Mr. Edward G. Unitt. 

The tables, which were arranged to accommodate ten diners Arrange- 
each, were decorated profusely with orange chrysanthemums. "^^ ° 
At them were seated about 1,900 guests, composed of 40 of the 
principal ofiicials of the United States, New York State and 
New York City Governments; 219 members of the New York 
State Legislature; 52 members of special delegations from 
foreign countries; 36 members of the foreign Diplomatic 
Corps; 40 members of the foreign Consular Service in New 
York; 121 officers of the American Navy; 89 officers of foreign 
navies; 12 members of the Champlain Ter-centenary Com- 
mission; 52 citizen aides to the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission; 27 individual guests of the Commission; 39 
representatives of the American press; 10 representatives of 
the European press; and 1,158 subscribers. The conven- 
tional platform with a long table for the speakers was omitted. 
In its place, a small tribune, at one side of the room near the 
entrance, served as the rostrum, immediately in front of which 
the speakers and guests of honor sat at small tables, Although 
the sentiment of the Commission was in favor of admitting 
ladies to the tables, the physical limitations of the banquet 
hall compelled the Committee to restrict the tickets to gentle- 
men only. So far as the boxes in the gallery permitted, how- 
ever, the banquet was graced by the presence of the ladies. 

3i6 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

The Bill The menu was as follows: 
of Fare 

Cantaloupes de la VaMe du Hudson Frapp^s 

Consommi Tortue Verte a rAmericaine 

Hors d'Oeuvres Varies 

Timbales de Crabes a rOrientale 

Filets de Fompano Robert Fulton 

Pommes de Terre en Croquette 

Ris de Veau Fiqu£s Glacis i TAmsterdam 

Fons d'Artichauts Epicurienne 

Sorbet au Curasao 

Foussins de Bruy^re au Cresson 

Salade Tropicale 

Glace Monumentale Henry Hudson 

Petits Fours Fruits Assortis 

Cafe Noir 

Brauneberger, 1904 

Pontet Canet, 189$ 

Moct & Chandon, Hudson-Fulton Cuvee, 1898 

White Rock Water 

The courses were designed to appeal to the eye as well as 
to the palate. The first course served was a melon grown 
especially for the occasion at Slingerlands, near Albany, and 
when served each slice was equipped with silver mast and sails, 
in an exact reproduction of the rigging of the Half Moon, the 
melon itself forming the hull. The melons were brought into 
the room to the strains of the National Hymn of Holland. 
Care was taken to serve American products as far as possible, 
which accounted for the serving of clear green turtle as the 
soup. The next course was timbales of crab meat, representing 
red fezes. This was followed by a southern fish, the pom- 
pano; and afterwards, sweetbreads. Then came the sorbet, 
which was served on a service made especially for the occasion, 
consisting of a Delft cup, standing on a Delft saucer and Delft 
service plate. After the birds, the ice cream was served in 
boxes which were surmounted by a miniature column of the 
Henry Hudson Monument, which is now in process of erection 
on Spuyten Duyvil Hill. These ice cream boxes were made 
in silk, in the American national colors, and were brought in 
to the strains of the Star Spangled Banner. With the coffee 

The Official Banquet 317 

were served cigars especially made in Havana for the occasion, 
placed in leather bags on which were " burned " reproductions 
of pictures of the earliest Dutch period, showing the Indian on 
land and the Indian on water. All the foregoing pieces of 
decorations were given to the guests as memorabilia of the 

The official souvenir of the banquet was a copy of the Official g ^ 
Medal, three inches in diameter, executed in bronze. 

Before the dinner Mr. Edwin H. Lemare rendered the Music 
following selections on the banqueting hall organ: 

Vorspiel, Third Act and Bridal Music, "Lohengrin Wagner 

Minuet in A Boccherini 

Fugue a la Gigue Bach 

Chant de Bonheur Lemare 

Overture in C Major Mendelssohn 

At the conclusion of the dinner and before the speeches, 
Mr. Lemare rendered an Andantino in D flat, an improvisation 
by himself. 

The program of the post-prandial exercises provided thatPost- 

at this function the Governor of the State should preside, as P"^^"^'*^ 

. . Exercises 

the Mayor of the City had presided at the Official Reception on 

Monday. General Woodford, as President of the Commission, 
therefore presented Governor Hughes as the presiding officer. 
Then followed an address of welcome in behalf of the State 
by Governor Hughes and an address of welcome in behalf of 
the United States by Vice-President Sherman. As the limita- 
tions of time prevented all of the representatives of foreign 
nations from responding, his Imperial Highness Prince 
Kuniyoshi Kuni of Japan was invited to speak for the 
Special Delegates. Then the Governor proposed a toast to 
"The Visiting Ships." To this toast responses were made 
by Sir Edward Hobart Seymour, R. N., O. M., G. C. B., 
G. C. V. O., Admiral of the Fleet, of Great Britain; Gross- 
admiral Hans Ludwig Raimund von Koester of Germany; 
Rear Admiral Jules Louis Marie Le Pord of France; Captain 

3i8 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Manuel E. Izaguirre of Mexico; Capitano Filippo Baggio 
Ducarne of Italy; Captain G. P. van Hecking Colenbrander of 
the Netherlands, and Captain Almada of the Argentine Repub- 
lic. These addresses were followed by a toast to "The Dip- 
lomatic Representatives," to which Senor Don Joaquin Ber- 
nardo Calvo of Costa Rica replied in behalf of the Diplomatic 
Corps. After these formal toasts, addresses were delivered 
by jonkheer J. Loudon, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary of the Netherlands, and Mayor McClellan. 
Senator Root delivered the epilogue to the foreign visitors. 
Then, as the Dutch were the first to explore the Hudson River, 
they were accorded the honor of thelast speech, which was made 
by the Hon. J. T. Cremer of the Netherlands. 
Following is a verbatim report of the speeches : 

General GENERAL WOODFORD: "It is the sad fortune of your 
Wood- President to be compelled to-night to surrender the task of welcome 
to another; but you have heard my voice so often during the four 
days of our festival that you will be glad of a change. It is my privi- 
lege to present one who was my law student many years ago, and 
his tremendous success at the bar justifies all the education he 
received in my oflSce. He is now Governor of the State of New 
York; and he might have been the candidate of the Republican 
Party for President of the United States, if his own preceptor had 
not fallen down so lamentably in presenting his name to the National 

"I have great pleasure in presenting to you as the Presiding Officer 
of this evening one whom all New York, without regard to party, 
loves and honors — a lawyer, great in his profession; a Governor, 
who hews to the line according to his sense of duty — I tried to make 
a bad pun, and you did not catch on. 

"And now. Excellency, will you take the Chair, and in behalf of 
New York, bid greeting to our guests." 

Governor GOVERNOR HUGHES: "President Woodford, Distinguished 

Hughes Guests, Ladies and Gentlemen: The State of New York chartered 

the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission in order that there 

might be suitable commemoration of the discovery which led to the 

The Official Banquet 319 

settlement of this Commonwealth, and of the invention which made Governor 
possible its distinguished progress. I desire at this time, on behalf "^ ®® 
of the people of the State of New York, to express appreciation of 
the unselfish effort, of the intelligence and of the wisdom with which 
the various exercises of this Celebration have been conceived and 

" It is difficult to realize the extent of endeavor which has been 
necessary to make possible a celebration on so large a scale, and in 
a manner worthy of the great occasion, and one which shall be 
deemed by our people, with their intense pride and loyalty, worthy of 
the intelligence and acumen of the citizens of the State of New 

"President Woodford, I desire to express to you and to the mem- 
bers of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission the gratitude of 
the State of New York for the manner in which you have discharged 
your duty. It has required lavish expenditure of time and energy 
on the part of those who are entitled to the indulgence of leisure. 
It has required that the moneys expended by the State and City 
should be supplemented by private benevolence. This Celebration 
is the result of cooperation, led by citizens of public spirit, of dis- 
tinction, worthy representatives of a great community. 

"The State of New York, comprising about nine millions of people, 
the first in wealth of all the States of the Union, with varied oppor- 
tunities for industrial activity, and with preeminence in every line 
of honorable effort, bids welcome to-night to the distinguished guests 
from East and West, who have come here to join in this Celebration 
of a discovery of the utmost significance in its relation not simply 
to the foundation of a State, or to the development of a Nation, but 
to the progress and peace of all the world. 

"It would not be fitting that at this time we should limit our 
thought to the events associated directly with the river that bears 
the name of the discoverer or with the history of this State which 
we are proud to call our home. New York is great because here 
are focussed the energies of a nation. The river whose discovery we 
celebrate is an artery of the national life. Along that river and 
the natural highway which opens through the range of moun- 
tains stretching across a continent, we have proceeded to the 
West, and to-day. West and East are linked together by the com- 

320 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Governor mercial intercourse which centers in the metropolis at New York 

="e'>"'^ Harbor. 

"I would to-night, in this opening word, direct your attention 
beyond the boundary of the State which we love, to the Nation of 
which we form a part. Far on the Pacific Coast they are celebrat- 
ing the great Northwest in an exposition of extraordinary beauty 
and interest. From north, south, east and west, lines of interest 
and of communication are converging to this financial and com- 
mercial center. New York is not America, but New York, more 
largely than any other place, represents the energies, the talent, the 
ability, the varied activities of ail the United States. We have 
drawn here not only hardy, alert and energetic sons of the Old 
World, but many of the best sons of the New World. 

"No celebration can adequately represent New York. It would 
be impossible for the most distinguished commission to plan a cere- 
mony or spectacle which could give any proper representation of its 
interests, but we are prouder to-night of the fact that our work is 
contributing to the national development than we are of our relation 
to city or State. The progress of the last fifty years has brought 
this great people, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, to a sense of unity 
which the fathers hardly believed possible. The early struggles of 
the line of colonies along a strip of the Atlantic coast were rendered 
the more difficult because of the serious obstacles that stood in the 
way of effective cooperation. Patriotism, — the development of 
devotion to our common country, — has been greatly influenced by 
invention and the facilitation of intercourse, and to-day, the dominant 
sentiment of the people of this favored State of New York, as it 
is the dominant sentiment of all the people of all the States of the 
Union, is, that we are united under one flag, with no sectional differ- 
ences, with no obstacles of interest which can interfere with the 
realization of the destiny of a free and united people. 

"We realize that in our State activities we have the advantage 
of a system of organization which enables us in matters of local 
administration to accomplish much that would fail of achievement 
under a more centralized government. We realize that our States, 
fortunately, have an opportunity in local concerns to care for the 
welfare of the people, which a Nation differently constituted might 
utterly and miserably fail of securing. But our State lines, despite 

The Official Banquet 321 

our loyalty to our home, the place of our birth, despite our interest Governor 
in local history and our pride of local achievements, mark no^^S^^es 
essential difference in sentiment or in fundamental principles. 

"Americans fundamentally think alike. New York has sent her 
sons to the far West and is fructifying the continent with men, 
and the West is giving of its best to the East. Valuable as are the 
interchanges of trade, the most important interchanges of the country 
to-day are in human life and purpose and endeavor by which we 
are bound together and through which the community of our interests 
finds constant expression in devotion to one flag and one country. 
It is because the discovery of Hudson and the invention of Fulton 
not only made the Empire State possible, but have so largely aided 
in the development of the life of the Nation, that this Celebration 
is one of national significance. We have our differences and occa- 
sionally they are exhibited in such a way as to suggest serious 
sectional division, but in reality the forces that bring us together 
are far stronger than those that would divide us. And New York 
is proud that it is New York, not because of any isolated interest 
that it possesses, not simply because of its prosperity in agricul- 
ture and industry, but because of the contribution that it has made 
to the progress of the entire country, and of the fact that here East 
and West meet in their joint operations, and here are executed 
the transactions of a great people indissolubly bound by ties of 
commerce and ties of common affection and loyalty. 

"I, therefore, on this occasion, as the Governor of the State of 
New York, rejoicing in the wealth and prosperity of this Common- 
wealth and in their relation to our national life, propose to you the 
toast of the President of the United States." 

The toast was responded to, the guests rising. 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "I will now ask to respond to that Governor 
toast a distinguished citizen of the State of New York, who, in the Hughes 
absence of the President of the United States, will speak for him, 
the Vice-President of the United States, the Honorable James S. 

HONORABLE JAMES S. SHERMAN: "Mr. Toastmaster, vice- 
Ladies and Gentlemen: The two events celebrated in these two weeks President 
on a grand and unparalleled scale, are types of the master factors in S''^''™*'^ 

322 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Vice- human progress. These are the discovery of the secrets of the 
President g^^fj^ gjjj tj,g practical use of science and mechanism. Hudson 
Sherman jt-i c i_ ..... 

and fiulton were rar apart in time; they were near akin in spirit. 

Two hundred years elapsed after the opening of this North River to 
white men before the Clermont followed the Half Moon on the 
surface of its waters. The achievement of the discoverer and the 
benefaction of the inventor bridge the gap, for both added to the 
resources and service of mankind. 

"Our high privilege is to accept gratefully the gifts which they 
bestowed on the race and to appreciate the qualities in them which 
justify the honors to them accorded wherever thought and speech 
are known. Most of all, in this Empire State are we debtors for 
the estuary and for steam navigation because the Commonwealth 
owes a large part of its growth and grandeur to these forces, and the 
nearby States have shared and now share in the bounty and the 
blessing. Fancy cannot conceive the second city on the globe and 
a State comparable with the ruling powers of the earth without their 
vital artery, the Hudson, and the steam vessels which, like weavers' 
shuttles, fly over all waters beneath the stars. 

"Aye! Even more, Hudson threw wide open the gates of the 
continent for the Republic which was later to lead all nations in 
their upward march to the loftiest heights of civilization, while 
Fulton devised the means for transportation on river and lake and 
sea for limitless commerce for millions of producers yet to be, and 
for making all ocean paths familiar as the dooryard of the home. 

"Let us not err by measuring the importance of the Hudson in 
view of the expansion of settlements over the continent. It is fairer 
to reckon what it meant when the Dutch first came, or what to the 
original Thirteen States when the Constitution was adopted. The 
map of the Atlantic coast as it then was, with its scattered settlers, 
shows the North River as the vertical column of the Union. The 
coming years were to bring the music of varied industries, to multiply 
homes of thrift, in hamlet, town and city, and to build schools and 
libraries, hospitals and churches for a prosperous people. 

"Greater are the Mississippi, the Missouri and the Columbia, 
and in their wild way the Colorado and the Rio Grande, but in more 
recent days they began to pour their treasures into the lap of the 
Republic. More dense is the population, more in number are the 

The Official Banquet 323 

keels, more busy is the traffic, more varied is the activity, on the Vice- 
Hudson than on any other American waters. In its subjection President 
..,.-, ., . -,- Sherman 

to commerce it is the senior ot the streams ot the continent in this 

respect, rivaling even the St. Lawrence. What the Euphrates was 
to Babylonia, what the Nile was to Egypt, the Ganges to India, 
what the Yellow River is to China, the Rhine to Central Europe, 
and the Thames to England, the Hudson is to New York and the 
Atlantic slope. 

"Never before this jubilant fortnight was this arm of the sea 
covered by such vast hosts of rejoicing admirers. But these waters 
are not merely a stage for a holiday, for spectacles however gorgeous 
surpassing any royal field of the cloth of gold. This broad stream 
is the servant of man's needs, the humble carrier of his freight. 
No other inland current bears such burdens of the earth's products 
and of diverse merchandise. In 1906, the last officially reported 
year, 122,624,235 tons of freight were carried on the Hudson, of 
which 25,012,329 were of exports and imports. The tonnage of the 
Mississippi and the Ohio and their tributaries for a year was 
27,856,641. That of the Great Lakes, including St. Mary's Canal, 
was 75,609,649 tons of freight. The idle estuary which the Half 
Moon visited is now more full of life than the Orient seas which the 
explorer sought, is enriched by a commerce more robust and beneficent 
than that of Holland or Venice or of Spain in their pride. Some- 
thing more is here, however, than a substitute for the mules and 
camels of the caravans of old, or the packbearers of primitive 

"Notable by the varied beauties of nature, conspicuous as the 
center of great and increasing multitudes, and as the channel of a 
traffic diversified and cosmopolitan, and adorned by the palatial 
homes of culture and refinement which crown its heights, the Hudson 
IS glorified by the splendid pages which it has written in the history 
of the State and Nation. This soil is sacred from the red blood of 
Indian massacres. Thrift and domestic virtues were implanted by 
the Dutch. The threats of French invasion stirred the early settlers 
by frequent alarms but the defense was quick and steadfast. Nowhere 
were the rights of the colonies and the demands of liberty asserted 
more promptly or with more vigor. The first movements for Ameri- 
can union, the initial steps for a State Constitution and for a con- 

324 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Vice- tinental Republic consecrate the sites of these festivities. From 
President Long Island by Stony Point, to Stillwater and Saratoga, the battles 
of the Revolution make these banks and connecting valleys holy 
ground. The annals of West Point redeem the treason of Arnold. 
From Newburgh the weary heroes of the federal army were dismissed 
to return home for the tasks of building a stable society and a free 
government. Washington's refusal to play the part of Caesar, his 
career as President, his retirement as a private citizen, ennoble the 
air we breathe, the very ground we tread. This magnificent and 
prolonged Celebration is a deserved tribute to the toils and struggles 
and heroism which, in the decisive events in human progress, have 
illumined these waters and plains and highlands. 

"The dream of a Northwest passage to China and the Spice 
Islands brought Henry Hudson hither and led him to perish on the 
far Northern bay which bears his name. He did not find the way 
to the Orient, but by his discovery a commerce has been created, 
wealth has been developed, splendor has been exhibited beyond his 
most golden dreams, while civilization has received profit beyond 
all that could be desired from any short route between Europe and 
the Indies. 

"The North Star governed the whole career of Hudson. His 
thoughts turned to it as truly as the needle to the pole. The theory 
of the open polar sea lured him to his death. He was in the first 
rank of the long array of explorers who have sought the ultimate 
North. Epic fitness adds to this jubilee the reports of the planting 
of the Stars and Stripes on the drifting ice of the apex of the world. 
Both of the expeditions to achieve that feat, the aim of science and 
adventure for four centuries, were designed and equipped at the 
mouth of this historic river. The rivalry of Cook and Peary gives 
zest to the discovery which shows no open sea, no passage to China, 
no habitable land, only a cold and desolate laboratory for the geog- 
rapher and meteorologist. Yet Hudson's achievement here and his 
farthest advance on the immense bay of the North were index fingers 
to the pole. An American, it matters not be it one or two, solved 
the problem of exploration and our flag marks the final goal. It is 
the culmination of Hudson's scheme, the proof of his sagacity, the 
torch of his enduring fame. The same Old Glory which vies with 
the sun's rays here and now, amid all the splendors of the twentieth 

The Official Banquet 325 

century, floats over Arctic ice at the point of the extreme North, Vice- 
because Hudson gave this river to white men in September, 1609. ?;®^ *° 

"Fitting, indeed, it is that Fulton's name be joined with that ot" 
Hudson in this festival. His genius and invention fairly multiplied 
the value and usefulness of this grand river. His Clermont was not 
a large boat, but it was the pupa to develop into an insect of the 
highest order; it was the acorn to produce the towering oak; it was 
the egg out of which was to fly the majestic eagle of trade and of war 
wherever streams flow large or oceans marshal their swelling waves. 
Grown-up Clermonts are the ships which have just circled the globe 
on their mission of peace. The Mauretania speeding across the 
Atlantic in less than four and a half days and carrying the population 
of a city and the treasure of Golconda, is the Clermont a hundred 
years old. 

"Into the latest warships of the United States, naval architects 
and skilled mechanics have expanded Fulton's invention. All the 
navies of the powers of all the continents are the harvest of the seed 
sown in the Clermont. 

"Because steam propels ships, the silks of the Orient compete 
with domestic cotton in our markets while American kerosene lights 
the huts of Persia and Hindustan, and European peasants put off 
pattens and sabots for shoes made in Massachusetts and Missouri- 
The toilers of Great Britain, France and Germany get wholesome 
meats at low prices from our Western plains; the teas of Japan, 
China and Ceylon furnish a grateful beverage in every land; the 
aroma of the coffees of Java and Brazil are the pleasing scents ot 
the breakfast table; the fruit of the tropics is found on the Arctics. 
The salmon of the Columbia is served in the camps of the Adiron- 
dacks and of Georgia. The handiwork of India is familiar every- 
where, while American clocks tick the seconds as sewing-machines 
stitch and typewriters click at the foot of the Himalayas and in the 
wilds of Abyssinia. The children of the Clermont have transformed 
the thousands of miles of the wild Pacific into a midland sea. They 
have distributed comforts and increased the joys of life to all mankind. 

"But the exchange of commodities and the direct profits of the 
expansion of commerce, while a chief, are not the only benefit from 
the invention of Fulton. Steam navigation has brought the nations 
closer together, has made them neighbors both in distance and time. 

326 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Vice- As they can clasp hands more readily, their hearts are more inclined 

resi en ^^ heat in unison. No other material agency so much promotes 
Sherman . ^-^ ,., 

human fraternity as switt mtercourse across the stormy oceans which 

used to be barriers of terror and of hate. 

"In the forests at the sources of the Hudson, the smoking of the 

pipe was, with the Iroquois, the symbol and the pledge of peace- 

The stack of the Clermont was a new and greater pipe of peace for 

all men. The funnels of the giant fleets of battleships gathered 

to-day in New York Bay lift upward the smoke of good will. May 

this pageant be the harbinger of continued unity among the earth's 

controlling powers. That is the prophecy of Clermont. The poet 

may forget that he 

" ' Heard the heavens fill with shouting while there rained a ghastly dew, 
From the Nation's airy navies grappling in the central blue." 

" Instead of the throbbing of the war-drum, here is the musical 
beating of the toiling engines of the ships of many civilized peoples. 
Instead of battle-flags, float the standards of Europe, Asia and America 
in the blessed sunshine of the world's peace. Great Britain honors 
this occasion by the presence of the distinguished high Admiral of 
its Fleet and with types of its most powerful war vessels. Germany 
sends a famous Admiral, the friend of Dewey and our friend, with 
the flower of its navy. France, our sister Republic, is mindful of our 
glad acclaim as we recall the squadrons of De Grasse. The Nether- 
lands add to the Half Moon the modern Utrecht to celebrate the 
ancient alliance, give proof of its naval prowess, and join in the 
discovery made under Dutch auspices. Japan, in the person of a 
Royal Prince, rejoices with us. Brazil testifies to the harmonious 
relations of the Western Hemisphere. Our own latest triumphs 
of naval architecture and fighting power fling out the Stars and 
Stripes in greeting and in welcome. The deepest and highest notes 
of the jubilee anthem are borne by the breezes which get their 
tone from the Half Moon and the Clermont, sure witnesses from 
the centuries that 'Peace hath her victories no less renowned than 

"To the pledges of friendship and of prolonged peace which our 
foreign guests extend by their gracious presence, we, for nearly a 
hundred million well-wishers, return thanks, while we proclaim 
assurances that our most earnest desire is for the peace of all mankind 

The Official Banquet 327 

and for the brotherhood of all nations under the sun, with justice 
everywhere supreme." 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "The eloquent words of our Vice- Governor 
President have given emphasis to the thought that I am sure is in "^ ^* 
the minds of all, that the finest feature of this Celebration is the 
visit of the distinguished representatives of the nations of the earth. 
Hudson does not belong to New York; he is not even a hero of the 
United States. His discovery of the Hudson must be remembered 
in connection with his visit to the Chesapeake and the Delaware, 
and that tragic visit to the North where, in his discovery of the sea 
now called by his name, he laid the foundation for the exploits of 
that imperial trading corporation which exercised such vast powers 
and by virtue of the enterprise and the daring of its emissaries, 
contributed so largely to the discovery and the conquest of the 
western portion of the Continent. 

"Hudson is the hero of the Western world, not merely of the 
United States. Fulton's invention was the precursor of the fleets 
now at anchor in our noble stream; his work has revolutionized 
trade and commerce and made all nations of the earth his debtor 
and it is not only most agreeable but appropriate that here in honor 
of Fulton and Hudson should gather the special representatives of 
the great powers. Perhaps I may be permitted to add an expres- 
sion of our hope that in the prosperity and progress of the United 
States which they recognize by this visit may be found an important 
security of the peace and friendship of the nations. 

"It is impossible that we should have the pleasure of listening, 
much as we should like it, to all the special representatives who have 
honored us with their attendance. I have the honor to introduce 
to speak on their behalf. His Imperial Highness, Prince Kuni." 

PRINCE KUNIYOSHI KUNI: "I am extremely gratified to be Prince 
able to participate in the Celebration of this auspicious event which Kuni 
you are so liberally and sumptuously celebrating. Peoples meet 
together and celebrate events dear to their memories; but none can 
surpass this event in the importance which it has had in the history 
of mankind. 

"To-day we are assembled from all parts of the earth to glorify 
the deeds of the great explorer and of the inventive genius, and to 

328 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Prince testify to the marvelous developments that have converted the abode 
Kuni qJ- 2 fg^ scattered Indians into the metropolis of the New World. 

'New York is now the center of commerce and industry, as well 
as that of art, science and literature. She has accumulated enormous 
wealth that manifests itself in this solid and massive structure in all 
its widespread area. She has a vast amount of treasure loaded in 
the bottoms of Leviathans that ply between her docks and all parts 
of the world; and yet she has still greater resources in her sons, to 
whom we owe a great debt of gratitude for the advancement of 
modern civilization and the enhancement of human welfare. 

"But, gentlemen, this is a beginning only in the history of your 
country. The life of a nation is long and permanent. What a great 
future is reserved for your posterity! I anticipate still more marvelous 
achievements for a great Nation that has already achieved such 
wonders. May this great New York become greater and greater 
with the model names of Hudson and Fulton." 

Governor GOVERNOR HUGHES: "As it is impossible that these much 
Hi^hes appreciated words of Prince Kuni should be followed by addresses 
by all the other special representatives who are here, I will ask you 
to drink to the health of all the special representatives of foreign 
nations who have graced this occasion with their presence, and 
through Prince Kuni, have so cordially testified to their interest 
in our progress." 

The toast was drunk standing. 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "The men of power representing the 
nations of the earth are accompanied by the ships of might. If 
Fulton could have seen in these terrible engines of destruction the 
final result of his inventive skill, I wonder if he would have persisted 
in his endeavor to find a means of successful steam navigation. 
Here they are — the horrible dogs of war, the handsome dogs of 
war! We admire their power. We rejoice that they are so self- 
contained and reserved in their deportment! They are here to-day 
to add to the wealth of representation in distinction and achievement 
which is furnished by the visiting representatives, these symbols of 
majesty and strength — in their armament, in their fleetness, in the 
perfection of their control, the last word of science and invention. 
They are here, the messengers of peace — all the more important 

The Official Banquet 329 

and influential as messengers of peace, because so well equipped 
for strife. We rejoice that the celebration of the visit of the Half 
Moon three hundred years ago and of the successful navigation 
of the river by Fulton a little over one hundred years ago should 
be the occasion of the assembling in these happy waters of these 
representatives of power in circumstances so auspicious. I give 
you the toast of The Visiting Ships." 

The toast having been drunk, the Governor asked Sir 
Edward Seymour, Admiral of the Fleet, to make the first 
response to this toast. 

ADMIRAL SEYMOUR: "Governor Hughes, Mr. President, Admiral 
Ladies and Gentlemen: I may commence by truthfully assuring you Seymour 
that I am extremely conscious of the great honor that has been done 
me in being sent here to represent the English Nation, also to represent 
the English Navy. I am sure that no country ever existed in the 
world where a navy was so much of an absolute necessity as it has 
always been to our Nation. It is therefore that I feel that I may 
speak for a country that is especially, or has been, the naval power 
of the world. We look around us and we Englishmen see with great 
interest, believe me, the wonderful navies that are springing up; 
not only in your great American Nation, but in other nations of the 
world. I may venture to say that it has long been my feeling 
that we partly owe this, or very much owe it, to your Nation. 
Why ? Because, until we were educated by your incomparable writer. 
Admiral Mahan, we did not know. That is one influence your 
Nation had on the world. We have learned it now, and rightly and 
naturally the nations of the world are increasing their force by sea- 
But let us not assume for an instant this means anything but peace. 
The seas must be policed just as much as the land. Even in the little 
quiet cities of London and New York, police, by the honest men, 
are generally thought necessary. 

"I may now say two or three words on the extraordinary changes 
that have taken place in sea things in the last half century. It Is 
no exaggeration to say that if your celebrated sailor, Paul Jones, 
had waked up from his sloop in the year 1850 and been put on board 
ships which I myself have served in, sailing ships, men of war, he 
would have only said, 'Well, this is a very fine ship. It is a little 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Admiral larger, the guns are a little larger, ' but he could have put her under 
Seymour ^^y. ^jj j sailed her as he did his own ship. Of course, I might go a 
little farther and compare these two ships that interest us very much, 
the Half Moon and the Clermont, with the ships of the present day. 
It will perhaps help to bring home to you the enormous change 
since Hudson's day when I remind you that if his ship was put aboard 
the Inflexible, and put athwart ship, as we call it, or across ship, 
there would have been but ten feet to spare, and if you put them 
fore and aft the deck, you could put about eight of them one after the 
other. That gives a little impression, I think, of the difference in size. 
"We Englishmen feel very proud that Hudson was an Englishman. 
We share also with Holland the honor of his actually sailing from 
that country, on which we congratulate our friends the Dutch. 

"The results of the discovery of the Hudson by the great navigator 
after whom the river is named, and the subsequent inventions of 
Fulton are matters which touch everybody, but they have been so 
enlarged on this evening, in a far more eloquent way than I can do, 
that I will not take up your time longer in doing it. 

"In conclusion, I would like to say two or three words. They 
are only this : One of your great poets in his poem on the Light- 
house said 

. . . Sail on ye statdy ships! 
And with your floating bridge the ocean span; 

Be mine to guard this light from all eclipse, 
Be yours to bring man nearer unto man. 

"But as I said earlier in my discourse, the men-of-war are equally 
necessary to police the seas, and therefore I say the same thing applies, 
that they must bring men unto men really to promote the commerce, 
the wealth, and the harmony of the nations of the world." 

Grossadmiral von Koester." 

'The next response will be made by 




GROSSADMIRAL von KOESTER: "Mr. Governor, Mr. Presi- 
dent, Ladies and Gentlemen: I wish to thank you for your kind 
invitation and the splendid reception offered to me and my fellow 
officers. I also thank you, Mr. Governor, for the kind words you 
have said about the German Navy — words which form, by good 
feeling, another link in the long chain of good and friendly relations 
happily existing between our two nations and navies. 

The Official Banquet 331 

"Your fleet has only a few months ago returned from its famous 
cruise around the world. From everything I learned about this 
voyage, it was my desire long since to see with my own eyes your 
fleet, which accomplished by its cruise a briUiant record unattained 
until now by any other modern fleet. I wish you to know that the 
German Navy, from the Emperor to the youngest officer, has watched 
with the keenest interest the accomplishment of that voyage and I 
am glad to express our sincerest congratulations on this excellent 
proof of eSiciency. This strong and efficient fleet has been, wherever 
it came, a herald of peace, and it has proved the fact that a mighty 
fleet does not object to the love of peace, but is a guarantee of it. 

"When the American Atlantic Fleet crossed the ocean homeward- 
bound last Winter, the only thing we did regret in Germany was that 
our country was too far out of their way to have the honor of greeting 
them as our guests and returning the hospitalities that we have so 
often enjoyed in your great country. 

"Gentlemen, I propose the prosperity of the American Navy and 
the health of their gallant oflScers." 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "The next response will be made by 
Rear-Admiral Le Pord." 

Admiral Le Pord's reply, of vp^hich the following is a transia- Admiral 
tion, was in his native language. He said : 

"Messieurs: After the distinguished orators who have so brilliantly 
revived the two geniuses whose memory the whole world honors 
to-day, it does not become me long to detain your kind attention. 

"I have it at heart, nevertheless, to say to what degree I feel the 
honor which the Government of the French Republic has done me 
in sending the armored division which I command to represent our 
navy at the fetes of New York, and in entrusting to me the agreeable 
mission of bringing to Hudson and Fulton, those two immortal 
children of America, the homage of our profound admiration. 

"The most noble, the most evil figures, do not always escape 
being forgotten: with the eager tenacity, with the indomitable 
energy which characterizes them, the Americans have wished to 
perpetuate those of Hudson and Fulton. They have wished to 
conserve their remembrance for reverent transmission to genera- 
tions which will follow us. It is in that spirit that they have 

332 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

organized the splendid fetes at which they have convened the entire 

"It is a happy thought. Messieurs, for a people ought to wreathe 
with veneration the memory of those who were among their pre- 
cursors in the path of progress. 

"Honor, then, to the State and to the City of New York! Honor 
to all Americans, who wish to immortalize Hudson and Fulton. 

"Permit me. Messieurs, to profit by this occasion to thank, in my 
name and in the name of the French division, the Festival Com- 
mittee and all the population of New York for the reception, so 
cordial, which has been given to us." 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "The next response will be made by 
Captain Manuel E. Izaguirre, of Mexico." 

Captain CAPTAIN MANUEL E. IZAGUIRRE: "Mr. Governor, 
Izaguirre Ladies and Gentlemen: Mexico joins with the American people in 
commemoration of two great events which belong equally to the 
history of the United States and to the history of all peoples. In the 
prowess of Hudson you glorify the man of action, and in Fulton's 
invention the marvelous power of a creative imagination. These 
two heroes of civilization represent the two integral forces of human 
conquests — will and genius. 

"Hudson displayed the flag of a mercantile country while looking 
for routes by which to reach the countries of the medieval dreamers. 
Instead of reaching the chimerical treasures of Marco Polo, which 
seduced him as they seduced the Italians, Spaniards and Portuguese 
of the glorious Trans-atlantic Odyssey, he placed foot in a land 
richer than all the land of dreams, in which there are many charac- 
teristics of greatness, of which the most wonderful is the spirit of 

"Fulton, with his invention, reduced the earth to the dimensions 
assigned to it by the contemporaneous cartographer of Hudson. 
Civilizations, which in their origin were pluvial and later mastered 
the mediterranean basins of the world, had reached the period of 
oceanic extension. Fulton furnished_the instrument to completely 
realize the inter-continental corporation of peoples. 

"We are in the midst of a Celebration in which all humanity feels 
as one. We praise you for presenting to the world the credentials 
which entitle you to be classed as an illustrious nation. All that is 

The Official Banquet 333 

genuinely American is great and deserves admiration. It shines in 
the virtues of Washington; in the wonderful far-sightedness of Jeffer- 
son; in the political science of John Quincy Adams; in the eloquence 
of Webster; in the magnetic force of Clay; in the fortitude of Lincoln; 
In the genius of your inventors; in the daring of your explorers; and 
in your love for all that means a victorious effort of the intelligence 
and of the will to reach the harmony of nations and the peace of 

"Mexico, in active development, singularly favored by sympathy 
toward all peoples, which bring to her elements of happiness and 
culture, and by a government that stimulates all legitimate activities, 
earnestly desires that in this continent this movement shall not cease 
until perfection is reached." 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "The next response will be made by 
Capitano Filippo Baggio Ducarne, of Italy." 

lency, Ladies and Gentlemen: I feel that I should be very proud Ducarne 
and very grateful for the circumstance which brought me here to-night 
as delegate of the Italian Government. As such I wish to thank 
the Governor of New York and all the members of the Committee 
for the kind and friendly reception to the Italian sailors which were 
sent here to join your citizens in honoring two great men, Hudson 
and Fulton. I have the honor to convey my country's best wishes 
for the United States and its Navy. I wish prosperity to ever and 
ever develop all over this country so that its development shall extend 
all over the land and sea. 

"The beautiful and powerful United States Fleet that we ItaUans 
are daily admiring in these days along this beautiful river is the 
surest sign of the great progress made by this country upon the sea. 

"In the name of the Italian Government and of the Italian Navy, 
I wish the United States Navy to be always great and powerful and 
prosperous in all time to come." 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "The next response will be made by 
Captain Colenbrander, of the Netherlands." 

Excellency, Ladies and Gentlemen : I can only add a few words to Colen- 
all the speeches that have been given here, and those words, in the 

334 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

first place, that I am much honored by the invitation to give a response 
here to the welcome given foreign nations. 

"I should like to point out that the position of our small country 
is a most important one and has been a most important one through 
all the centuries, at the mouth of the Rhine, the great artery of 
Europe. We have a small sea coast with splendid harbors, and it is 
to be hoped that those harbors may be of great value in certain 
circumstances. Our eastern colonies lie just on the way from China 
to Europe. From one side, we are in a certain direction on the way 
to those roads. All those great powers, the great nations, are of 
course in the first place there to keep up peace. It comes deep from 
our heart that it will never be a necessity for us to keep peace there. 
And I am quite certain that the development of the American Nation 
will add to the possibility that it will never be a necessity to fulfil 
this, our duty, in certain circumstances. I hope that within fifty 
years, and possibly earlier, all those big navies shall not be a neces- 
sity. We as a small nation only hope that the developments will 
come in other ways, and that we will supply machines for fighting 
it out, not on the seas, but on the land. 

"I think I would like to add a toast to the American Nation, 
which has been always, and especially in the last two hundred years, 
at the head of all inventions of all things which were welcome to 
the civilization of nations." 

Governor GOVERNOR HUGHES : " The last response to the toast to 'The 
Hughes Visiting Ships' will be made by Captain Almada, of Argentina." 

Captain Almada bowled in response, but did not speak. 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "The great guns of the visiting fleet 
arc now silenced! 

"We are honored, not simply by the visit of the special repre- 
sentatives of the Nations, not simply by the magnificent display of 
their naval prowess, but also by the presence of those who in the 
routine of international communication are engaged in interpreting 
their thought. Ships may come and ships may go, and invention 
may succeed invention, but diplomacy goes on forever. 

" Our gratification is that with the progress of the years it becomes 
more candid and direct, and that we have the pleasure of welcoming 
to our shores those who come with no thought of intrigue, but in 

The Official Banquet 335 

connection with the exchanges of international intercourse to give 
and receive assurance of the friendly feeling which is mutually enter- 
tained. I give you the toast of ' The Diplomatic Representatives. 

The Toast having been drunk, the Governor said : 

"There will be one response to this toast, and that will be made 
by Senor Joaquin Bernardo Calvo, the Minister of Costa Rica." 

dent, Mr. Governor, Mr. Mayor, Gentlemen: I have the signal Calvo 
honor of responding to the toast which our honorable Toastmaster 
has just proposed to the Diplomatic Corps accredited to Washington, 
on this memorable occasion when such important events of civiliza- 
tion and human progress are being celebrated. 

"It is not probable that either Henry Hudson or Robert Fulton, 
no matter what they might have thought of the value of their great 
achievements, could have dreamed that the river bearing the name 
of the former would be such a potent factor in local development and 
in the commerce of the world. 

"If the blessings of 'E pluribus unum attained with the greatest 
conceivable success had not made a portion of this great nation the 
States which the Hudson River binds together as the readiest means 
of communication, that mighty river would be classed among the 
greatest international waterways. We constantly see upon its waters 
the colors of many a foreign country, and to-day we see waving in 
all splendor the flags of all the nations of the world. 

"On behalf of the diplomatic representatives of all these Nations, 
I have the honor to express our profound and sincere gratitude for 
having so kindly invited us to participate in this glorious Celebration, 
which makes our hearts share in your rejoicing. 

"Gentlemen: Our heartiest greeting to the United States of 
America, to the prosperous State of New York, and to this wonder- 
ful City." 

"GOVERNOR HUGHES: "We have now concluded the formal Governor 
toasts of the evening, and it will be our pleasure to have a few informal Hughes 
speeches from others whom we delight to welcome upon this occasion. 

"Ever since the visit of the Half Moon, which in the light of our 
modern knowledge seems like Half-Lunacy, we have been tremen- 
dously impressed by Dutch ideals, Dutch customs, Dutch traditions. 

336 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

What is not English, or Irish, or Scotch, or German, or Italian, or 
Spanish, or French, or otherwise, among us, is unmistakably Dutch. 

"Living in Albany, as I do at this time, I am most impressed 
with the fact that the Dutch own New York. We have sobriety, 
taciturnity, cleanliness, thrift, placidity, the capacity for the enjoy- 
ment of leisure — all the qualities which go to make up a happy and 
useful life. All these benefits we trace directly to the visit of the 
Half Moon. Fortunate it was for us that the Half Moon was the 
first to come into New York Harbor. If we had not had that 
reinforcement of our equilibrium at that early date, we should soon 
have been destroyed by the rivalries of our manifold energies. 

"I take great pleasure in calling upon the Minister of the Nether- 
lands to speak to us to-night." 

Minister JONKHEER J. LOUDON: "It is a great pleasure and a great 
Loudon satisfaction for me as representative of the Netherlands in this coun- 
try to have the honor of addressing you on this festive occasion — 
a pleasure because in these days, more than ever since I set foot on 
American soil, I feel at home and at unison with the citizens of this 
great Empire City and Empire State, that once bore the name of 
New Amsterdam and New Netherlands; a satisfaction because this 
Celebration comes at a moment when minute historical research has 
definitely established the fact that the early Dutch settlers, and 
especially the influence of the old Netherlands, have left indelible 
traces on the banks of the Hudson and far beyond in the New World. 
It will be presumptuous on my part and untruthful to say that Hol- 
land's influence has been one of the chief factors in the molding 
of the American spirit — that spirit that undeniably exists and is so 
strong, so irresistible that it assimilates often within a lifetime the 
composite elements of diverse nations. Yet, inasmuch as a nation's 
spirit is due to the institutions, it is proved in the light of historical 
research that Holland's influence upon this country has been great. 

"It is particularly gratifying to us Hollanders that the influence 
of the old Dutch Republic on the great Republic of George Wash- 
ington is so fully recognized by modern American historians and that 
this recognition is greeted with so much sympathy by the American 
public. It warms our hearts in these days especially to see, to hear, 
to feel that recognition in every way. It fills us with pride to behold 
in the decorations of every important thoroughfare of this truly 

The Official Banquet 337 

sky-scraping city the orange, white and blue, the colors under which Minister 
the first rebels against the tyranny of the Duke of Alva, the self- ""*'"* 
styled 'beggars of the sea,' initiated our great struggle for inde- 
pendence, soon to be led by that hero of heroes, WilHam the Silent. 
And side by side with that heroic banner adopted as the flag of your 
Celebration, we see in every street the red, white and blue, the flag 
of the United Netherlands, which has remained that of Holland ever 
since and was the first to salute the Star Spangled Banner in 1776. 
The present Celebration recalls the days 300 years ago when Hol- 
land, little Holland, undaunted by the armed forces of her mighty 
oppressor, sought expansion on the distant seas, when the love of 
liberty, of unfettered development in every line of action, of thought 
and art, imbued her citizens, as well as those of other nations, who 
dwelt on her shores, with ideas of free government, free thought, 
free speech and free education. 

" These principles were brought over to the virgin soil of America 
not only by Hollanders, but perhaps even to a much greater extent 
by Englishmen — Englishmen who came from those countries 
where those bands of Dutch had emigrated years before; English- 
men, especially, who had found in Holland a refuge from religious 
persecutions, those noble Pilgrim Fathers who, after having lived 
with us the twelve years of our truce with Spain, imbued with the 
ideals Holland was standing for, sailed for the New World, to 
carry out those ideals; Englishmen also like William Penn in later 
years, whose mother was Dutch, who spoke our language and whose 
form of government was entirely modelled on that of Holland. 

"I need not dwell on the history of the Netherland settlement of 
Manhattan Island. Most of those who are taking part in this 
Celebration know how the intrepid Henry Hudson in the service 
of the Dutch East India Company landed here with his little Half 
Moon after a vain attempt to find a northern passage to the East 
Indies; how Dutch traders settled here until the colony became a 
city governed in the name of the West India Company by Minuit, 
by Van Twiller, by Kieft, by bold Peter Stuyvesant — that period 
of your history depicted with such delightful humor, with such witty 
inaccuracy by Washington Irving. You know also how finally in 
time of peace, our great rivals on the sea took New Amsterdam by 
surprise; how in an ensuing war the Dutch Admiral Evertsen 

338 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Minister recaptured the whole of New Netherland, and how finally, by the 
°° treaty of Westminster, an exchange of colonies was made which 
gave us Surinam, which we still hold, but deprived us of New 

"The energy, the tenacity and perseverance of the Hollanders of 
old are still characteristics of our race, both at home and in our 
colonies. The free, the democratic lowlander has not lost his enthu- 
siasm. That enthusiasm is no longer founded upon defense against 
oppressors. It is founded on the gratitude every right-minded 
Hollander feels toward the line of princely leaders who created and 
perpetuated our independence. It finds its highest expression in 
the veneration of every Hollander for that fair and august repre- 
sentative of the House of Orange who now reigns over us — for Her 
Majesty Queen Wilhelmina. 

"Under the auspices of the House of Orange, in the land of that 
great master, that world-famed teacher of international law, Hugo 
Grotius, the international court of arbitration seems well located. 
The peace conferences are slowly but gradually instilling the germs 
of arbitration and peaceful solutions of international conflicts through- 
out the world. Their work itself is not incompatible with great 
armaments because as long as nations are willing to pay and in the 
measure in which they are ready to do so, the old Roman saying 
will remain true, ' If you wish for peace, prepare for war.' 

"An American citizen, a great human benefactor, Andrew Car- 
negie, has forever connected his name with the Court of Arbitration; 
America can do more than many others for that cause, and we 
sincerely trust that she will do. 

"With the same ideals in view, the historic ties of friendship 
between the United States and Holland are bound to increase. 
Moreover, we are neighbors in the far East. Our colonial empire 
with an administration tested by an experience of more than 300 
years and carried out firmly on truly liberal lines, is surrounded by 
great powers that, we know, have in view what we diplomats 
call the maintenance of the territorial status quo. Among those 
powers none is more akin to us than the United States in the 

"May, then, our cordial relations in different parts of the world 
steadily grow, and may that proud little Half Moon oflFered to you 

The Official Banquet 339 

by Holland on this occasion, remain the symbol of the ties that 
will forever unite us across the seas." 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "Amid all the marvels of the western Governor 
world after due consideration of the results of the three centuries, Hughes 
it may be said that nothing is more complete, symmetrical and 
worthy of profound admiration than the complacency of the citizen 
of the City of New York. He takes this Celebration for granted. 
He looks on good-naturedly, gratified at the spectacle, pleased with 
the preparation for his amusement, but seeing no particular necessity 
for surprise on the part of any one that New York should gather 
here the brightest and best of the world to celebrate its progress. 
Our city is vulnerable at every point but invulnerable at all. It is a 
place where the whole is much greater than the sum of all its parts. 

"There is only one who can respond for New York, and that is 
he who, as the official representative of the entire City for many 
years, has administered its affairs; who knows its progress, and its 
promise, and has contributed to its prosperity — Mayor McCleilan." 

MAYOR GEORGE B. McCLELLAN: "What we are honoring Mayor 
this week, what we are honoring to-night, is not so much Hudson j"'^*'!^'" 
and Fulton the men, as Hudson and Fulton the doers of deeds; not 
so much what they did, as the results of their achievements. For, 
as Fulton was the first to apply practically the steam engine to 
navigation, so he sowed the seed of modern economic development, 
and as Hudson was the first to make known to the world the site 
of this city of ours, I am a complacent enough New Yorker to believe 
that by so doing he sowed the seed of twentieth century civilization. 
As the steamboat is the concrete expression of this era of labor- 
saving machinery, so New York is the concrete expression of the push 
and the hurry and the rush of the wealth and the strength and the 
power of the commercial progress of the day. 

"There is no man with the soul of an artist or a love of the beautiful, 
no matter how slight, who does not in his heart of hearts regret that 
the motor boat has replaced the caravel, and that as the emblem of 
progress, the Dreadnaught has displaced the Half Moon. 

"Amsterdam, once the mistress of the commercial world, although 
still in the full vigor of her maturity, has yielded her supremacy to 
a younger rival; but in seeing herself surpassed she has seen herself 
recreated, and lives again the triumphs of her youth in those of 

340 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mayor the city to which she herself gave birth — her daughter, New Amster- 

McClel- <Jatn. And as we honor the mother city for what she was to us and 

for what she has given us, so we who know her love the daughter 

city for what she is and for what she has given us in our civilization 

of to-day. 

" This Celebration is really in honor of the spirit which New York 
embodies, the spirit of the twentieth century, the spirit of the modern 
world. So it has been accepted by the nations of the earth, who 
have treated it not as local in its application, not even as merely 
national, but as an event belonging to all. As long as humanity 
remains as it is, the world will never see the realization of that inter- 
nationalism that, destroying national boundaries, would reduce the 
nations of to-day to mere geographical expressions, and would make 
of the earth one impossible and decidedly unpleasant Utopia of 
governmental paternalism. Nor, in our time at least, will the earth 
ever become one vast federal republic. Each nation has its own 
peculiar problems to solve, its own salvation to work out in its own 
individual way. The only possible internationalism is the inter- 
nationalism of forbearance and help and sympathy that comes from 
a determination to live and to let live in the application to world 
politics of the golden rule of life. 

"Every gathering, such as this, that is international in its character 
helps to a better understanding among the peoples of the earth, 
helps to draw the nations more closely together in a real human 
brotherhood, a union of mutual esteem and mutual good will. 

" In the name of the people of New York, I, the Mayor, bid you 
who are here to-night, who have come from near and come from 
far, a sincere and hearty welcome." 

Governor GOVERNOR HUGHES: "Now we shall have a final word for 
"^ ^^ New York, not the City, but the State, from one who embodies in his 
personality the contribution of the State to the Nation. He recalls 
to us that New York, much as it has excelled in industry, great as 
it has been in the world of commerce and finance, has made its most 
important contribution to the life of the nation in the persons of 
distinguished statesmen whom she has given for the conduct of 
various national affairs. From John Jay, through the long roll 
including William L. Marcy, William H. Seward, Grover Cleveland 
and Theodore Roosevelt, to him who now represents us in the Senate 

The Official Banquet 341 

of the United States — one of the ablest and most distinguished of 
New Yorkers — we have reason to be proud of the Empire State in 
national service. I take pleasure in presenting Senator Root." 

SENATOR ELIHU ROOT: "Mr. Chairman, Mr. Vice-Presi- Senator 
dent, Governor, Your Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is ^°*'* 
my office to say 'Good-Night* and 'Good-Morrow,' and to renew 
to the distinguished guests who have come from foreign lands to 
grace our Celebration, the assurance of our appreciation of the 
courtesy and kindness of their governments and their peoples. 

"I hope that our feelings will be appreciated at home, my friends, 
and that your governments and your peoples will know how deeply 
we all feel the courtesy, the kindliness and the sympathy with which 
you have taken part in these festivities in which we have been so 
deeply interested. 

"We are not celebrating ourselves. We are not celebrating the 
greatness and wealth of our city — the vast extent and the wonder- 
ful progress of our own country. We celebrate in Hudson the great 
race of men who made the age of discovery. He broadened the limits 
of human knowledge, pushed back the horizon and opened to man- 
kind a vast field of opportunity. We celebrate in Fulton the great 
race of men whose inventive genius has multiplied the productive 
power of mankind, and laid the foundations for a broader and 
nobler and a more permanent civilization the world over. 

"We celebrate, not ourselves; but, standing at the gateway of the 
new world, we celebrate the immense significance of America to all 
mankind. You, my friends — and many of you are friends and 
personal friends indeed — who have come to us from abroad, find 
here, from whatsoever country you come, the children of your own 
fatherland. They have been welcomed here to lives of opportunity, 
of freedom, of comfort, of reward for industry, of prizes for superior 
intelligence and energy. Here, in all that you find that is worthy 
of admiration or commendation, you find in part the work of your 
own brothers, every one of you. From the fertile soil, the rich mines, 
the vast forests, the teeming factories, the multitude of inventions 
that characterize the progress of America, streams of wealth have 
been pouring back to improve the conditions, increase the wealth, 
energy and comfort, and advance the civilization of the people of 
your own lands. 

342 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Senator "We here, free from the fetters of age and long customs, have 
°° been trying out your experiments for you. And back there, this 

virgin field in governmental and social experiment has gone to each 
one of your lands by the testimony of your own sons — lesson after 
lesson of value, of supreme value, for your own guidance in your 
struggles for peace and justice and liberty. This is your Celebration 
as well as ours. 

"We celebrate the march of mankind from the days of Hudson to 
this hour — the march of all mankindjalong the pathway from cruelty 
and selfishness and oppression and slavery to the enlightenment, 
the charity, the brotherly love among men of this twentieth century. 

"This meeting of millions upon the shores of the New World, 
millions whose fathers have spoken every language under the sun, 
millions who have brought the traditions of every custom, of every 
law, of every prejudice throughout the whole broad world, the meet- 
ing of these millions here in this cosmopolitan city, to rejoice in 
peace, in prosperity, in all the truths of civilization, in which every 
Nation has a part, marks the progress from those dark and bloody 
days when English and French, Dutch and Swede and Spaniard 
butchered each other in the forests of the Atlantic Coast and contended 
for the mastery, which happy time has proved to be needless, to 
enable all mankind and every race to enjoy the happiness and the 
fruits to be gathered upon this virgin soil. 

"May the fraternal feeling that marks this happy gathering never 
give way to the hatred, the cruelty, the selfishness and greed of those 
earlier days. May the fruits of civilization which we have acclaimed 
with banners and illumination and procession and parade, never 
again be turned aside, and the steady progress of mankind be turned 
backwards by the wars that disgraced the days of old. May the 
harmony, the fraternity, of this festival be an augury for the future. 
May the blending of races which has made possible all that we now 
celebrate never be made naught by the conflict of races upon the 
battlefield. May the spirit of this day persist, grow ever more 
effective in the minds of men, and this occasion be a precursor of 
many a festival in the years to come, marking the steady progress 
of all the peoples of the earth, who have united to make America 
what it is, upward and onward, along the path that leads to perfect 
peace and justice and liberty." 

The Official Banquet 343 

GOVERNOR HUGHES: "As Henry Hudson, coming in the Governor 
Half Moon, said the first word three hundred years ago, so in this ^"S''®® 
late hour of commemoration we shall permit the last word to be 
spoken by the special representative of the country under whose 
flag he sailed — the Hon. J. T. Cremer." 

MR. CREMER: "I am particularly thankful, Mr. Governor, Delegate 
that I am also to speak a few words of thanks before my countrymen Cremer 
who have been here a short time, in rather a large number, scatter 
and go to their homes. We would not feel satisfied if we had not 
taken this opportunity of saying thanks to you, not only for our- 
selves, but for our countrymen at home, for the reception you have 
given us. We shall tell them that our country is not forgotten yet 
on this side, but that you think of us as one of your writers names 
us, 'Brave Little Holland;' and we shall tell our Queen that when 
her name was mentioned here it was met with general applause, and 
that I have heard from your women and from your men that she is 
cherished and revered by every one; and those are words greater 
than we could have expected when we came here. 

"Ladies and gentlemen, when you shall come to our shores you 
will be received there with open arms, as you have received us; and 
especially when you send us again those men you have sent to the 
Hague twice now. I remember the first time your representatives 
at the Hague Conference spoke in that old church of Delft, over 
the grave of one of our loved ones, Mr. Seth Low and Mr. White 
spoke their words of sympathy and of peace; nor shall I forget how 
Mr. White said he thought these conferences would gradually reduce 
the weight of the armaments which crush down the nations of the 

"Ten years have passed since, and the weight has provisionally 
increased, and the police which we pay in that way is weighing more 
and more upon the nations. I should perhaps not speak of that 
here in this moment, when such a grand fleet lies in the Hudson 
River, and where gallant admirals and captains are here to hear 
these words. As the French proverb says, 'You should not speak 
of the rope in the house of a man who has been hung. ' But, gentle- 
men, I cannot believe we are here in a country of militarism. I, 
cannot believe that the soul of America in the long run can be per- 
manently the soul of armies and the ground of militarism. No, I 

344 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Delegate insist upon what I have always thought of this hallowed ground: 
Cremer jj^^j. jj. j^ ^jjg ground of liberty and freedom. The words which 
have just been spoken by your Mayor are live germs in our hearts, 
and we look upon your country as the country of science, of free 
science. When we saw yesterday these young men and children 
passing our grand-stand on Fifth avenue, all looking happy, and 
lifting their eyes to their rulers as children look at their parents, 
their rulers then did not look as men who would think more of mili- 
tarism than the advancement of trade, commerce, industry, science, 
of the science which brings your men to a scientific enterprise and 
enterprising science. Therefore, gentlemen, when we go back to 
our country we shall be sure we have your sympathies with us, and 
our small nation, with your great one, may play a part in that happy 
future for the nations which will reduce the weights of these arma- 
ments; and at the same time, gentlemen, be assured that in this 
sense we offer you our thanks for your kind reception. And to you, 
the rulers of this country, State, City and your Celebration Com- 
mission, but above all to the citizens of New York, who have shown 
us so much sympathy, have shown us that they consider us of their 
blood and as kinsmen, we will not say ' Good-bye,' but'Au revoir. " 

Governor GOVERNOR HUGHES: "And now, with a renewal of the 

"^ ^* pledge of mutual affection and esteem, we say 'Good-Night' to all 

our distinguished guests; we say 'New York is yours;' to New, 

Yorkers, the one word, the word of our history, the word of our 

motto, 'Excelsior!' " 




'HE military parade in Manhattan Borough, New York, Arrange- 
was the principal feature of the Celebration on Thurs- Parade 

day, September 30, 1909. The arrangements for this 
parade were made by the Military Parade Committee of which 
Major-General Charles F. Roe, commanding the National 
Guard of the State of New York, is Chairman. General Roe 
was also Grand Marshal of the parade, as he was of the His- 
torical Parade on the preceding Tuesday and the Carnival 
Parade on Saturday evening following. The line of march on 
Thursday was the same as that for the Historical and Carnival 
pageants — starting at Central Park West and iioth street, 
thence to 59th street, to Fifth avenue, and to Washington 

Ambulance service and temporary hospitals were established 
along the route of the parade and telephone service was main- 
tained so that reports from and orders to any part of the 
column were readily transmitted. 

The gala scenes of Tuesday at the Court of Honor and along 
the line of march were repeated on Thursday, except that the 
beautiful weather of Thursday, contrasting with the threaten- 
ing skies of Tuesday, added to the brilliancy of the ceremonies 
and seemed to increase the vivacity of the multitudes of specta- 
tors. The entire route of the parade was lined with vast 
crowds, those from 23d street to Fourth street and in 
Washington Square being far greater than at points north of 
23 d street. 

Through the courtesy of Captain Jacob W. Miller, officers 
of the Naval Militia met the detachments from the several 
Foreign Navies and conducted them to the place where they 


34^ The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

were to form for the parade, and after the parade conducted 
them to the vessels that took them back to their ships. 
Official Notwithstanding the many opportunities for delay in the 
landing of the men from the combined war-fleet of 47 vessels, 
the procession started from iioth street with military prompt- 
ness at I p. M. and reached the Court of Honor at 2.30. Here 
it passed in review before the Governor of the State and a dis- 
tinguished company including United States, State and City 
officials, officers of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, 
special foreign delegates, members of the Diplomatic Corps 
and foreign Consuls, officers of the foreign and American 
armies and navies, and other guests of the Commission. 
The order of march was as follows: 

Composi- Grand Marshal Major-General Charles F. Roe. 

tion of 

Military ^'""• 

Parade Chief of Staff. 

Lieutenant-Colonel George Albert Wingate. 

Lieutenant-Colonel William W. Ladd. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Gilford Hurry. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel B. Thurston. 
Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Chapin. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John N. Steams. 
Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Bunnell. 
Lieutenant-Colonel William G. LeBoutillier. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick T. Leigh. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin B. McAlpin. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chauncey P. Williams. 
Major John B. Holland. 
Captain Louis M. Greer. 
Captain Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
Captain Adrian W. Mather. 
Squadron "A," Cavalry, National Guard, New York, Major Oliver B. Bridgman, Commaading, 
as Escort to the Grand Marshal. 


(Landing Parties from Fleets of Foreign Navies.) 

Great Britain 
One Regiment of Marines and Detachments of Sailors from His Majesty's ships Infleiiblci 
Drake, Argyll and Duke of Edinburg, of the Royal Navy. 

Military Parade 347 

Germany Composi- 

Detachments of Sailors from His Imperial Majesty's ships Victoria Louise, Hertha, Bremen, and t""l "I 
Dresden, of the Imperial German Navy. Military 


Detachments of Sailors from the ships Justice, Liberte, and Verite, of the French Navy. 

Detachments of Sailors from the Morelos of the Mexican Navy. 

Detachments of Naval Cadets and Sailors from His Majesty's ships Etna and Etruria, of the 
Royal Italian Navy. 

Detachments of Sailors from Her Majesty's ship Utrecht, of the Royal Dutch Navy. 

Argentine Republic 
Detachments of Sailors from the ship Presidente Sarmiento, of the Navy of Argentine Republic- 


(United States Army.) 

Corps of Cadets, United States Military Academy, Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick W. Sibley, 

One Regiment, Coast Artillery Corps, U. S. Army, Colonel Henry L. Harris, Coast Artillery 
Corps, U. S. A., Commanding. 


(United States Navy.) 
Atlantic Fleet Brigade, Captain Alex Sharp, U. S. N., Commanding. 

One Regiment, United States Marine Corps, Major Dion Williams, U. S. Marine Corps, 

First Regiment, Sailors, United States Navy, Captain W. I. Chambers, U. S. N., Commanding, 
from the United States ships Connecticut, Vermont, Kansas, and Louisiana. 

Second Regiment, Sailors, United States Navy, Captain W. I. Sims, U. S. N., Commanding, 
from the United States ships Minnesota, New Hampshire, Mississippi, and Idaho. 

Third Regiment, Sailors, United States Navy, Captain T. D. GrifEn, U. S. N., Commanding, 
from the United States ships Georgia, New Jersey, Nebraska, and Rhode Island. 

Fourth Regiment, Sailors, United States Navy, Captain C. J. Boush, U. S. N., Commanding, 
from the United States ships Virginia, Wisconsin, Missouri, and Ohio. 

One Battalion, United States Revenue Cutter Service, Captain D. P. Foley, U. S. R. C. S., 


(Naval Miliria, State of New York.) 
Commander R. P. Forshew, Second Battalion, Naval Militia, New York, Commanding. 
First Battalion, Naval Militia, New York, Commander A. E. Kalbach, Commanding. 
Second Battalion, Naval Militia, New York, Lieutenant-Commander William G. Ford, 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


„.,.^ (National Guard, State of New York.) 


Parade Brigadier-General George Moore Smith, Commanding. 

Major Alfred H. Abeel. 
Major William I. Washburn. 
Major Harris B. Fisher. 
Major Frederic C. Thomas. 
Major Nathan S. Jarvis. 
Major George H. Clark. 
Major Oscar Erlandsen. 
Major John R. Hegeman, Jr. 
First Lieutenant Arthur W. Little. 
First Lieutenant Henry H. Rogers, Jr. 

Squadron " C," Cavalry, National Guard, New York, Major Charles L de Bevoise, Commanding, 
as Escort. 
Twenty-second Regiment, Corps of Engineers, Colonel Walter B. Hotchkin, Commanding. 

Brigadier-General David E. Austen, Chief of Coast Artillery, 

Commanding Coast Artillery Corps, 
consisting of 
Ninth Provisional Regiment, Coast Artillery Corps, Colonel William F. Morris, Commanding. 
Eighth Provisional Regiment, Coast Artillery Corps, Colonel Elmore F. Austin, Commanding. 
Thirteenth Provisional Regiment, Coast Artillery Corps, Colonel Charles O. Davis, Commanding. 

Major David Wilson, 
Commanding First Battalion, Field Artillery, 
consisting of 
First Battery, Field Artillery, Captain John F. O'Ryan, Commanding. 
Second Battery, Field Artillery, Captain Lansford F. Sherry, Commanding. 
Third Battery, Field Artillery, Captain Chauncey Matlock, Commanding. 

Colonel Daniel Appleton, 
Commanding First Brigade, National Guard, N. Y. 

First Lieutenant Henry A. Bostwick, 
First Lieutenant Byrd W. Wenman. 

First Company, Signal Corps, First Lieutenant Thomas W. Baldwin, Commanding, as Escort. 
Seventh Regiment, Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel Willard C. Fiske, Commanding. 
Twelfth Regiment, Infantry, Colonel George R. Dyer, Commanding. 
Seventy-first Regiment, Infantry, Colonel William G. Bates, Commanding. 
Sixty-ninth Regiment, Infantry, Lieutenant-Colonel Louis D. Conley, Commanding. 

Military Parade 


Brigadier-General John G. Eddy, 

Commanding Second Brigade, National Guard, N. Y. 


Major Walter F. Barnes. 
Major Robert G. Moran. 
Major Almet R. Latson. 
Major John B. Christoffel. 
Major Albert E. Steers. 
Major Clarence W. Smith. 
Major John W. Tumbridge. 
Major Elliot Bigelow, Jr. 
First Lieutenant Walter J. Carlin. 
First Lieutenant Francis J. McCann. 

Second Company, Signal Corps, Captain A. W. J. Fohl, Commanding, as Escort. 
Fourteenth Regiment, Infantry, Colonel John H. Fbote, Commanding. 
Forty-seventh Regiment, Lifantry, Colonel Harry C. Barthman, Commanding. 
Twenty-third Regiment, Infantry, Colonel Frank H. Norton, Commanding. 
Fourth Regiment, Lifantry, National Guard, New Jersey, Colonel H. BrinkerhoflF, Commanding. 
Ninth Company, Coast Artillery Corps, Connecticut National Guard, Captain Burgoyne Hamil- 
ton, Commanding. 


Albany Burgess Corps, Major James C. Woodward, Commanding. 

The Old Guard, Major S. Ellis Briggs, Commanding. 

The Irish Volunteers, Colonel Charles J. Crowley, Commanding. 


(United Spanish-American War Veterans.) 
Grand Marshal W. Martin Watson, Commanding. 
Detachments from the several Camps of the Spanish War Veterans, in the Departments of New 
York, New Jersey, Massachusetts and Connecticut. 


(Sons of Veterans.) 
Commander-in-Chief George W. Pollitt, Commanding. 

Junior Vice Division Commander, Alfred L. Dodge. 

Frank P. Woomer. 

James E. Purdy. 

Arthur F. Engel. 

Brother Neiner. 

Brother Barbette. 

Company "A," Sons of Veterans Reserve, Hoboken, New Jersey, Camp No. 171, New Yoik 
Division and Hugh C. Irish Camp No. 8, Paterson, New Jersey, as Escort to the Commander- 
in-Chief's Colors. 

Delegations from Camps Nos. 20, 23, 26, 64, 79, 102, 103, 167, 168, 182, New York Division, and 

Delegations from Camps Nos. i, 8, 19 and 32, New Jersey Division. 

tion of 

of the 

350 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Composi- (Miscellaneous Organizations.) 

non 01 Deutscher Veteranen-Bund, 1870-71, President Max Lederer, Commanding. 

JHiUtary United States Volunteer Life Saving Corps, Commodore Augustus E. Miller, Commanding. 

±'araae Legion Independent Polish Krakusky, Colonel Stefan Suszynski, Commanding. 

Withington Zouaves of Michigan, Captain William Sparks, Commanding. 

Italian Rifle Guard, Captain Joseph Bruno, Commanding. 

Veteran Guards, State of New York, Captain E. L. Reid, Commanding. 

The Ninth Division, consisting of the Grand Army of the 
Republic, did not parade because of the distance and the age 
of the members, but vp^as formed on each side of the Court of 
Honor, where, under the command of its Grand Marshal 
Captain Thomas O'Reilly, G. A. R., it acted as Guard of 
Honor to the distinguished guests and the foreign officials on the 
Review^ing Stand. 
Features The parade, which was about three hours in passing the 
Court of Honor, was one of varied interest. In one respect 
it was unique. Never before had men under arms from 
so many nations set foot on the soil of New York. The 
international character of the procession, therefore, gave it 
great interest to the spectators. The Americans were deeply 
interested in the appearance, discipline, equipment and 
marching of the foreigners, while the foreign guests at the 
Court of Honor were equally interested in the appearance 
of the armed representatives of the regular army, navy and 
militia of the United States and the navies of their sister 

Each division of the procession had special features which 
attracted attention. 

The British marines and sailors, in straw hats and white 
leggings, who led the First Division, were given a magnificent 
reception, the spectators rising en masse and cheering wildly. 
Nothing could more strikingly have demonstrated the ameliorat- 
ing influence of time than this demonstration which, by an 
interesting coincidence, took place at a point where, 133 years 
before, Americans and British troops were engaged in hostile 

Military Parade 351 

combat.* After the British sailors came the Germans with Features 
their famous high step called the "Emperor's step;" thep^j-^^g 
French with their peculiar short, quick step; the Mexicans 
with their characteristic uniforms; the Italians, including the 
naval cadets, the future official personnel of the Italian Royal 
Navy; the Netherlanders, the modern successors of the famous 
fighting "beggars of the sea;" and the Argentine sailors who 
came farther than any others to participate in the Celebration, 
each in turn receiving enthusiastic demonstrations of welcome 
and each the object of individual interest. 

The continuous roar of applause which accompanied the 
West Point Cadets along the whole line of march heralded the 
approach of the Second Division before it came in sight. At 
the Court of Honor these young men, who are to be the future 
officers of the United States Army, excited intense interest on 
the part of the foreign naval officers, diplomats and special 
delegates, many of whom had seen the Corps of Cadets at West 
Point the day before, and who rose to their feet and eagerly 
leaned forward as the Cadets drew near. Besides the West 
Point Cadets, the Coast Artillery was the only representa- 
tion of the regular army. Their appearance excited admiring 

The Third Division, composed principally of men from the 
American warships, identified by their gun pennants bearing 
the names of their respective ships, was received with various 
demonstrations of enthusiasm according to the partialities of the 
spectators for one ship or another. The men wore their blue 
uniforms, white hats and leggings, and carried their rifles at 
their shoulders. Many civilians were amazed at the number 
of fighting men poured forth by the warships. The men-of- 

* The Court of Honor occupied part of the field upon which, on September 15, 1776, the Con- 
tinental troops under Washington unsuccessfully resisted the British, who, on that day, landed 
on Manhattan Island and took possession of that portion of the island lying south of Harlem. 

352 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Features wars men were followed by a battalion of officers and men from 

of the 

the United States Revenue Cutter Service, whose uniforms were 

so similar to those of the naval detachments that many specta- 
tors did not notice that they were a separate body. This was 
the first time that they had paraded as a body in New York 
City, and their fine appearance elicited warm encomiums from 
competent judges. 

The Fourth Division, composed of battalions from the Naval 
Militia of New York, was also an interesting and instructive 
part of the procession to the throngs, a majority of whom 
probably knew little of this branch of the fighting service of 
our sea-board State. 

The Fifth Division, composed of the National Guard, while 
a familiar spectacle to Americans, aroused especial interest in 
the foreign representatives, particularly those who had not 
made a special study of the dual military system of the United 
States. It was difficult to make some of the visitors understand 
the difference between the citizen soldiery, who are kept 
under military training while following their pursuits as citi- 
zens and who are ready to be mobilized for military service 
on an hour's notice, and the standing army of the United States 
who devote their whole lives to the profession of arms. When 
this system of a small standing army, with a great reserve of 
civil National Guardsmen, was explained, they expressed their 
admiration for the system and for the body of men marching 
before them. One commentator said he had not seen anything 
like it for strength and drill. 

The Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Divisions, on account of the 
variety of the uniforms of the participating organizations, were 
more picturesque in proportion to their numbers than their 
predecessors and elicited continuous applause. A notable 
feature of the Eighth Division was a flag 200 feet long and 
wider than the avenue, carried horizontally by the Sons of 

Military Parade 353 

There were no serious accidents and the parade moved with- Absence 
out interruption except such as was necessary for the move- Occidents 
ment of certain surface railroad lines, whose operations had 
been previously arranged for with the police and railroad 

The work of the police in controlling and dispersing the 
crowds was skillfully, effectively and patiently done under very 
trying circumstances and deserves the greatest praise. 

The streets were cleaned for and kept clean during the 
parade and the unfinished work of widening Fifth avenue, 
commenced in the Spring, which at one time threatened the 
success of the parade, was rushed to a sufficient state of com- 
pletion so as not to be an interference. 





^HE principal event of Friday, October i, on the Hudson 
River, was the Naval Parade to Newburgh and the 
ceremonies in the latter city. 
Half Prior to this, however, that is to say, on Wednesday, Septem- 

f°°'' ber 29, the Half Moon and Clermont, with the Naval Militia 
Clennont under Commander R. P. Forshew, acting as an escorting squad- 
ron, had started up the river, anchoring at the principal com- 
munities between New York and Newburgh in order that these 
villages and cities might have an opportunity to see the vessels 
and render them proper hospitalities. Their movements were 
so regulated that they arrived at Cornwall early on Friday, 
October i, and were prepared to join the naval parade just 
before it reached Newburgh. 
Composi- For the naval parade of October i, the fleet was divided into 
eight squadrons, as follows: 

First Squadron: Steamboats plying inland waters, including ferry-boats^ 
commanded by Capt. George A. White. 
Second Squadron: Steam yachts, commanded by William Butler Duncan, 


Third Squadron: Motor boats, Flag Officer J. Adolph MoUenhauer. 

Fourth Squadron: Tugs and steam lighters. Flag Officer F. B. Dalzell. 

Fifth Squadron: All sailing craft applying for anchorages from New York 
to Newburgh inclusive, Capt. Howard Patterson. 

Escort Squadron: The Half Moon and Clermont, the Naval Militia and 
the United States vessels detailed by the naval authorities, Commander R. P. 

Patrol Squadron: Revenue cutters, etc.. Senior Captain O. C. Hamlet, 
U. S. R. C. S. 

Scout Squadron: Fast steamers and motor boats acting as despatch vessels, 
Capt. J. Frederic Tams, Flag Lieutenant to the Chairman of the Naval Parade 


tion of 

Naval Parade to Newburgh 355 

The fleet assembled between Fort Washington and Spuyten Assembly 
Duyvil. In order that vessels of different rates of speed might p,<,<jress 
reach Newburgh Bay, 60 miles distant, at the same time, the 
fleet was divided into three groups. Vessels having a speed of 
between 10 and 13 miles an hour were started at 7.45 A. M.; 
those with a speed of between 13 and 17 miles an hour at 
8.45 A. M.; and those with a speed of over 17 miles an hour at 
9.45 A. M. 

The procession, including the official steamers Robert 
Fulton, Rensselaer, Plymouth and Providence, the United 
States men-of-war, torpedo boats and submarines, the Utrecht 
of the Royal Netherlands Navy, and a large number of steamers 
and yachts, presented a memorable spectacle as on this brilliant 
October day it passed up the river through the broad expanses 
of the Tappen Zee, Haverstraw Bay, Peekskill Bay, through 
the mountainous passage of the Highlands, and emerged into 
the capacious bay of Newburgh. Just after the main procession 
passed between Storm King and Breakneck Mountains, the 
northern gateway of the Highlands, it was joined by the Half 
Moon and Clermont and Escort Squadron from Cornwall, 
and the whole fleet arrived ofi^ Newburgh amid salvos of 
artillery, music by numerous bands, and enthusiastic cheering 
by the multitudes on the shores and heights of Newburgh. 

Upon landing at the Ramsdell wharf, the Governor of the Official 
State, the President of the Commission and other officials were ij^^^' 
met by the Hon. Benjamin McClung, Mayor of the City, Col. 
Arthur MacArthur, Chairman of the Upper Hudson Com- 
mittee, Captain William J. McKay, Chairman of the Upper 
Hudson Naval Parade Committee, and other prominent citizens, 
and escorted to a platform near by, where the ceremony of 
welcome and of transferring the Half Moon and Clermont to 
the Upper Hudson Committee took place. 

General Woodford, the President of the Commission, 
opened the proceedings by saying: 

356 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: It gives me great pleasure to announce 
to you the Hon. Mayor McCIung, of the City of Newburgh." 

Mayor Mayor McClung said : 

McClung . 

"It gives me great pleasure to welcome at this time so many dis- 
tinguished guests to our city. You are more than welcome, coming 
as you do, and representing not only the great Empire State, but the 
entire United States and foreign nations, but at this time particularly, 
when this place has been selected as the spot where the ceremonies 
are to be held for the transfer of the Half Moon and the Clermont 
from the care of the Lower Hudson Committee to the Upper Hudson 
Committee; and without any formal remarks, I desire to extend to 
you the welcome that is deserving, and to extend also the hospitality 
of the city and the freedom of it; while you stay with us we will 
endeavor to make it as pleasant as possible. I now take pleasure in 
introducing Captain Jacob W. Miller, Chairman of the Naval Parade 
Committee, having charge of the Half Moon and the Clermont." 

Captain Captain Miller said : 
BliUer , . 

"President Woodford, in obedience to your orders, I have the 

honor to state that I have, with the assistance of the Naval Parade 
Committee and the Naval Militia of the State of New York, trans- 
ported safely the Half Moon and the Clermont to Newburgh Harbor, 
and I now have the honor of turning them over to you for such 
disposition as you may deem fit." 

General General Woodford, first addressing Governor Hughes and 
fj,j.j " the other guests, and then the general audience, said : 

"Excellency, Friends, Gentlemen of the Diplomatic Corps, Ladies 
and Gentlemen: By the great generosity of distinguished citizens 
and prominent merchants and bankers of Holland, an exact copy 
of the historic Half Moon has been built, and by the gracious courtesy 
of Her Majesty, the Queen of Holland, this vessel has been brought 
in the charge of the Navy of Holland, and has been transferred to 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. The title to the Half 
Moon is in the Commission. By the generosity of New York men, 
a copy of the Clermont has been built by our Commission, and the 
title to the boat is in the Commission. By the faithful and zealous 
care of Captain Miller, these boats have been brought to the waters 
of Newburgh. In the name of the Commission, I now put them in 

Naval Parade to Newburgh 357 

the keeping of the Upper Hudson Committee. They are filled with 
most valuable relics. I charge the Upper Hudson Committee so to 
guard and care for them that when our ceremonies are ended, we 
may be able to make fitting permanent disposition of them. 

"To the representatives of all the foreign governments who so 
generously have come to us and who have taught us to be their 
friends, I give thanks, to each and all; and I hope the ceremonies 
of this week will bind us in closer friendship, and that when we part 
there shall be only love in the hearts of each of us, each tending 
towards that better day when all the nations of the earth shall be 
one in a common fraternity." 

Mayor McClung then introduced Colonel Arthur Mac- ^'''<'°*' 
Arthur, the Chairman of the Upper Hudson Committee, who Arthur 
spoke as follows: 

"General Woodford, Governor Hughes, Ladies and Gentlemen: 
As the Chairman of the Upper Hudson Committee of the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission, it affords me great pleasure to accept 
from you these emblems of an ancient day that are full of reminis- 
cences, and which to-day, in view of the vast improvements made in 
the advancement of mankind, are symbolic of the steps of progress. 

"We come down to you from the head waters of the Upper Hudson, 
where the green trees and pellucid streams ever welcome those who 
travel over their waters — sweet fields beyond the swelling flood and 
dressed in living green, extending a welcome hand to all those who 
come up this highway of commerce. I appreciate the honor, and I 
can assure you in the name of those who dwell along the banks of 
the Hudson that these treasured emblems of the past will be as safely 
guarded and as carefully loved and as carefully taken care of as it is 
within the scope of our possibiHties to do. I thank you in the name 
of the Upper Hudson Committee. And I want personally to add 
my token of gratitude for this great Celebration that has risen to 
such wonderful magnitude, world-wide in its significance, under the 
able care of your hand, your heart and your brain. I thank you." 

Mayor McClung next introduced Governor Hughes, who ^•'^®'™*'" 
, r 11 Hughes 

spoke as follows: 

"Mr. Mayor, Fellow Citizens: This day I have looked forward to 
as one of the most agreeable of these days of Celebration, because 

358 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Governor it was understood that I was not to be called upon to make any 
Hughes extended remarks. I am very glad, however, to have an oppor- 
tunity to express my appreciation of the privilege of taking part in 
the day's ceremonies. No celebration of the discovery of Hudson 
or of the great invention of Fulton would have been complete 
without a journey up the stream which was the scene of the enterprise 
of Hudson and of the great success of Fulton. 

"Many voyages of note have been made up this river. Friends and 
foes, men of great distinction and ability in varied lines of effort, 
have made this world-famous journey, but never in the past three 
hundred years has a company voyaged up the Hudson so broadly 
representative. It represents the prosperity and the progress 
of this era — it is happily significant of the mutual regard and 
friendship which bind us to all the world by unbreakable bonds 
of amity. We have here to-day a company bearing messages of 
good will from all the leading nations of the earth, and we rejoice 
that they, with us, under such favorable auspices have been 
permitted to see this beautiful river. 

"You in Newburgh are entitled to an important share in this 
Celebration, not simply because of your relation to the river, 
but because here was the scene of one of the most striking events 
of the great struggle which resulted in the foundation of this 
nation. Times of strife and rivalry have passed. We can retrace 
the old path without enmity or any feeling of bitterness. We may 
recall the days when the Father of his Country at this place, with 
anxious heart, watched the development of the great contest, and 
later, the day when, that contest over, with even greater 
solicitude he saw his army ignored and a condition rapidly develop- 
ing which promised ill for the colonies that had maintained success- 
fully their independence. It was a time when all were fearful 
of the fate in store for this land, and it was here, in those 
circumstances, that that peerless leader of men, anxious that the 
country should be placed upon a stable foundation, was offered the 
crown and kingly power. Here, and not on the field of battle, he 
most truely assured the power and permanence of the Republic. 
Here, when he turned aside that offer, intended not only as an appeal 
to his ambition but also as a means of securing the fruits of his 
victory, he revealed the strength of the manhood and the purity of 

Naval Parade to Newburgh 359 

the patriotism the memory of which is one of the choicest blessings Governor 
of the American people. "^ ** 

"And I rejoice with you that here we can take account of the 
troubles and cares of those who, as pioneers, settled this valley; of 
the many heroes who have made it the subject of story and romance; 
of the many geniuses of literature who have been inspired by the 
beauty of its scenes; of the many leaders of industrial enterprise 
that have contributed to material prosperity. It is here that we 
can rejoice that, blessed with inventive skill, blessed with alertness 
and ingenuity, we are still more richly endowed by the example of 
the fidelity of the great man who so long ago made Newburgh his 
headquarters; who at all times and to all peoples will represent the 
genius of American institutions — the immortal Washington." 

Mayor McClung then presented to the audience Lieutenant- Rev. Mr. 
Commander Lam, representing Henry Hudson, and the Rev. " °*^ 
Charles S. Bullock, representing Robert Fulton. 

Mr. Bullock said: 

"It is about one hundred years since I first came to Newburgh, on 
the i8th of August, 1807. When I first came into Newburgh Bay 
none of you were here to greet me. It was very early in the morning, 
and the few scattered lights that gleamed from the windows, with 
the curling smoke from the freshly lighted fires, were the sole evi- 
dences of life. We were using cord-wood then on the Clermont as 
we are using it to-day. I was not at that time married. When just 
about here we were making the announcement that we 'hoped to be.' 
I trust you will have the pleasure as I then had of meeting my fiancee, 
Miss Harriett Livingston. 

"I came again to Newburgh a few months ago when the booming 
of cannon and the screeching of whistles announced the launching 
of that magnificent floating palace which bears the name of my 
friend here, 'Hendrick Hudson,' and which to-day has outrun all 
the swift runners in the trip from New York. 

"It does not seem that any great invention ever springs Minerva- 
like from the brow and brain of genius. The steamboat grew out 
of the eflForts of men who had gone before. I was possible, as a 
steamboat navigator on the Hudson, because someone else dared 
to wrestle with the problenb before me. The things that were new 

360 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

a hundred years ago are the things that are old to-day. They were 
no stranger then than the things that are new to-day. One hundred 
years from now our children will gather in air-ships as we gather 
to-day, and will look down upon the scenes of these days as we look 
back upon those of a century ago." 

Guests Mayor McClung then presented successively Miss Evelyn 

duced Bullock, who impersonated Robert Fulton's fiancee, Miss 
Livingston; Lieutenant de Bruijne, personifying Hudson's 
mate; Mr. E. J. Benthem, Assistant Engineer of the Nether- 
lands Navy, under whose immediate direction the Half Moon 
was built; and Mr. F. C. Stoop, a member of the Netherlands 
delegation. The latter spoke as follows: 

Delegate " Ladies and Gentlemen : I did not think it would be necessary for 
^ me to be introduced to you, as I am playing only a very unimportant 
part on this occasion; still as your Chairman was so kind as to do 
so, I thank you for the kind reception. It has been a great pleasure 
to us, to the deputation of Holland, under the able leadership of 
Hon. J. T. Cremer, who is the official representative, to come to 
America, and to come to New York and receive such a tremendous 
amount of attention. The Professor and myself are the only rep- 
resentatives of our Dutch deputation this morning and the reason 
is that you have not exactly killed, but almost disabled the rest of 
the delegation through your extreme and well-intended forethought. 
At the reception and ball last night in Brooklyn we were very heartily 
received, but did not get home until half past one this morning, and 
the ladies particularly, were not able to come here to-day." 

Land At the conclusion of Mr. Stoop's remarks, the official party 

became the guests of the City of Newburgh and proceeded to 
the official reviewing stand in another part of the city to wit- 
ness the parade and other local ceremonies, a description of 
which will be found in Chapter LH. 

A portion of the vessels of the naval parade, including the 
Escort Squadron, remained at Newburgh and participated in 
the Upper Hudson naval parade and local ceremonies during 
the following week, while the remainder returned at will to 
New York. 




THE Carnival Parade in Manhattan Borough on the evening 
of Saturday, October 2, 1909, was under the direction of 
the Historical and Carnival Parades Committee, of which 
Mr. Herman Ridder is Chairman, with the able cooperation of 
a special organization under the leadership of Mr. Theodore 

The Carnival Parade was a " Carnival " in the derivative, Origin 
not the primary, sense of the term. The word carnival, r * -^ ai 
derived from two words "came" and "vale" and meaning 
literally "farewell to flesh," was originally applied to those 
festivities in southern Europe attending the days immediately 
preceding Lent and culminating on the Tuesday before Ash 
Wednesday, called Mardi Gras, or Fat Tuesday. These, in 
turn, were probably traceable to earlier festivals of the Romans. 
In Rome and certain other Italian cities, notably Venice, the 
carnivals have been of great splendor. In Paris the carnival 
is celebrated with great brilliancy. The Germans, Austrians 
and Swiss are also familiar with this form of festivity. Among 
the German carnival cities, Cologne on the Rhine is notable. 
There, every citizen, from the "burgomaster" to the smallest 
messenger boy, participates. Well-known artists help to 
design the "floats," while the "Funken," an organization not 
unlike the Honorable Artillery of Boston, acts as bodyguard 
and marches merrily along. Parades of allegorical chariots* 
masked balls, the blowing of horns and the throwing of flowers 
and confetti are characteristic features of the European carnivals. 
In the United States, carnival is regularly celebrated in New 
Orleans. The first notable procession of masqueraders there 
was held in 1827, ^^^ inaugurators including a number of 



362 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

young gentlemen who had just returned from France after 
finishing their Parisian education. Ten years later the Mardi 
Gras of 1837 was celebrated on a grander scale. From that 
time the custom has been handed down from father to son and 
its observance has made that city famous. 

From the festive character of these observances the word 
"carnival" has acquired the secondary meaning of general 
public festivity, without the association of any sectarian 
ideas with it. It was in this general sense that the term 
was applied to the Carnival Parade of the Hudson-Fulton 
Serious 'pjjg principal idea taken from the old carnivals was that of 
representing upon moving vehicles, or "floats," allegorical, 
mythological and historical scenes. This feature of the Cele- 
bration was adopted with a serious as well as festive purpose. 
The Hudson-Fulton Celebration, as a whole, commemorated 
primarily the discovery of the Hudson River by Henry Hudson 
in 1609 and the successful inauguration of steam navigation 
upon that river by Robert Fulton in 1807. Incident to the 
commemoration of these events, however, was the celebration 
of the progress of our people in every department of human 
affairs during the past three hundred years. The great 
Historical Pageant and most of the other features of the Cele- 
bration dealt chiefly with the facts of history and of material 
and social progress. The Carnival Pageant, however, dealt 
with an entirely different phase of culture; for while the His- 
torical Pageant illustrated a few conceptions of the imagination 
of the American aborigines, the Carnival Pageant illustrated 
that great body of Old World folklore which has inspired so 
much of the beautiful imagery of the poetry, song and drama 
of all civilized nations. Although the legends and allegories 
represented were not indigenous to America, yet they form a 
real part of our culture, inherited, like the cumulative facts 
which constitute our progressive civilization, from the past. 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 363 

In a comparatively new country like ours the earliest efforts 
of the settlers are directed to the conquest of nature and the 
amelioration of physical conditions. Later, with the accumula- 
tion of wealth, comes a degree of comfort and leisure which 
permits the mind to turn more freely to intellectual culture. 
American civilization, young as it is, has advanced to the stage 
where it appreciates its intellectual heritage from the Old 
World, and nowhere in this country is that heritage more 
highly prized than in New York City and State. The Carnival 
Parade, therefore, was something more than a jollification and 
a merrymaking. It was designed to recall the poetry of myth, 
legend, allegory and in a few cases of historic fact, which, 
while foreign in local origin, is an heritage of universal possession 
and belongs to all nations. 

When the Carnival Parade was suggested, the Chairman of ^*'''°°S 
the Historical and Carnival Parades Committee, Mr. Herman jzation 
Ridder, conferred with Mr. Theodore Henninger, Dr. Gustav 
Scholer, Mr. Oscar Seitz, Mr. Frank Mann and Mr. Adam 
Fehmel, representing several large German societies in New 
York City, and receiving an assurance of a hearty support, it 
was decided to invite delegates of all German societies of the 
five Boroughs to a meeting which was held on May 3, 1909, 
in the Arion Club House. Mr. Ridder acted as Chairman 
of the meeting and Mr. Henninger as Secretary pro tern. Mr. 
Stoddard, the Captain of Pageantry, explained that the German 
speaking nations, Germans, Austrian and Swiss, were well 
acquainted with pageantry in their fatherlands and that a 
support from these societies would assure a success; it was 
further decided that a second meeting should be called and the 
societies should organize on May 22, 1909. At the second 
meeting representatives of 684 societies, representing 60,000 
members in the five Boroughs, were present. Mr. Ridder 
explained that it was necessary to elect a board of officers 
which should be empowered to do all business in cooperation 

364 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Working with the Commission, and with the greatest enthusiasm for 
P'^ff"" the success of the Celebration, the societies organized and 
elected the following officers: 

President: Mr. Theodore Henninger, president and repre- 
sentative of the United Singing Societies of New York, and presi- 
dent of the 22nd National Saengerfest of the North Eastern 
Saengerbund of America. 

Vice-Presidents: Mr. William Hollweg, representative of 
the Arion and United Singers of New York; Mr. S. K. Saenger 
and Mr. Adam Fehmel, representatives of the United Singers 
of Brooklyn; Mr. Richard Muller, of the German Veterans 
Kriegerbund; Dr. G. Scholer, of the Athletes and Turner 
Societies; Mr. Joseph Thum, of the Bowling Clubs; Mr. 
Edmund Zeller, Mr. Fred Schill and Mr. Theo. Baurhenn, of 
the Sharpshooters; Mr. John Paradies and Mr. Ed. O. Brandle, 
of the Volksfest Societies; Mr. Joseph Lammle, of the Benevo- 
lent Societies and Lodges; Mr. Paul Albers and Mr. Christian 
Krohn, of the Vereinigte Deutsche Gesellschaften of New 
York; Mr. Max Koeppe, of the National Bund of Brooklyn, 
Mr. William Breitenbach, of the Bronx Borough Societies; 
Mr. R. Langenau, of the Richmond Borough Societies; Mr. 
Hans Jurgensen, of the Queens Borough Societies; Dr. E. Pol- 
lack and Mr. Ferdinand Roller, of the Austrian Societies; and 
Mr. H. J. Landolt, of the Swiss Societies. 
Secretary: Mr. Louis Haimbach. 

Mr. Henninger took full charge of the office of the organiza- 
tion at 146 East 59th street without any compensation, and 
worked with the assistance of the Secretary fully four months 
to organize the floats and their escorts. This enormous and 
hard work was done very successfully. Much regret was caused 
by the necessity of cutting down the participation of escorts 
to the floats, owing to the limited time of the parade, but this 
difficult matter was overcome by the good spirit manifested by 
all the societies. There were 12,500 participants of both sexes 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 365 

in the parade, the characters on the floats being taken exclu- Working 
sively by members of the societies. ization 

The floats were built in the manner described in the chapter 
on the Historical Parade, and the route of march was the same 
as for the Historical and Military parades. 

The scenes along the line of march — the vast crowds, the 
brilliant assemblage of officials at the Court of Honor, the 
demonstrations of applause — were substantially the same as 
those attending the two previous processions. 

It was originally planned to have the floats escorted by men 
carrying naphtha torches, but owing to the difficulty in securing 
suitable men for this work, the torches were dispensed with and 
colored fire was burned profusely.* This was hardly necessary, 
however, as the avenues through which the procession moved 
were brilliantly illuminated by electric lights, strung contin- 
uously on both sides of the streets. 

The order of the procession was as follows : Order of 

•^ Pro- 


Platoon of Mounted Police. 
Platoon of Police. 
His Honor, George B. McClellan, Mayor. 
Mr. Herman Ridder, Chairman of Carnival Parade Committee. 
Grand Marshal 
Major-General Charles F. Roe. 
Chief of Staff 
Lieutenant-Colonel George Albert Wingate. 
Lieutenant-Colonel William W. Ladd. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Gilford Hurry. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Nathaniel B. Thurston. 
Lieutenant-Colonel William H. Chapin. 
Lieutenant-Colonel John N. Stearns, Jr. 
Lieutenant-Colonel George W. Bunnell. 

* It may be noted for the benefit of the managers of similar celebrations in the future that the 
burning of colored fire produced smoke which was extremely irritating to the spectators, partic- 
ularly those on the leeward side of the avenues, and caused many to leave reviewing stands before 
the parade was ended. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Order of 

Lieutenant-Colonel William G. LeBoutillicr. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick T. Leigh. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin B. McAlpin. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Cbauncey P. Williams. 

Major John B. Holland. 

Captain Louis M. Green. 

Captain Cornelius Vanderbilt. 

Captain Adrian H. Mather. 

Captain A. H. Stoddard, Captain of Pageantry. 

Mr. David T. WeUs. 

Commission Band, loo pieces. 

Eighth Regiment Band. 
Seventy-first Regiment Band. 

President of Carnival Organization 
Theodore Henninger. 


Richard Mullen 
William HoUweg. 
S. K. Sanger. 
Adam Fehmel. 
William Breitenbacb. 
Ferdinand Roller. 
Dr. Edw. PoUak. 
Dr. Gustav Scholer. 
Josef Thum. 
Edmund Zeller. 
Fred Schill. 

John Paradiec. 
Edm. O. Brandle. 
Jos. Lammle. 
Paul Albers. 
Ch. Krohn. 
Hans Jurgensen. 
Max Koeppe. 
H. J. Landolt. 
Reinhold Langenau. 
Theo. Baurhenn. 

Louis Haimbach. 

First Division 

August Stoever*s Band. 

500 German Veterans, Julius Herr, Marshal. 

Officers of Societies in First Division. 

Banner Company. 

Float No. I, Title Car, "Music, Art, Literature." 
Escort: 150 German Veterans, Chr. Rebhan, Marshal. 

Float No. 2, "Mars." 

Characters: Philip Baumann, Captain; Gustav Heller, Ernest Winkler, Louis Heymann, 
Carl Scheuermann, Ch. Hibbeler, Augusta Heller. 
Escort: 150 German Veterans, John Schwab, Marshal. 

Float No. 3, " Colors." 

Characters: Adolph Roegener, Captain; Valentin Tbiel, August Scholz, Emil Ezner, Fritz 
Fasel, Herman Hainisch, Rudolph Josephi, Konstantin Keins, Hermann Tietze. 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 367 

Second Division Order of 

Humphreys* Seventh Regiment Band. >rTO~ 


United Singers of New York. 

Officers of Societies in Second Division, 

Banner Company. 

Float No. 4, " Song.'' 
Characters: Karl Kunstling, Captain; Fritz Muehlmeier, Paul Anders, Julius Sattler, Emma 
Bresler, Gretchen Bretschneider. 

Escort: Mozart Verein, Erich Bresler, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

Float No. 5, "Arion.'' 
Characters: Adolph Mietke, Captain; Wm. Hovemann, J. A. Beha, Emma Conrad, Bataman 
Procheck, Ethel King, Hy. Bobzien, A. G. Kelterborn, Dorothy King, Paul Gieberich, G. A. 
Uebr, Elsie Hirsch, Hugo Hillers. 

Escort: Arion Society of New York, Chas. Winkelmann, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

Float No. 6, "Crowning of Beethoven." 
Characters: H. E. Rau, Captain; Margarie Dougherty, Antoinette Feser, Rosa Feser, Margaret 
Feser, Lottie Gilmore, Geo. A. Kues, Francis Stillman, H. Schenk, Lina Punzel, A. Ehrenbcrg, 
Geo. A. Lampe. 

Fr. Stretz Band. 
Escort: Beethoven Maennerchor, Herman Hadermann, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

Float No. 7, "Aeolian Harp." 
Characters: Elsa von Moellem, Captainin; Minnie Rode, Dora Heyl, Julie Heyl, Ida Scheu, 
Clara Wolf, Anna Baumann, Erna Naak, Ada Beucke, Carrie Wilhelm, Minnie Becker, Noe 

Escort: Ladies, Jennie Hahn, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

Float No. 8, "Lohengrin." 
Characters: Wolfram Stager, Captain; Fred J. Niemann, Albert Kaupe, Albert B. Wiemann, 
Chas. Kraft, Julius Keun, Hilda Krueger, Carl Krueger. 

Escort: Eichenkranz of New York, Theo. Kruger, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

Float No. 9, "Loreley." 
Characters: Aug. Schratter, Captain; * 

J. G. Frank's Band. 
Escort: Heinebund, Charles Hauptner, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

* At the request of those who impersonated characters on some of the floats their names have 
not been furnished to the writer of this report. 

368 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


Order of Float No. 10, "Death of Fafner." 

Characters: Max Honcker, Captain; Henry Schaab, R. Kastner, R. Riederich, A. Kumpfer, 
W. Hillenbrand, Ireo Levinson, Aug. Schroeder, John Schroeder. 
Escort: Schillerbund, Anton Kruse, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

Float No. II, "Queen of Sheba." 
Characters: C. Etzold, Captain; Edith Fast. 
Escort: New York Saengerrunde, H. Oedekoven, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

Float No. 12, "Gotterdammerung.'' 
Characters: Eddie Rosenberg, Captain; Eliese Boerner, Mathilde Grieb, Carl Boeraer, H. P. 
Helck, C. A. Gerken, F. J. d'Elseaux, Henry A. Kersting, Wm. Winter, H. Wetzel. 

J. Dick's Band. 
Escort: Riverside Quartette Club, John Wille, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

Float No. 13, "Meistersinger." 
Characters: John MuUer, Captain; Robert Horn, Lillie Gomer, Lillian Ullmann, Jennie 
Dietrich, Emilie Schultes, Mathilde J. Haase, Frieda Hennicke, Elsa Hennicke, M. Harth, John 
Dietrich, Henty Gomer, A. Wagner. 

Escort: Kreutzer Quartette Club, Charles Harth, Marshal. 
United Singers of New York. 

Float No. 14, "Walkure." 
Characters: Adolf Herzog, Captain; Scott Sinclair, Risa Folitzer, Irene Kohn, C. F. Linsel, 
Ch. Fobel. 
Escort: United Societies of the Bronx, John Vogel, Marshal. 

Float No. 15, "Tannhauser." 
Characters: Dr. Paul Quedenfeldt, Captain; Carrie .Stock, Carrie Young, Lillian Vogel, Mrs. 
Minna Sohl. 

Otto Triebig's Band. 
A. Ruckenbrod's Band. 
Escort: United Societies of the Bronx, Leo Osternei, Marsha . 

Float No. 16, "Freischutz." 
Characters: William Homan, Captain; Berta Holsten, John Engel, Stanley Gohlinghorst, G. A. 
Kaltwasser, Louis A. Seitz, Chas. Kolstad, Geo. M. Hinck. 
Escort: United Singers of Brooklyn, Aug. Tiemann, Marshal. 

Float No. 17, "Siegfried." 
Characters: Werner Kues, Captain; Chas. Hausman, W. Shiron, Rob. Weber, E. Dunecke, 
James J. Lynch. 

Chas. Feth's Band. 
Eugen Weltin's Band. 
Escort: United Singers of Brooklyn, B. Schnell, Marshal. 

Float No. 18, "Humor." 
Characters: Ed. Zahn, Captain. 
Escort: United Singers of Brooklyn, L. Ludwig, Marshal. 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 369 

Float No. 19, "Titania." Order Of 

Characters: Olga Martin, Captaiain; Anne Keiling, Mamie Schneider, Lillian A. Lampe, '^^~ 
Madelen Reineking. CeSSion 

Escort: United Singers of Brooklyn, Emil Martin, Marshal. 

Float No. 20, "Origin of Poetry." 

Characters: Max Koeppe, Captain; W. A. Fox, Wm. Koeppe, Herman Langhorst, John 
Joyce, Henrietta F. Buttner, Tillie Hanley. 
Escort: United Singers of Brooklyn, W. £. Rohrbach, Marshal. 

Third Division 

Louis Strack^s Band. 

Austrian Singing Societies and Clubs. 

Officers of Societies in Third Division, 

Banner Company. 

Float No. 21, "Andreas Hofer." 
Character: Gustav Hartmann, Captain. 
Escort: Austrian Societies, H. Glogauer, Marshal. 

Fourth Division 

Turners and Athletes. 

Officers of Societies of Fourth Division. 

Banner Company. 

Float No. 22, "Marathon." 
Characters: Max Kochenkow, Captain; H. Hoerhoefer, Leo Abelis, Ludwig Balzing, Chas- 
W. Richter, Geo. Haeussler, Jr., Fritz Irmscher, W. E. Pressler, Chas. Moesinger, W. GemeiDhaus> 
Escort: Turners and Athletes, John Bissinger, Marshal. 

Fifth Division 

Charles Kauer's Fifth Regiment Band. 

United Bowling Clubs of New York. 

Officers of Societies in Fifth Division. 

Banner Company. 

Float No. 23, "Frost King." 
Characters: Albert Koppel, Captain; Chas. F. Niglutsch, Jerome G. Cotte, Otto Maier, Chas. 
Vogler, Henry Dittrich, Albert J. Schnabel. 
Escort: United Bowling Clubs of New York, Chas. Dersch, Marshal. 

Sixth Division 

N. Zinsmeister's Band. 


Officers of Societies in Sixth Division. 

Banner Company. 

Float No. 24, "William Tell." 
Characters: Philipp Helder, Captain; Ernestine Preuss, Fred Sack, Victor Satler, Chas, 

370 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Order of Roesinger, F. Gruenwald, W. Eckerlein, Chas. Ascher, Ostenney Lorenz, Heinrich Zeller, L. 

Pro- Moritz, W. Schubert, Frank A. Stolzenberger. 

cession L. Lauerman's Band. 

Escort: Manhattan Schutzenbund, Adolf Granzow, MarshaL 

Float No. 25, "Nimrod." 
Characters: Henry Manzel, Captain; £. Kaleck, Jos. Troeuthe, Chas. Flachsbait, Edv. 
Zeiss, Otto Stepat, Ernst Kohls, Otto Busse. 

J. Zinsmeister^s Band. 
Escort: New York Schutzenbund No. I, Edward Hennecke, Marshal. 

Float No. 26, "Andromeda." 
Characters: John Vogel, Captain; Elisabeth Filip, Marta Waanke, Ida Niemoeller, Louise 
Mueller, Barbara Zeller. 

Escort: Deutsch-Amerik. Schutzenbund, Josef Baumann, Marshal. 

Seventh Division 
Augustus Lcderhaus* Band. 
North German Societies. 
Officers of Societies in Seventh Division. 
Banner Company- 
Float No. 27, "Fritz Reuter." 
Characters: Wm. Fricke, Captain; Fr. X. Froekel, W. F. Schober, Nic. Mingot, Martha 
Roeben, Edw. Roeben, Fred. Riechers, Ella Ruckhaber, Julia A. Schober, Anna J. Bobbe. 
Escort: North German Societies, Geo. Woeltjen, Marshal. 

Float No. 28, "Hansa." 
Characters: G. H. C. Braun, Captain; Madeline M. Laase, Fred Kerstein, Chas. Delecker, 
John Dallmer, F. Helzien, H. F. Sievers, G. Braun, Minnie Steuer, Jos. Herricht, Theo. Martens. 
Escort: North German Societies, Adolf Beekman, Marshal. 

Float No. 29, "Harvesting." 

Characters: Miimie Junghaus, Captainin; Katie Heller, Katie Bischof, Elsie Bischof, Sophie 

Escort: North German Societies, Ernest Junghaus, Marshal. 

Float No. 30, "Peace." 

Characters: H. Koenig, Captain; EUzabeth Koenig, Annie Koenig, Charlotte Ranger, Clare 
Degenhardt, D. Abenseth. 
Escort: North German Societies, Kuno Ries, Marshal. 

Float No. 31, "Diana." 
Character: Gertrud Ries, Captainin. 
Escort: North German Societies of Brooklyn, Henry von Minden, Marshal 

Float No. 32, "Europa." 

Characters: Louise Wuelffing, Captainin; Meta Krueger, Helen Karsten, Meta K. v. S. Lieth, 
Berta HoUweg. 

Eugen Weltin's Band. 
Henry Engel's Band. 
Escort: South German Societies of New York, Albert Hustedt, MarshaL 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 371 

Float No. 33, "Heidelberg." Order of 

Characters: Frank G. Holch, Captain; W. R. Hauser, Franz Teuscher, Jacob Kammerer, P^^~ 

Annie Holcb, Lizzie Eichner, Anna Peter, Anton Enz, Fr. Hettel, Jr., Julius Hettel, Mrs. Hettel, ceSSIOn 

Edward Buscher, Richard Haass, Geo. Marschhauser, Herman Kuhn. 

Escort: Badischer Volksfest Verein, Valentin F. Keller, Marshal. Cannstatter Volksfest 

Verein, John Hausler, Marshal. Bayrischer Volksfest Verein, Richard Grammer, Marshal. 

Float No. 34, "Gnomes." 
Escort: Hessen Darmstadter Volksfest Verein, Christ Gerhard, Marshal. Hessicher Volksfest 
Verein, Chas. Schlott, Marshal. Pfalzer Volksfest Verein, Herman Mulger, Marshal. Thuringcr 
Sachsen Volksfest Verein, Oswald Reismann, Marshal. 

Float No. 35, "Bavaria." 
Characters: Louis Becker, Captain; Lina Grau, Rosa Schweiger, Marta Rohde, Andreas, 
Schug, Jos. Glass, Theodor Berger. 
Escort: Bayerischer National Verband, Joe Feulner, Marshal. 

Eighth Divfsian 

Fred Etzel's Band. 

Benevolent Societies. 

Officers of Societies in Eighth Division. 

Banner Company. 

Float No. 36, "Sirens." 

Characters: Marta Armbruster, Captainin; Fred Koderer, Captain; Miss Schuler, Eugenie 
Schmitt, Minnie Zimmer, Sophie Stief, Emma Steinert, Christine Griesmer, Cresson Ide Forest, 
Frank Harft, Louis Meier. 

Escort: Benevolent Societies, George Lammle, Marshal. 

Float No. 37, "Medusa." 
Characters: Joe H. Schmidt, Captain; Madeline Hochreiter, Mrs. John Gut, Adolph TJnger, 
Fred Jetter, Chas. Stern, George Unger. 
Escort: Benevolent Societies, Chas. Wernd, Marshal. 

Float No. 38, "Elves of Spring." 
Characters: Armie Frey, Captainin; Barbara May, Clere Haims, Emma Koehler, Edith Pfcifer 
Laura Pfeifer, Victoria Senger. 
Escort: Benevolent Societies, Leo J. Gut, Marshal. 

Ninth Division 
P. Berlinghofi's Band. 
W. G. Metzger's Band. 
Independent Societies. 
Officers of Societies in Ninth Division. 
Banner Company. 

Float No. 39, "Good Luck." 
Characters: Willi Dittrich, Captain; Isabella A. Boermann, Meta H. Boermann, Lucy Gruner, 
Clara Frey, August Buschmaim. 
Escort: New York Bakers and Confectioners, Leo Konig, Marshal. 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Order of 

Float No. 40, "The Jungle." 
Characters: Bernard Frank, Captain; Emil Lurie, Max Rohrbach, Leo Schiffer. 
Escort: Humoristic Societies, J. Simon, Marshal. 

Float No. 41, "Egyptian Art." 

Characters: Chas. T. Faas, Captain. 

Escort: Columbia University Students, Dixon Fox, Marshal. 

Float No. 42, "Father Rhine." 
Characters: Wm. Meyer, Captain; Flora Meyers, C. Bertram, Mrs. Dom, H. Schumacher, 
Mrs. Albert Kittelberger. 

Escort: Rhein. Cam. Verein, Josef Forman, Marshal. 

Tenth Division 

H. Brinkmann's Band. 

United German Societies of New York. 

Officers of Societies in Tenth Division. 

Banner Company. 

Float No. 43, "Germania." 
Characters: Martha Niemeyer, Captainin; Margarete Tillmann, Anita Haveman, Margarete 
Cronau, Elizabeth Kermes, Magdalene Kermes, Carrie Gier, Emma Goerke, Anna Goerke. 
Escort: United German Societies of New York, Rudolf Kronan, Marshal. 

Float No. 44, "Mermaids." 

Characters: Otto Krohn, Captain. 

Escort: United German Societies of Brooklyn, George Sieh, Marshal. 

Float No. 45, "Fairy Queen." 
Characters: Elsa Sieh, Captainin; Margaret Schneider, Gertrude M. Rohe, Antoinette Caplan, 
Lucy Mattem, Dorothea M. Lingner, Annia Kracke, Berta Spinner. 

Wm. Loose's Band. 
Josef Sladovnik's Band. 
Escort: United Societies of Queens, Herman Seidel, Marshal. 

Float No. 46, "Cinderella." 
Characters: Hans Jurgensen, Captain; Berta Jurgensen, Margarete Munch, Berta Munch, 
Elsa Bauer. 
Escort: United Societies of Queens, Adolf Kroger, Marshal. 

Float No. 47, " Orpheus Before Pluto." 
Characters: Lorenz Benz, Captain; Tillie Hartmann, Frances Benz, Elsa Pannasch, Selma 
Grace, Frida C. Byver. 

Escort: United Societies of Queens, Jacob Lohman, Marshal. 

Eleventh Division 

Louis Conterno's Band. 

Swiss Drum and Fife Corps. 

Swiss Societies. 

Officers of Societies in Eleventh Division. 

Banner Comapny. 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 373 

Float No. 48, "God of the Alps." Order ol 

Characters: Chas. Mettler, Captain; F. J. Luthy, C. B. Sch'iittler, R. Staehle, Jos. Weniert, ^O- 
Jos. Koenig, M. Waller. CesSion 

Escort: Swiss Societies, J. H. Schneider, Marshal. 

Float No. 49, "Avalanche of Freedom." 
Characters: Sam Hochuli, Captain. 
Escort: Swiss Societies, Geo. Mueller, Marshal. 

Twelfth Division 

D. H. Mandt's Band. 

United Societies of Richmond Borough. 

Officers of Societies in Twelfth Division. 

Banner Company. 

Float No. 50, "Uncle Sam Welcoming the Nations." 
Characters: Reinhold Langenau, Captain; Martin Eymer, Otto Wimmer, Henry Maass, 
John F. Schwiebert, Chas. Ikier, Chas. UUmann, Mrs. Alma Guenther, W. Wider, Jos. Eisenhut, 
Rudolf Jaeger, F. Guenther. 

August Stoever^s Band. 
Escort: United Societies of Richmond Borough, Herman Schwanenberg, Marshal. 

Platoon of Mounted Police. 

Following are brief descriptions of the scenes represented Descrip- 

I n tion of 

on the floats: Pl„^t3 

1. Title Car: "Music, Literature and Art." This car was 
an ornamental car to head the procession of floats, and bore 
its title. It took the fantastic shape of a dragon spouting flames 
and surrounded by fire. 

2. "Mars." Mars, the God of War, was represented riding 
in his chariot in the clouds, accompanied by two of his five 
goddesses who impersonated the evils which attend war. 

3. "Colors." This float represented an enormous artist's 
palette poised ready for its invisible master. The human 
figures on it were an idealization of the colors as they appear on 
the palette just after having been squeezed from the artist's 
tubes preparatory to blending for his work. 

4. "Song." The principal figure in the float represented a 
woman playing upon a harp and singing. The birds and the 
plumes which entered into the decoration of the float symbolized 
the music of the feathered songsters. 

374 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Descrip- <|. " Arion." Arion, a famous Corinthian musician, was 
Floats returning home from a musical contest In Sicily, where he had 
won a great money prize. In order to get his money the sailors 
plotted to kill him. They gave him time, however, to sing his 
death song, which so charmed the fishes that when Arion threw 
himself overboard a dolphin took the musician on his back and 
brought him safely to his home. This float represented his 
enthusiastic reception on his arrival. 

6. "Crowning of Beethoven." Fame, in this float, was 
crowning the bust of Beethoven with a laurel wreath as one of 
the greatest musicians of his age. Around him the Muses were 
dancing and singing as the master was crowned. 

7. "Molian Harp. " This float was an idealization of the 
jEolian harp, which is one of the oldest musical instruments. 
The harp itself was represented in the apex of the float and the 
figures which stood in front of the harp represented the winds 
playing on it. The large figure holding the harp represented 
outdoor music. 

8. "Lohengrin." Elsa, Duchess of Brabant, an orphan, 
was accused by her guardian, Friedrich, Count of Telramund, 
of the murder of her brother, of which she was innocent. She 
placed her defense in a knight, who she dreamed would appear 
from the clouds to protect her. As she waited, a boat appeared, 
drawn by a swan. In it was Lohengrin. He came ashore, 
conquered Friedrich, and saved the maiden. The float repre- 
sented his arrival. 

9. " Lorelei. " This float represented in its chief figure the 
beautiful siren who has been a favorite theme in German song 
and poetry. 

10. "Death of Fafner." Fafner, a giant, stole the Rhein- 
gold which makes the golden glimmer on the Rhine. He took 
the form of a dragon to guard it and Siegfried, son of Siegmund, 
was appointed to kill him. The only weapon which was capable 
of killing the dragon, a sword called "Nothung," had been 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 375 

broken. After a long wait, Siegfried finally mended the sword Descrip- 
himself, went to " Hate Hole " and killed Fafner and recovered pj°° 4° 
the Rheingold. 

11. "Queen of Sheba." The Queen of Sheba, who, accord- 
ing to the tenth chapter of the first book of Kings, made a visit 
to King Solomon, was here represented at her meeting with the 
"wisest man." Near her was the litter in which she traveled. 

12. "Gotterdammerung." "Gotterdammerung" is the 
fourth part of Wagner's "Ring of the Nibelungen," in which 
Siegfried wrests the magic ring from Brunhilda and is mur- 
dered by Hagen, whereupon Brunhilda mounts the funeral 
pyre with his body, the Rhine daughters regain the ring, and 
the Valhalla burns. 

13. "Meistersinger." The meistersingers, or mastersingers, 
were those artistic poets who cultivated artistic poetry as 
distinguished from folk song. This float represented the scene 
in Wagner's musical comedy, "Die Meistersinger von Nurn- 
berg, " in which Walter, a young knight in love with Eva, wins 
her hand by singing best in a tournament. Upon the float 
Walter was represented as singing before the judges. 

14. " Walkure." Die Walkure, or the Valkyries, were the 
maidens who attended Odin and who, r ding through the air 
in briUiant armor, distributed death lots according to his com- 
mand. They also conducted to Valhalla the souls of heroes 
who died in battle. 

15- "Tannhauser." Venus, the Goddess of Love, when 
she was sent to the earth, became embittered and she used 
sorcery to lure mortals to her cave. Tannhauser, one of the 
best harpers and singers of Thuringia, was lured to her. He 
found a beautiful cave occupied by a beautiful woman, and was 
pleased to stay and learn her songs. This float represented 
Tannhauser in Venus's cave. 

16. " Freischuiz." Der Freischutz, the free shooter, was a 
legendary hunter who made a compact with the devil that six 

376 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Descrip- balls from his gun should follow his own will, while the seventh 
Floats should follow the devil's. It is the basis of Weber's famous 
opera. The float represented the retreat where the free shooters 
went to cast the magic bullets. Various characters from the 
opera — Mephistopheles, friars, free shooters and the heroine — 
were also represented. 

17. "Siegfried." This float represented the scene in "The 
Ring of the Nibelungen" in which Siegfried, reared by Mimi, 
the Nibelung, forges the magic sword with which to kill the 
dragon that guards the fateful ring. The float showed Siegfried 
and Mimi at the forge underground. 

18. "Humor." This float, which was surmounted by a cap 
of folly and ornamented by jesters' wands, represented folly 
fully as much as humor. On the float were grapes and a bottle 
of Rhenish wine. The figures on the float were dancing and 
singing and giving every evidence of being in the best of humor. 

19. "Titania." In Shakespeare's "Midsummer Night's 
Dream " Titania is the Fairy Queen and wife of Oberon. In 
west European folklore Oberon was the King of the Elves. 

20. "Origin of Poetry." The float represented part of an 
old Norse legend. Odin entered the cave where Gunlad 
guarded a magic liquid which made the drinker thereof a poet. 
Gunlad permitted him to take a single draught from each of 
three vessels, but he drank all three dry. Then transforming 
himself into an eagle he flew toward Asgard. The gods set 
out their jars and Odin disgorged the inspiring liquid. That 
which fell in the jars was true poetry and that which fell on the 
ground belonged to the silly poets. 

21. "Andreas Hofer." Andreas Hofer was a patriot leader 
of Tyrol who lived from 1767 to 18 10 and who, after France had 
secured possession of Tyrol, sought the reunion of Tyrol to 
Austria. The float represented him and some of his warriors 
in the mountains a few months before his betrayal into the 
hands of the French, by whom he was shot. 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 377 

22. "Marathon." The float represented the incident which Descrip- 

has led to the use of the word Marathon in connection with Jl,°° ° 


racing — namely, the arrival in Athens of the runner who 
brought from the famous battlefield of Marathon the news of 
the Greek victory over the Persians in the year 490 B. C. The 
classic columns and figures symbolized the Greek capital. 

23. "Frost King." This float represented the mythical 
Frost King, who has control over the snows and the other 
elements of the winter. Around him were grouped his fairies, 
who have charge of the winds, the snows, the frost and the thaw. 
The Frost King was represented in his home directing the 

24. "William Tell." William Tell, a famous marksman, 
refusing to salute the cap of Austria, was condemned to death, 
but permitted to ransom himself by his skill in shooting an 
apple from his son's head. Having successfully performed 
that feat without injury to his son, and having been released, 
Tell availed himself of the first opportunity and shot Gessler, 
the tyrant. This float represented the arrest of Tell after 
having killed Gessler. 

25. "Nimrod." Nimrod, who, according to Holy Writ, 
was the founder of the Babylonian and later of the Assyrian 
Empire, was a "mighty hunter before Jehovah." This float 
represented Nimrod and his fellow hunters in primitive costume 
engaged in the chase. 

26. "Andromeda." Andromeda was the beautiful daughter 
of an Ethiopian king, a part of whose territory was devasted 
by a flood. When a sea monster appeared, whose wrath could 
be appeased only by the sacrifice of Andromeda, she was 
fastened to the rocks to await her fate. But as the monster 
appears Perseus, returning from his successful battle with 
Medusa, happens along just in time, slays the monster, and 
receives the beautiful Andromeda as his reward. 

27. " Fritz Renter. " Fritz Reuter was a German writer who 

378 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Descrip- lived from 18 10 to 1874 and who wrote in low German. His 

Floats works were artistic in both pathos and humor. The float 

represented his bust, surrounded by figures personifying 

characters in his writings. Above all was the Goddess of Fame 

offering the laurel wreath. 

28. "Hansa." "The Hansa" was the name ofiicially 
adopted in 1343 to designate the commercial league between 
various cities in Germany to protect the commerce of its mem- 
bers by land and sea, to extend business relations with foreigners, 
to kill competition and to maintain corporate immunities. It 
was better known as the Hanseatic League. The principal 
figure on the float personified Hansa, while packages of mer- 
chandise and the lighthouse indicated commerce. 

29. "Harvesting." Ceres, the Goddess of Grain and the 
Harvest, was the great figure in the midst of this float. She 
held a horn of plenty and near by were sheaves of wheat. The 
figures around her represented the gathering of the harvest. 

30. "Peace." This float represented Peace hovering over 
the world with the olive branch, while the ideal conditions 
which will prevail when universal peace is established on earth 
were represented by the friendly company of the lion and the 
lamb, and the shepherd boy and girl watching their flocks. 

31. "Diana." Diana appears in mythology with many 
attributes, and poets sing to her as the Goddess of Night (the 
moon), the Goddess of Fruitfulness, and the Goddess of thy 
animal kingdom. Above all other goddesses in the classical 
Pantheon, she was the Huntress. In the latter character she 
was represented in this float, chasing a stag. 

32. " Europa." Jupiter, King of the Gods, fell in love with 
Europa, a beautiful daughter of the Phoenician King Agenor. 
In order to win her he transformed himself into a beautiful white 
bull and mingled with a herd of cattle near the seashore where 
Europa and her maidens were. The girl noticed the bull, which 
was so gentle that she crowned him with garlands and finally 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 379 

climbed onto his back. Whereupon the bull plunged into the Deacrip- 
sea and swam with her to Crete, where Jupiter again took his pio^^g 
own form. This float showed Europa riding away on the 
bull's back. 

33. "Heidelberg." This float represented that ancient 
castle and the famous Heidelberg tun in the cellar beneath. 
The latter, set up in 1751 by the Elector Charles Philip, has a 
capacity of forty-nine thousand gallons. Until 1769 it was 
constantly kept full of Rhine wine. The legends which cluster 
around the old castle include that of a gnome who drank the 
great cask dry, a feat which, it is said, the students of Heidel- 
berg have attempted in times past to emulate. 

34. " Gnomes. " The home of the gnomes was underground 
in a cave. They were always supposed to be blacksmiths by 
profession. This float represented the court of the King of 
the Gnomes, with his subjects around him playing and working 
beneath the ground. The gnomes were always supposed to 
be the bad and mischievous fairies. 

35. "Bavaria." Bavaria was represented by a float bearing 
allegorical figures personifying the country — musicians, artists, 
etc., representing the art nouveau. 

36. "Sirens." The Sirens, in mythology, were sea maidens 
with sweet voices, who by their charms lured voyagers to 
destruction upon the rocks of their island. In the Odyssey 
Ulysses stopped the ears of his oarsmen with wax so that they 
should not be diverted from their labors, while he caused 
himself to be bound to a mast so that he might listen to the 
Sirens' songs without danger. 

37. "Medusa. " In Greek mythology Medusa was a hideous 
female monster whose hair was intertwined with serpents and 
whose glance turned people to stone. Perseus, equipped with 
a magic helmet which rendered him invisible, and with a shield 
like a mirror, by means of which he could see the Gorgon 
without encountering her deadly glance, sought her out and 

380 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Descrip- slew her. The float represented the scene where Perseus 

Jl°°° looks into the shield and sees Medusa. 

38. "Elves of the Spring." This float represented the opening 
of the flowers and the fairies issuing therefrom, suggesting the 
magical change which comes over the face of nature with the 
retreat of winter. 

39. "Good Luck." This float represented several forms of 
popular superstitions in the horseshoe, the rabbit, the four- 
leaved clover, the black cat, etc. The Swastika which gave 
the motive to the decoration of the drapery, has been a symbol 
of good luck among the peoples of both hemispheres, including 
the American Indians. 

40. " The Jungle." The folk lore of the ancients was based 
on their contact with the natural world — the dragon and other 
fabled beasts being poetic exaggerations of real life. "The 
Jungle" represented a wilderness scene in the East, where the 
elephant occupied a conspicuous place in religion and mythology 
as well as daily life. 

41. " Egyptian Art, Music and Literature." The five arts of 
the ancient Egyptians were represented in this float. A great 
central figure holding a demigod in one hand and a harp in 
the other represented music and art. Music was further repre- 
sented by figures holding ancient musical instruments. Litera- 
ture was represented by hieroglyphics on the float and archi- 
tectural art and mythical literature were shown by the Sphinx 
and by tablets supported by Egyptian columns. 

42. " Father Rhine." This float represented the river Rhine. 
Old Father Rhine, himself, stood at the prow of a Rhenish 
carnival ship. At the foot of the Rhenish vineyard stood its 
faithful cultivator, and at the top of the rock stood a medieval 
castle, to guard the fruit of the vineyard. 

43. " Germania." This float represented an idealization of 
Germany. Germania, the central figure, held the Imperial 
Crown in her hand. Beside her were eagles, draped with the 

Carnival Parade in Manhattan 381 

German colors. Nine figures represented the different states Descrip- 
tion of 

which make up United Germany. 

44. "Mermaids." This float depicted a scene at the bottom 
of the ocean, the home of the mermaids, which the sailormen's 
legends have always described as beautiful creatures with the 
bodies of women and the tails of fish, who lure sailors to the 
bottom of the sea and to their destruction. The artist depicted 
the mermaids disporting themselves on coral reefs surrounded 
by fish and other inhabitants of the deep and by seaweed and 
other plants of the sea. 

45. "Fairies." This float represented the home of the 
fairies among the flowers. The fairies were always believed 
to be little people who lived in the flowers, where they slept all 
day and came out to play at night while mortals were asleep. 
This float represented the fairies at play with the butterflies. 

46. "Cinderella." This float represented Cinderella just 
after the Prince has found her and has discovered that the 
silver slipper which no other woman in the kingdom could wear 
fitted her perfectly. Cinderella was seated in an immense 
slipper with the Prince before her and near her were her jealous 
sisters and their friends. 

47. "Orpheus Be/ore Pluto." Orpheus, the son of Apollo, 
played the lyre so well that even the trees and rocks followed 
him around when he played. His beautiful wife, Eurydice, 
was bitten by a serpent and died. Orpheus followed her to 
the regions of the dead, and played so sweetly before Pluto, 
its king, that he finally consented that Eurydice should go back 
with him to the land of the living. 

48. "God of the Alps." This float illustrated a legend of 
Switzerland. The presiding Alpine deity had forbidden the 
killing of a certain animal, and a hunter, having disregarded 
a thrice given warning and killed the animal, was himself slain 
by a stone hurled upon him by the God of the Alps. 

49. "Avalanche of Freedom." This float symbolized Swiss 

382 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Descrip- liberty. It recalled the vow of the Swiss at Rutli, where, in 
Floats ^3°7 ^^^ planned the revolt against Austria which resulted 
in Swiss independence. A figure on the globe symbolized 
freedom. The meadow at Rutli, which is regarded as the 
cradle of Swiss liberty, was purchased in 1859 by the school 
children of Switzerland to be preserved as a national memorial. 
50. "Uncle Sam Welcoming the Nations." This float sym- 
bolized the hospitality which the United States extends to the 
people of all nations of the world. 


INTERSPERSED among the events of the first week of the 
Celebration were the dedications of several permanent 
memorials. These ceremonies were correlated by the 
Dedications Committee of which the Hon. Warren Higley is 

In the original program for the Celebration, Wednesday, 
September 29, was set apart particularly as Dedication Day; 
but as the plans of the Commission developed, it became 
apparent that it would be impracticable to confine these func- 
tions to a single day and they were therefore arranged on the 
dates most convenient in each case. 

Prior to the Celebration, the Committee on Dedications sent Liter- 
out several hundred circulars to patriotic and historical societies, *'"® "^ 
suggesting the dedication of parks, monuments, tablets, etc., mjttee 
as permanent memorials, and several such ceremonies were 
arranged with the direct cooperation of the Commission. 

The Committee issued 7,000 copies of a pamphlet of 64 
pages and cover, containing illustrations and descriptions of 
the memorials dedicated, brief historical accounts of the events 
commemorated, programs of exercises and lists of committees 
in charge of the ceremonies. 

The dedications in chronological order were as follows : List of 


September 27, 11 a. m. Palisades Interstate Park. For detailed account tions 
of the proceedings, see following chapter. 

September 27, 2 p. m. Hudson Monument on Spu)?ten Du)rvil Hill, New 
York City. For an account of the proceedings see Chapter XXV. 

September 28, 11 a. m. Tablet in honor of seven public school teachers who 
taught under Dutch rule. Erected by New York University on the University 
Building in Washington Square. A description of the tablet is given hereafter. 



The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

List of 




September 29, 4 p. m. Bust of Robert Fulton. Erected in the Hall of Fame 
by New York University. A brief account of the proceedings is given hereafter. 

September 29, 11 a.m. Fort Amsterdam Tablet, New York City. For an 
account of the proceedings, see Chapter XXVI. 

September 29, 2 p. m. Washington Heights Tablet at 147th street and Broad- 
way, New York City, erected by the Washington Heights Chapter of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution to mark the "first line of defense" on the 
Heights in 1776. A description of the memorial and the program of exercises 
are given hereafter. 

September 29, 2 p. m. Statue of Gen. Anthony Wayne at Newburgh, N. Y., 
on the grounds of Washington's Headquarters. For an account of the proceed- 
ings see the chapter on the Celebration at Newburgh. 

September 29, 3.30 P. m. Tablet erected at No. 48 Wall street. New York, 
by the Society of Colonial Wars to mark the site of a bastion of the old city wall. 
A description of the memorial and program of proceedings are given hereafter. 

September 29, 4 p. m. Fort Tryon tablet. New York City, by the American 
Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. For an account of the proceed- 
ings, see Chapter XXVH. 

September 29. A playground at Cornwall, N. Y. See chapter on Corn- 
wall celebration. 

October 2, 12.15 p. m. Stony Point Arch by the New York State Society, 
Daughters of the Revolution. See Chapter XXVHI. 

October 5, 4 P. M. Monument at Kingston, N. Y., to the memory of Sir 
Thomas Chambers, Lord of the Manor of Fox Hall and one of the founders 
of Kingston. See chapter on Kingston ceremonies. 

October 5, 5 p. m. A tablet in the Industrial Home at Kingston, N. Y. See 
chapter on Kingston ceremonies. 

October 6, 4 p. m. Monument to Verrazzano in Battery Park, New York 
City by the Italian colony. See Chapter XXIX. 

October 7. Memorial fountain in the city of Hudson by the Hendrick 
Hudson Chapter, D. A. R. See chapter on Hudson ceremonies. 

The Mary Washington Colonial Chapter, Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, of New York City, planned to dedicate on September 29 a tablet at 
Broadway and 159th street to mark the "third line of defense" on Washington 
Heights in 1776, but owing to unavoidable circumstances the dedication was 

The school teachers tablet which was erected on the north- 
west corner of the University Building at Washington Square, 
facing University Place, and which was dedicated under the 
auspices of New York University on September 28, was the 

Dedication of Parks and Memorials 385 

gift of the Chancellor of the University, the Rev. Henry M. 
MacCracken, D.D., LL.D. At the top of the tablet is an 
enlargement of the seal of the University bearing the well- 
known device of the uplifted arm and hand with torch, the three 
racers, and the words: "New York University. Perstare et 
Praestare. MDCCCXXX." Under the seal is the following 

In Honor of the Seven 

Public School Teachers 

Who Taught Under Dutch 

Rule on Manhattan Island. 

Adam Roelandsen 

Jan Cornelissen 

Jan Stevensen 

William Vestens 

Jan de la Montagne 

Harmanus van Hobokea 

Evert Pietersen 


Erected MCMIX 

The exercises consisted of an address by Baron d'Aulnis de 
Bourouill, Professor at the University of Utrecht and a member 
of the Netherlands delegation to the Hudson-Fulton Celebra- 
tion, and a brief address by William H. Maxwell, Ph.D., LL.D., 
City Superintendent of Schools, who unveiled the tablet. 

The bronze bust of Robert Fulton dedicated in the Hall of Bust of 
Fame at New York University on September 29, was erected 
on the parapet of the Colonnade above the Fulton tablet pre- 
viously placed there and therefore bore no inscription. At 4 
P. M. there were exercises in the University auditorium at which 
Chancellor MacCracken presided. An address on "Robert 
Fulton" was dehvered by Charles Stewart Smith, LL.D., who 
was President of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of 
New York from 1887 to 1894, and Mr. James G. Cannon read 
an address entitled "From SaiUng Vessels to Steam Naviga- 
tion" written by the Hon. S. P. van Eeghen, President of the 
Chamber of Commerce of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and 
an official delegate from that country to the Hudson-Fulton 

386 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Celebration. After these exercises, the audience proceeded to 
the Colonnade of the Hall of Fame where the bust was unveiled 
by Mr. Samuel W. Fairchild, Chairman of the Committee on 
Internal Trade and Improvements of the Chamber of Commerce 
of the State of New York. 

The Committee of the University Council in charge of the 
ceremonies was composed of Messrs. James G. Cannon, 
George F. Vietor and WiHiam H. Porter. 
First Xhe tablet at 147th street and Broadway, in New York City, 

Defense which was dedicated on September 29, was erected by the 
Washington Heights Chapter, D. A. R. The officers of the 
chapter and the committees in charge were as follows: 

Regent, Mrs. Samuel J. Kramer. 
First Vice Regent, Mrs. John Hudson Storer. 
Second Vice Regent, Mrs. Oviedo M. Bostwick. 
Recording Secretary, Mrs. Agnes S. Geer. 
Corresponding Secretary, Miss Ethel P. Bangs. 
Treasurer, Mrs. Howard S. Robbins. 
Registrar, Mrs. Frederick A. Fernald. 
Historian, Mrs. Joseph H. Wade. 
Chaplain, Rev. Milo H. Gates. 

Committee, Mrs. Joseph H. Wade, Chairman; Mrs. Stanley L. Otis, Secre- 
tary; Mrs. George D. Bangs, Miss Mary E. Brackett, Mrs. William H. Duck- 
worth, Mrs. Charles Eninger, Mrs. E. Monroe Hand, Mrs. George F. Hyde, 
Miss M. Elizabeth Lester, Mrs. James M. Lincoln, Mrs. Charles H. Liscom, 
Mrs. William C. Merryman, Mrs. Josiah T. Newcombe, Mrs. Jacob C. Stam- 
ler, Mrs. George E. Sterry, Mrs. George C. Stoddard, Mrs. William Swan, 
Mrs. Walter H. Tappan, Mrs. E. B. Treat, Mrs. H. Croswell Turtle, Mrs. 
Albert Vorhis, Mrs. Justis Williams, Mrs. George T. Wilson and Mrs. Frances 
J. Worcester. 

Committee of Washington Heights Taxpayers' Association in charge of 
local arrangements: Hon. Josiah T. Newcombe, Chairman; Dr. W. T. Alex- 
ander, Benjamin L. Blauvelt, Dr. W. W. Bostwick, J. Romaine Brown, Min- 
turn Post Collins, Hon. John R. Davies, Jacob Erlich, Gus C. Henning, Robert 
J. Hoguet, Albert M. Kohn, Robert D. Kohn, J. M. Libbey, Rev. John Mackay, 
D. F. Mahoney, Hon. Thomas McAvoy, Hon. John J. McDonald, Hon. John 
J. F. Mulcahy, Frederick Sturgis Robinson, Dr. L. A. Rodenstein, J. Schreiber, 
William B. Selden, Robert E. Simon, E. B. Treat, and Hon. F. J. Worcester. 

Dedication of Parks and Memorials 387 

The tablet, which was placed upon a boulder, bore the fol- First 
... . ■ line of 

lowing inscription: j^^^^^^^ 

This stone marks the position 


"the first line of defense" 

Constructed across these Heights 


Bravely defended by 


Erected by the Washington Heights Chapter, 
Daughters of the American Revolution, 
October, 1909. 

The program of exercises was as follows : 

Music. "My Country 'Tis of Thee." 

Invocation. Rev. Joseph H. McMahon, Ph.D., Rector of the Church of 
Our Lady of Lourdes. 

The Purpose of the Memorial. Hon. Warren Higley, Chairman of the 
Committee on Dedications, Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

Presentation of the Memorial. Mrs. Samuel J. Kramer, Regent, Wash- 
ington Heights Chapter, D. A. R. 

Unveiling of the Tablet. Miss Olive Mesick Bostwick and Master Court- 
landt Skinner Otis, Washington Heights Chapter Children of the American 

Music. National Anthem. 

Acceptance of the Monument on behalf of the City. Hon. George B. 
McClellan, Mayor. 

Historical Address. Josiah Pumpelly, A.M., LL.B., Historian, Empire 
State Society, Sons of the American Revolution. 

The Public Point of View. Hon. William S. Bennet, M. C. 

Benediction. Rev. George Ashton Oldham, Rector St. Luke's P. E. 
Church, Washington Heights. 


A reception was tendered by St. Luke's P. E. Church at 
Hamilton Grange, the old home of Alexander Hamilton, after 
the ceremonies. 

The following historical account of the site is taken from the 
pamphlet of the Commission's Committee on Dedications: 

The fortifications of that part of Manhattan now known as 
Washington Heights, which was in 1776 included in the general 
title of the Heights of Harlem, centered at the citadel of Fort 

388 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

First Washington, but included surrounding points of vantage, 
i°! ° admirably selected by the officers of the American army, and 
constructed with infinite labor by the men of the small army 
of defense. On the southerly side the defenses consisted of 
three lines of earthworks, known as the First, the Second and 
the Third, respectively situated on the approximate lines of 
147th, 153d, and 159th to i62d streets. Of these, by far the 
most elaborate and regularly military in character was the 
First, which also was the earliest in date of construction, having 
been commenced during the fighting which took place on 
September 16, 1776, commonly referred to as the "Battle of 
Harlem Heights," during which the reserves under General 
Spencer were laboring vehemently on the construction of this 
line of defense. The works extended from St. Nicholas 
avenue, then the King's Highway, at a redoubt on the summit 
of what was then and long since known as " Break Neck Hill," 
and crossed the hill westward through the grounds of the 
Maunsell Mansion, used by General Spencer as his division 
headquarters, in an irregular and zigzag fashion to a point on 
the line of Broadway and 147th street, where the eminence 
terminated in an abrupt descent to the Hudson River. At 
this point quite an elaborate redoubt was later developed, and 
within it and along the line some of the small cannon, probably 
brought from Fort George at the Battery, were mounted. The 
Second Line, which has already been marked by a memorial 
tablet on the wall of Trinity Cemetery, at 153d street, was 
naturally strong by reason of the rocky nature of the Heights 
at that point. The Third Line, which extended around the 
Lewis Hill on Riverside Drive, and irregularly across the hill- 
side to Washington's Headquarters, was not at any time in a 
fully completed condition, but its interest in connection with 
the others makes it a suitable subject for a memorial tablet. 
The First Line of defense came into active use on October 27, 
1776, when an attack in force was made upon it by the British 

Dedication of Parks and Memorials 389 

troops moving from the neighborhood of Harlem, aided by First 
two war vessels in the Hudson. The garrison, promptly p^fgngg 
manning the line, successfully resisted the advance of the Brit- 
ish forces, and Colonel Robert Magaw, in command at Fort 
Washington, brought down one of the two heavy guns mounted 
in the fort and nearly succeeded in sinking one of the British 
war vessels by well-directed fire. On the occasion of the final 
assault upon Fort Washington, November 16, 1776, a similar 
but much more formidable attack was made upon the First 
Line of defense by a combined force of British and Hes- 
sians of about 4,000 men again under the general command 
of Lieutenant-General the Earl Percy. The line was on this 
occasion defended by a small body of 600 Pennsylvanians, 
aided by a detachment of the Connecticut Rangers. They 
gallantly opposed the advance of the overwhelming force until 
their position was rendered untenable by the landing of the 
Forty-second Highlanders in the rear of their position. Then 
they fell back upon the Fort, stoutly disputing the way, until 
they and its other defenders found themselves enclosed by the 
circle of 14,000 opponents and were marched into the bitter 
captivity of New York prison houses and ships, from which so 
many of them emerged only on their way to their graves. 

The tablet dedicated at No. 48 Wall street, New York City, City WaU 
on September 29, to mark the site of one of the bastions of the *® °* 
old city wall, was erected by the Society of Colonial Wars in 
the State of New York, of which the following named gentlemen 
were the officers: 

Governor, Mr. Walter Lispenard Suydam. 
Deputy Governor, Mr. William Gary Sanger. 

Lieutenant-Governors, Messrs. Dallas Bache Pratt, Henry Gansevoort San- 
ford, and Amory Sibley Carhart. 
Secretary, Mr. Frederick Dwight. 
Deputy Secretary, Mr. Edward Codman Parish. 
Treasurer, Mr. Clarence Storm. 
Registrar, Mr. John Francis Daniell. 

390 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

City WaU Chancellor, Mr. William Whitehead Ladd. 
Bastion Vice-Chancellor, Mr. William Graves Bates. 

Surgeons, Thomas Darlington, M. D., and Faneuil Suydam Weisse, M. D. 

Historian, Mr. Edward Trenchard. 

Chaplain, Rev. Dr. Howard DufHeld. 

Genealogist, William Henry Folsom. 

Tablet Committee, Messrs. Samuel Putnam Avery, Francis Sedgwick Bangs, 
Howard Randolph Bayne, Jared Weed Bell, Beverly Chew, Clarence Henry 
Eagle, Frederic de Peyster Foster, Frederick Gallatin, Walter Geer, Samuel 
Verplanck Hoffman, Charles Bulkley Hubbell, Charles Isham, Oliver Livings- 
ton Jones, Elijah Robinson Kennedy, Edward de Peyster Livingston, Joseph 
Tompkins Low, Edwin Augustus McAlpin, Stephen Henry Olin, Robert 
Olyphant, Charles Eustis Orvis, George Richard Schieffelin, Charles Stewart 
Smith, Daniel McMartin Stimson, Hamilton Bullock Tompkins, John Rey- 
nolds Totten, Charles Clifton Upham, Robert B. Van Cortlandt, Charles 
EUiot Warren and Everett Pepperell Wheeler. 

General Committee, Thomas Darlington, M. D., Chairman; Mr. B. W. B. 
Brown, Secretary; and Messrs. Alexander C. Chenoweth, Frederick Dwight, 
George Purdy Hall, Hugh Hastings, Henry Gansevoort Sanford, Clarence 
Storm, Walter Lispenard Suydam. 

The order of ceremonies at the dedication was as follows: 

Invocation. Rev. Dr. Howard Duffield, Chaplain of the Society. 

Report of the Hudson-Fulton Committee of the Society. Dr. Thomas 
Darlington, Chairman. 

Address and Transfer of Custody of the Tablet. Mr. Walter Lispenard 
Suydam, Governor of the Society. 

Address and Acceptance of the Custody of the Tablet. Mr. Herbert L. 
Griggs, President of the Bank of New York, National Banking Association. 

Closing Address. Hon. Warren Higley, Chairman of the Committee on 
Dedications, Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

Following is a brief historical sketch of the site marked by 
the tablet. 

War having been declared between the English and the 
Dutch in 1652, the inhabitants and government of New Amster- 
dam expected that some attempt would be made by the English 
to capture the town. The fort was accordingly repaired and 
the citizens enrolled in four companies. So superior in numbers 
were the English in the New England colonies that it was felt 

Dedication of Parks and Memorials 391 

necessary to construct some defense against a land attack. City Wall 
Accordingly, in 1653 a wall was constructed from the North 
to the East River. The wall extended along the line of 
the present Wall street a few feet north of the north side, 
thence in a southwesterly direction to the North River, thence 
to the fort at the foot of Broadway. It was built of palisades 
twelve feet high and eighteen inches in girth, sharply pointed 
at the upper end. Posts seven inches thick were erected at 
intervals of a rod, to which split rails were nailed two feet below 
the top on the inside. On the inside was a banquette of earth 
four feet high and from three to four feet wide, thrown up from 
a ditch three feet deep and two wide. 

In 1692, when there was fear of a French invasion, the 
English erected two stone bastions on the wall, one at the 
northwest corner of Wall and William streets and the other at 
the northeast corner of Wall street and Broadway. The wall, 
having fallen into a state of disrepair, was demolished in 1699. 
The tablet marks approximately ;he site of the first named 
bastion, and through the courtesy of the officers and directors 
of the Bank of New York, National Banking Association, in 
whose custody it will remain, is affixed to the front of its building 
at No. 48 Wall street, New York City. The design of the tablet 
is by Messrs. Beatty and Stone, architects, the model for the 
casting having been made from their drawings by Mr. Albert 
Weinert, the sculptor. It was cast by Mr. John Williams. 
The design of the tablet is quite elaborate. Within a border 
representing strings of wampum beads, arrowheads and bullets, 
with Tudor roses at the corners, are a plan of the city below 
Wall street in 1695, a representation of the ship Half Moon, 
and the seal of the Society of Colonial Wars in the State of 
New York. The inscription is as follows: 

"Here stood a bastion of the Wall which between 1653 and 1699 extended from the East River 
along the line of the present Wall Street and thence Westerly to the North or Hudson's River. 

"This tablet was erected by the Society of Colonial Wars in the State of New York on the occasion 
of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration and unveiled ihe 29th September, 1909." 



''HE Palisades Interstate Park was formally dedicated under 
the auspices of the Palisades Interstate Park Commis- 
sion of New York and New Jersey and the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission by ceremonies held at Alpine, 
N. J., on Monday, September 27, 1909, beginning at 11 o'clock 
A. M. In the absence of General Stewart L. Woodford, Presi- 
dent of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, Dr. 
George F. Kunz officially represented the Commission in the 
Palisades The Palisades Interstate Park Commission consists of ten 

Com- members, five of whom are residents of New York and five of 

New Jersey, and all ten are dually appointed by the Governor 

of New York and the Governor of New Jersey. The Commis- 
sion is organized as follows: 


George W. Perkins, President. Edwin A. Stevens, President. 

Franklin W. Hopkins, Vice-President. D. McNeely StaufFer, Vice-President. 

J. DuPratt White, Secretary. J. DuPratt White, Secretary. 

D. McNeely StaufFer, Treasurer. Abram De Ronde, Treasurer. 

Edwin A. Stevens. George W. Perkins. 

Nathan F. Barrett. Franklin W. Hopkins. 

William A. Linn. WiUiam H. Porter. 

Abram De Ronde. William A. Linn. 

William H. Porter. William B. Dana. 

William B. Dana. Nathan F. Barrett. 

The Hon. Edwin A. Stevens presided at the dedicatory 

The opening prayer was offered by the Rev. Howard C. 
Robbins, of Englewood, N. J., in the following words: 

Rev. Mr. REV. HOWARD C. ROBBINS: "Almighty God, unto whom all 
Robbins hearts are open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are 


Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 393 

hid, cleanse the thoughts of our heart, by the inspiration of Thy Rev. Mr. 
Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love Thee, and worthily magnify Robbins 
Thy Holy Name; through Jesus Christ, our Lord. 

"We bless Thee, Lord of heaven and earth, for this occasion of 
great and public joy. Grant that the solemnity of it may be upon 
our spirits. Grant that by the largeness of it our hearts may be 
enlarged. Inspire in us a heat of fervent recollection, that our 
self-interest may be abashed and put to silence, and for a moment 
we may find our happiness in what concerns the general good of 

"Fair is our lot; yea, goodly is our heritage. We bless Thee for 
the records of creation, graven in these ancient Palisades. Help us 
to read aright the written records. Teach us thereby to recognize 
a wisdom anterior to that of Nature, and a force constraining her. 
Lord, we thank Thee that Thou didst not leave the earth a welter 
of chaotic forces. 

"We thank Thee that Thou didst prepare an habitable world 
for man. Before the mountains were brought forth, or even the 
earth and the world were made. Thou art God from everlasting, 
and world without end. We praise Thee, O God, we acknowledge 
Thee to be the Lord. All the earth doth worship Thee, the Father 
everlasting. We rejoice that Thou hast given us dominion over 
Nature. Of Thee only cometh counsel and invention, and every 
human strength. Thou hast taught us to seek out food and raiment 
and shelter, and to protect ourselves against Thy lower creatures. 
Of Thy providence it cometh that our life hath been preserved 
upon the earth. We thank Thee not alone for the devices which 
have sheltered human life, but for those which have enlarged it. 
We bless Thee for commerce and industry, for science, literature 
and government, and for all the arts of peace. In particular, we 
adore Thy mercy for the invention of which this river was the wit- 
ness. We thank Thee that Thou didst put into the heart of Thy 
servant Robert Fulton the great device whereby the ends of the 
earth are brought together, and the brotherhood of nations is made 
manifest, and the coming of Thy kingdom is advanced. 

"We rejoice in many notable endeavors to which this river wit- 
nesseth. We bless Thee for the valiant histories inwrought into 
Its shores. We remember with reverence the spirit of adventure 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Rev. Mr. which brought hither its explorers, and enabled them to bestow 
RoDDins upon Christendom a continent of beginnings, a land unhindered 
of tyranny and untroubled by regret. We remember with reverence 
the war of freedom which was waged about its borders: the war 
whose happy issue welded us into a Nation, bequeathing to us great 
and federal tasks. Give unto us, O God, strength to undertake, 
and wisdom to fulfill the tasks of democratic government. Help 
us to close the widening chasm between the strong and weak, the 
rich and poor. Enable us to cast therein all pride and prejudice, 
luxury and covetousness, the insolence of riches with the rancour 
of poverty, that we may fill it full and make a highway for the King 
to pass over, and for all the people to walk in together. And so 
may we establish the Republic, and build in America the Holy City, 
foretold by all the prophets since the world began. 

"Father of Heaven, look with favor upon Thy people, and accept 
our anniversary gift. Thou didst put into the hearts of faithful 
men and women the desire to preserve from human ravage the 
towering cliff" and gracious shore and flower-sprinkled wilderness. 
By gifts of patience and of public spirit. Thou didst prosper their 
endeavor, and bring the same to good efi"ect. Receive from them, 
O God, unspoiled and consecrated, the loveliness which they have 
reverenced. Protect it throughout coming generations, and sanctify 
it to the people's use. And let the beauty of the Lord our God be 
upon us, and establish Thou the work of our hands upon us; yea, 
the work of our hands, establish Thou it. Amen." 

CHAIRMAN STEVENS: "We will now hear the report of the 
Commissioners of the Palisades Interstate Park of the States of 
New York and New Jersey, from Mr. George W. Perkins, who is 
President of the New York Commission. I have the pleasure of 
introducing Mr. Perkins." 

President HON. GEORGE W. PERKINS : "As President of the New York 
Perkins Commission it becomes my duty and pleasure on this occasion to 
report to the Governors of the States of New York and New Jersey 
on behalf of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission, that the 
Commission has completed the task entrusted to it, viz., that of 
saving the Palisades from Fort Lee, New Jersey, on the South, to 
Piermont, New York, on the North, and, further, of acquiring the 
face of the Palisades and the land between them and the Hudson, 


Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 395 

and the outstanding riparian rights adjacent thereto, along this President 
fourteen-mile strip of territory for the purpose of an Interstate Park. *' 

"The first tangible plan towards protecting the Palisades was a 
proposal in 1895 to induce the National Government to secure them 
for military purposes. A Commission was appointed for this pur- 
pose but the scheme fell through. The outlook for preservation 
after this failure seemed most discouraging. At this juncture the 
women of New Jersey took up the work, and with great zeal and 
intelligence the New Jersey State Federation of Women's Clubs began 
an active campaign, resulting in the passage of a bill in 1899 by the 
New Jersey State Legislature, empowering the Governor to appoint 
a committee of five to investigate and report. Governor Voorhees 
signed this bill and named as members of the Commission, Elizabeth 
B. Vermilye, Cecilia Gaines Holland, Franklin W. Hopkins, William 
A. Linn and S. Wood McClave. 

"The New York Legislature passed a similar bill, and Governor 
Roosevelt, at the suggestion of Andrew H. Green, appointed as the 
New York Committee, Frederick W. Devoe, Frederick S. Lamb, 
George F. Kunz, Abraham G. Mills and Edward Payson Cone. 

"Among the ardent supporters and most effective workers con- 
nected with the movement at that time were Dr. George F. Kunz, 
now President of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation 
Society, and the late Wm. E. Dodge. 

"Conferences covering nearly a year followed, with the result 
that the Committee reported to the respective Legislatures the 
passage of acts constituting a permanent Interstate Park Com- 
mission, to serve without compensation and with power to acquire 
and hold whatever territory was necessary along the Palisades for 
an Interstate Park and thereby preserve the scenery of the Palisades. 
Legislation to this end was passed by the New York Legislature 
and approved by Governor Roosevelt March 22, 1900. In the 
New Jersey Legislature the bill met with considerable hostility, but 
the friends of the proposed measure kept up an unremitting fight, the 
work of the women of New Jersey being particularly effective, and 
the bill was finally passed and signed. 

"Governor Voorhees appointed as New Jersey's Commissioners 
Abram S. Hewitt, Edwin A. Stevens, Franklin W. Hopkins, William 
A. Linn and Abram De Ronde. 

396 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

President "Governor Roosevelt's appointees were George W. Perkins, J. 
Perkins QuPratt White, Ralph Trautmann, D. McNeely StaufFer, and Nathan 
F. Barrett. 

"With the exception of the vacancies caused by the lamented 
death of Messrs. Abram S. Hewitt and Ralph Trautmann, whose 
places were filled by William B. Dana and William H. Porter, the 
personnel of the Commissions has remained unchanged through 
the nine intervening years. 

"When the Commission began its labors in the summer of 1900, 
it had on hand appropriations of ;iS5,ooo from the State of New Jersey 
and ^10,000 from the State of New York, for expenses. 

"The Commission found that legally organized companies were 
engaged in blasting the cliffs on land that the said companies had 
bought, and had a right, under the law, to quarry. 

"A survey of the Palisades was at once undertaken and New Jersey's 
appropriation was devoted to this purpose. The Commissioners 
were surprised to find that in place of the Palisades presenting a 
perpendicular face, as was the common belief, there were about 500 
acres of land suitable for Park purposes at the foot of the cliffs, in 
a strip from Fort Lee to Piermont, and that there were about a dozen 
places at the foot of the cliffs which lent themselves very easily as 
landing places from which the 500 acres could be reached. 

"In a general way the Commission came to the conclusion that if 
it could in some way stop the blasting and acquire the quarries it 
might be possible to acquire all the rest of the face of the cliffs and 
the riparian rights between Fort Lee and Piermont for something 
like ^500,000. The difficult problem, of course, was how to stop 
the blasting and acquire title to the quarries, which were valuable 
going concerns. After prolonged negotiations with the quarry- 
men, the Commission found that it could acquire title to the active 
quarries for ^135,000. 

"The Commission had not spent for expenses any of the ^10,000 
which the State of New York had voted it. Its office had been 
'under its hat,' so to speak, and it had incurred no incidental 
expenses. At this point it decided on the following plan: 

"First: To take the ;?io,ooo of expense money and pay it on a 
contract to purchase the quarry properties for 1^135,000 — all blast- 
ing to stop until the following spring. 

Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 397 

"Second: To attempt to raise the remaining $125,000 by private President 
subscription, with an understanding with the subscribers that they ^^^""^ 
were not to contribute the money unless the Legislatures of New 
York and New Jersey, during the winter session, contributed respec- 
tively ^400,000 and 1^50,000, for the purpose of acquiring such land 
along the face of the cliffs where blasting was not going on but 
might be started at any time. 

"The |Sio,ooo was paid to the quarrymen, and all blasting on the 
Palisades stopped on Christmas Eve, 1900. Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan 
offered to contribute the ;^i25,ooo needed to finish the purchase of 
the quarry properties under the plan contemplated. The Legis- 
latures of New York and New Jersey were approached with this 
plan during the winter, and New York appropriated the 18400,000 
asked of it, and New Jersey appropriated ;^50,ooo. 

"Since then the work of acquiring the property has steadily pro- 
gressed until now the Commission is able to report the acquisition 
of the entire face of the cliffs, from Fort Lee to Piermont, with the 
exception of two small titles which are in the course of completion. 
This has been accomplished without asking either State for any 
further appropriation for the purchase of land or riparian rights 
than the sums originally asked for and appropriated nine years ago. 

"In the intervening nine years. New York has appropriated 
;?20,ooo for expenses, and New Jersey has appropriated 1^17,500. 
This money has been used for surveying and engineering expenses, 
for improving and building a footpath at the foot of the cliffs from 
Fort Lee to Alpine — a distance of about seven miles — for protecting 
the properties and policing the grounds, for searching and insuring 
titles, for insurance policies, for legal services, printing, clerical 
and stenographic hire. The personal expenses of the Commis- 
sioners during the nine-year period have amounted to JS457.93. 

"The Commissioners have acquired about 175 parcels of land in 
all, including 21 homesteads or residences which are still occupied 
for a nominal rental. Good landing places exist at Fort Lee dock, 
Carpenter's quarry dock, Englewood dock, Van Wagoner's dock, 
Laffan & Rand's dock, Brown & Fleming's quarry dock, Huyler's 
Landing, Alpine, Pearsall's dock, Jordan's dock, Riverview Grove, 
Forest View dock and Twombly's dock, and these several landings 
are scattered along through the 500 acres of land embraced in the 

398 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

President Park district. In fact when the Commission took up its work nine 
Perkins yg^^s ago the Palisades were practically unknown and rarely, if 
ever, visited by any one. 

"As the blasting ceased and the cliffs were made somewhat acces- 
sible the people of New York and New Jersey began to enjoy this 
wonderful region. During the summer of 1905 the Commission 
issued 25 permits to people to camp on the Palisades. In 1906, 221 
permits were issued. In 1907, 395 permits were issued. In 1908, 
700 permits were issued, and during the season just closed 1,000 
permits were issued. Under those permits during the past summer, 
approximately 3,000 campers have enjoyed the shores of the Pahsades 
during their holidays and on Sundays. This is in addition to many 
hundreds of picnicers who have visited the district for a few hours 
at a time. 

"In commemoration of the work for Palisades preservation 
accomplished by the Federation of Women's Clubs of New Jersey, 
the Commission has set aside a reservation on a commanding bluff, 
on which a suitable monument is to be erected from funds contributed 
by their friends; |S3,ooo raised by the women of New York and New 
Jersey has already been placed in this fund in honor of the public- 
spirited men and women of both States, who labored in the cause of 
Palisades preservation at the beginning of the movement. 

"The Commission acknowledges with grateful thanks gifts of 
land and money as follows: Mrs. Lydia G. Lawrence, of Palisades, 
New York, land and right of way to the value of about ;jS3,500, 
Cleveland H. Dodge, of New York City, land and riparian rights 
to the value of about ;jS 16,000; and a member of the Commission, 

;^ 1 2,000. 

"Two contributions to the Commission stand out as conspicuously 
valuable in the work that has been accomplished. That of Mr. 
Morgan at a critical moment in the beginning of the Commission's 
efforts, and a donation made last week by Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton 
McK. Twombly of 60 acres of land and 3,000 feet of riparian rights, 
which, including docks and improvements, is valued at $125,000. 
It is this latter gift that makes it possible for the Commission to 
announce at this time the completion of the task of saving the Pahsades 
and acquiring the entire frontage of same, with the outstanding 
riparian rights, for park purposes. 

Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 399 

"The parcel of land presented by Mr. and Mrs. Twombly has PresidenI 
been owned by them for a number of years and during the past ^^ ^ 
thirteen years they have maintained a dock and comfortable recrea- 
tion grounds, and excursions have been run from the City for people 
who could not afford the outing themselves. During the past thirteen 
years 365,000 people from the City have enjoyed the benefits of a 
ride up the Hudson River, a few hours at this charming landing, 
and a ride back to New York. In accepting this handsome gift the 
Commission has agreed to maintain this landing and permit all 
worthy institutions and all accredited individuals to use the property 
for the same worthy purposes for which Mr. and Mrs. Twombly 
used it in the past. 

"Up to date the Commission has had but one sole object — to pre- 
serve and acquire the face of the Palisades. This has now been accom- 
plished and the Commission's forecasts of nine years ago to the people 
who have helped it and to the States of New York and New Jersey, 
have been realized. 

"In the development of the work the Commission has come to 
appreciate the vast benefits that can accrue to the millions of people 
living in such close proximity to this absolutely unique piece of 
territory, and now that the task of saving and acquiring the Palisades 
has been accomplished the Commissioners intend to devote their 
eiforts, with the permission of their respective States and the public, 
to a fuller development of the park. There are now driveways 
down the cliffs at Englewood and Alpine. There should be a drive- 
way the entire length of the base of the cliffs, from Fort Lee to Pier- 
mont. This would make the park accessible from all points for 
all classes, and would make the most natural and perfect outlet 
from the City of New York to the good roads that are being laid 
out in the State of New York. 

'Last winter Senator Edmund W. Wakelee, always a consistent 
friend and worker in the cause of Palisades preservation, introduced 
a bill in New Jersey, favoring such a driveway, and the bill was 
passed. A similar bill was introduced in New York by Senator 
Howard R. Bayne, but did not pass. Such a driveway would not 
be as expensive as might be supposed, as it could be built in part 
with the material at hand along the base of the cliffs. 

"The surveys and sketches which the Commission has made in 

400 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

President this connection show that a driveway of this kind could be built 
FerKins thaj.^ {qj- pjcturesqueness, could scarcely be equaled anywhere in 
the world. 

"Here, within actual sight of our great throbbing City, is a little 
world of almost virgin nature, which has been rescued for the people 
and now stands as a permanent monument to the discovery of the 
Hudson River. I leave for others to tell of what Nature has done 
for this unique strip of land. Man can do no more than preserve 
its natural grandeur and make the park accessible to one and all, 
and to this end the Commission respectfully asks the support of 
the public and the Governors of the respective States, who are our 
honored guests at the dedication of this park to-day." 
Hon. THE CHAIRMAN: "I now have the very great pleasure of pre- 

senting one who needs no introduction to this audience, the sterling 
Stevens ^ ^ 

E. A. 

Governor of the State of New York, Honorable Charles E. Hughes." 
Governor HONORABLE CHARLES E. HUGHES: "We are inaugurating 
Hughes jj Celebration of human effort, of daring enterprise and inventive 
skill, of the progress of civilization, in this early settled and most 
populous part of the new world. The discovery is notable because 
this river has been the scene of the rugged endeavors of the pioneer 
and colonist, of military exploit and heroic deeds, of the fruitful 
labors of industry, because it is the highway of a commerce which 
created a Commonwealth and largely contributed to the development 
of the Nation. About this river cluster the memories of our heroes 
of war and peace, and this beautiful valley is forever invested with 
the charm of the story of the vicissitudes of early settlements, of the 
struggle by which liberty was won, and of the marvelously expanding 
life of a free people. 

"It is fitting that at the outset we should turn from its historical 
association to the river itself. This Celebration should not only 
prove a stimulus to endeavor by its commemoration of distinguished 
achievements, but it should also quicken our appreciation of the 
natural conditions which made these achievements possible and 
direct our attention to the conservation of this priceless gift of Nature. 
"We ascend beyond the tidal sweep to the silent forest where the 
river takes its source. There at the headwaters of the Hudson 
and its principal tributaries, we learn the necessity of forest preserva- 
tion. If we would preserve the source of industrial power, if we would 

Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 401 

secure and maintain proper regulation of the flow of our streams and Governor 
make them agencies of progress rather than devastating forces, we ""Soes 
must conserve the forests of the country. It is only within a few years 
that we have appreciated the importance of this policy. For a long 
period, content with the lavishness of Nature, we were unmindful 
of reckless waste and speedy spoliation. The people have not 
awakened too soon. 

"In the State of New York during the past few years, large areas 
of forest tract have been acquired by the State, and under the amend- 
ment to the Constitution adopted fifteen years ago, all lands so 
acquired are to be kept inviolate. It is to be hoped that these pur- 
chases will largely be extended and our forest tracts put beyond 
danger of devastation. The State, however, should have su£5cient 
liberty of action to enable it to prosecute the methods of scientific 
forestry so that it may intelligently care for its property and 
secure the returns which are consistent with due conservation. 
Denuded forest lands should be reforested. 

"Provision should also be made for the improvement and develop- 
ment of this stream as a source of industrial power. It is not only 
as a commercial highway that its importance should be emphasized. 
We should be mindful of the increase in water-power which may 
easily be realized to the great advantage of industry. The State of 
New York by carrying out comprehensive plans of water-power 
development can largely augment this important source of our 
prosperity, and by reserving adequate State control, make it more 
productive of benefit to all our people. 

"The river should be kept, so far as possible, free from pollution. 
We must maintain this noble stream as a wholesome river and not 
permit it to become a mere sewer. This is a problem of great difficulty 
because of local exigencies and of the demands of estabHshed indus- 
tries upon which the prosperity of many of our communities depends. 
There are diversities of conditions which should have intelHgent 
appreciation, but we must not be indifferent to the necessity of 
protecting the health of the people and to the importance of keeping 
our streams pure. This Celebration should give an impetus to the 
movement to this end which too long has languished because of 
public inattention. 

But it is not simply with commerce or with industrial power or 

402 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Governor with public health that we are concerned. Health, the development 
^S 6s q£ industry, the prosperity that is due to the variety and facility of 
commercial exchanges are the conditions of wholesome living. But 
we need still further resources for the enrichment of our life. Of 
what avail would be the material benefits of gainful occupation; 
what would be the promise of prosperous communities with wealth 
of products and freedom of exchange, were it not for the opportu- 
nities to cultivate the love of the beautiful ? 

"This river has been a gateway for the conquest of a continent. 
The inward rush of the sea and the linking of its waters to those 
of the Great Lakes have invited to this favored spot the commerce 
of the world. But the richest blessing of the Hudson River lies in 
its beauty, with its most gracious ministry to the spirit of man. The 
wealth of the world concentrated at our metropolis would not pay 
the coming generations for the destruction of the rare charm which 
is the free gift of Nature and which no wealth could create. The 
greater our prosperity, the more diffused our opportunities for fruit- 
ful and well-paid labor, the more important will be the preservation 
of beautiful scenery and of these places where life is lifted out of 
drudgery and Nature in the happy days of relaxation gives in her 
bounty to the appreciative soul the finest compensations for days 
of toil. 

"The preservation of the scenery of the Hudson is the highest 
duty with respect to this river imposed upon those who are the trustees 
of its manifold benefits. It is fortunate that means have already been 
taken to protect this escarpment which is one of its most striking and 
beautiful features. The two States have joined in measures for this pur- 
pose. I hope this is only the beginning of efforts which may jointly be 
made by these two Commonwealths to safeguard the Highlands and 
waters, in which they are both deeply interested. The entire watershed 
which lies to the north should be conserved, and a policy should be 
instituted for such joint control as would secure adequate protection. 

"It is gratifying to note that during the present year legislation 
has been enacted in New York creating a forest reservation in the 
Highlands of the Hudson. This reserve contains about 35,000 
acres and within its boundaries the State is authorized to acquire 
tracts of land and to maintain regulations for suitable conservation. 

"Within a short distance of the great metropolis, within easy 

Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 403 

reach of Its teeming population, lies this extensive area of natural 
beauty, making with its fascinating story a special appeal to the 
patriotic American heart. Easily accessible, it should be a place of 
renovation and inspiration for the toiling multitudes. Here should be 
the people's countryside for the common recreation. The High- 
lands of the Hudson and these Palisades, the glory not simply of 
our States, but of the entire country, must be put beyond the reach of 
the devastating hand and conserved for the general good, and on 
future centennial anniversaries the measures taken to that end, 
and for the preservation of the forest sources of this stream and to 
secure its undiminished and unpolluted flow, may well be regarded 
as our most important contribution to the welfare of the succeeding 

THE CHAIRMAN: "I greatly regret that Gen. Stewart L. Chair- 

Woodford, the President of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Com- '^^^ 

. . . . . Stevens 

mission, is unable to be with us to speak on the subject of the 

Palisades Interstate Park as a permanent memorial of the discovery 
of the Hudson River. We are fortunate, however, in the presence 
of Dr. George F. Kunz, a Trustee of the Commission, who has 
consented to speak on behalf of the Commission, and who, as Presi- 
dent of the American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society, 
is thoroughly familiar with the movement for the preservation of 
the PaHsades. I take pleasure in presenting Dr. Kunz." 

DR. GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ: "Mr. President of the Doctor 
Commission, Ladies and Gentlemen: With a task so well completed^'"" 
as is this Interstate Park, there is little more for the American Scenic 
and Historic Preservation Society to say, the object of this organiza- 
tion being to do pioneer work in calling the attention of the public 
and the State to those regions and places and objects which need 

"In the absence of the President of the Hudson-Fulton Commission, 
General Stewart L. Woodford, the Hon. George W. Perkins has 
asked me to speak In behalf of the Commission. We have listened 
with great Interest to the address of Mr. Perkins and to that of his 
Excellency, Governor Hughes, and I am sure that we are all in perfect 
sympathy with the sentiments they have so eloquently expressed. 

"The subject on which Mr. Perkins has called me to speak to-day 
— that of preservation of the Palisades — is a subject that has been 

404 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Doctor of the greatest interest to me for the past twenty years. It was my 
Kunz pleasure when Treasurer of the American Scenic and Historic Preser- 
vation Society to have suggested to the first President of that Society, 
the Hon. Andrew H. Green, that it take some action with regard 
to the preservation of the Palisades. Mr. Green, with that wonderful 
foresight and quickness of action which were among his strongest 
characteristics, immediately said, ' Why not make this a motion at 
the next meeting ? ' This was done. The Hon. Andrew H. Green 
then enhsted the cooperation of the Hon. Gherardi Davis to enter 
the bill at Albany. 

"To all public movements there is always some opposition. There 
was some to this. For that reason Governor Roosevelt after the 
bill was passed decided not to put any one connected either with the 
Scenic Society or with the opposition parties on the Commission, 
so as to insure harmony of action. No Commission could have 
done better than the one which was appointed- 

"Where have we near a great city a river as magnificent as the 
Hudson ? Hence of all the sites that have been chosen for park 
purposes none can rival this beautiful stretch of country, overlooking 
the noble river. On Saturday last we saw the greatest water pageant 
that human eyes have ever beheld. Five millions of people lined 
the shores of the bay and the banks of the Hudson, from Fort Ham- 
ilton to Spuyten Duyvil Creek, to witness the passage of seventy 
warships and seven hundred merchant vessels. And yet so great 
and broad is our river that the exhibition seemed meager, making 
one realize that there was room for ten times that number of ships, 
and that several times as many spectators could view the pageant 
from the majestic Hudson's banks. 

"However, in our admiration of the beauties of the Hudson, we 
must not forget the practical problems that offer themselves in the 
case of a river that receives the drainage of a great city. The 
immense populations dwelling in New York City and its vicinity are 
pouring into the Hudson two million tons of sewage materials annu- 
ally. This means that an enormous amount of valuable fertilizing 
material, derived from the products of the farms of the country, is 
irreparably lost in the sea, killing the fish, polluting the water, and 
possibly threatening the city with a pestilence. If this two million 
tons of material annually wasted could be taken to some vacant 

Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 405 

land on Long Island, this would mean a great saving for the people, Doctor 
and would stop the drain upon the richness of the land. "°^ 

"Parks and reservations in the city limits or in its immediate 
vicinity have increased in value so enormously within a few decades 
that yre have learned to appreciate the foresight of those who were 
instrumental in condemning ground and laying out the parks while 
this task could be accomplished at a reasonable cost. Central Park 
cost about four million dollars when condemned by the city, more 
than fifty years ago. At five per cent compound interest this sum 
would now amount to about forty million dollars; but conservative 
appraisers estimate the present value of the park at from six to eight 
hundred million dollars. The Bronx parks cost, about a decade ago, 
twenty-two million dollars; to-day the land is worth ten times that 

"Regarded simply as an investment, there probably never has 
been one so satisfactory to both States as this Interstate Palisades 
Park. For the sum of about one-half million dollars the Commis- 
sion has purchased more than thirty-five thousand feet of frontage — 
a frontage greater than that of the Central Park. The acreage is 
about the same, but this acreage is not to be measured in New York 
acres, but in ' Scotch acres.' You probably have heard the story 
of the Scotchman and Englishman who had many arguments regard- 
ing the greatness of their two countries. At last, the Scotchman 
having gained every point, the Englishman said: 'England is a 
larger country than Scotland.' 'Nay, nay,' the Scotchman said, 
'if you flatten out the hills Scotland would be larger than England.' 
So it is with these acres; they are piled high, they are double the 
size of a New York acre. 

"This park has cost so little up to the present time that centuries 
from now its price will seem as ridiculously small as does that of 
Blackwell's Island, which sold for forty-seven thousand dollars. A 
single lot at Broadway and Wall street has sold for a greater sum 
than the whole cost of the Palisades Park, and this fortunate circum- 
stance is largely due to the wonderful care and judgment exercised 
by the Palisades Commission. 

"The Japanese spend days and weeks and months in erecting 
small masses of boulders and small hillocks. What would it cost to 
erect a single cliff such as you see here f In Japan, a land of legends. 

4o6 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Boctor they have a beautiful and quaint legend according to which the 
Kunz groaning of the trees on windy nights is the moaning of the spirits 
that are imprisoned within those trees, the spirits of those who in 
their lifetime had sold shade trees for lumber or had cut down trees 
in public places. What would the originators of these legends say 
about those over-enterprising persons who have blasted off the 
magnificent promontories that we had on this river ? 

"Where so much has changed it is interesting to note that some 
of the aspects of Nature are essentially as they were when Europeans 
first came to these shores. Were Henry Hudson to return in spirit, 
and sail up the river at night, casting anchor off Spuyten Duyvil, the 
early morning light would reveal to him the same outlook to the 
westward, the same Palisades, upon which his eye rested when he 
first sailed up the great river which now bears his name. With the 
exception of an occasional small house, the Palisades remain virtually 
unchanged. If, however, Hudson directed his gaze to the southeast, 
he would see the greatest city of a great continent, a city destined 
to be the greatest in the world, a city whose growth is so rapid that 
twenty years from now the population will be almost as dense opposite 
where we are standing as it is below that point. 

"It is scarcely necessary to insist upon the great and lasting bene- 
fits derived by the inhabitants of a vast city from the use of public 
parks. They afford the single and indispensable opportunity to 
enjoy a breath of fresh, pure air for those who are forced to live in 
crowded tenements. We are fighting at present a disease that is 
taking away more than fifteen per cent of our population. It seems 
impossible to absolutely stamp out this disease under present con- 
ditions. The bacillus of tuberculosis was discovered by a great 
German scientist, but it was others, and among them Americans, 
who first found that fresh air was the great cure-all for the white 
plague. Let the poor people of New York, who have almost no 
daylight, who have almost no good air, be given every facility to 
visit this park, especially on Sundays and holidays, to fill their lungs 
with the uncontaminated air of this beautiful tract, and I believe you 
can lower the death rate of New York from the white plague prob- 
ably from ten to twenty-five per cent. 

"The striking natural beauty of this park will be enhanced by a 
proper conservation of the forest land and by the judicious planting 

Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 407 

of new trees. A great School of Agriculture and Forestry is about Doctor 
to be founded in Columbia University. This school could work '^^^'^ 
jointly with the Palisades Commission. The park would then enjoy 
the advice and help of skilled foresters, and we would have a natural 
forest, fostered by the care of experts, not simply a myriad of hori- 
zontally cut branches, jutting out against the sky like amputated 

"In French cities, especially Paris, it is customary that families 
go out into the country on Sunday mornings. They sally forth from 
the city, provided with baskets full of refreshments, and go to some 
neighboring country place. Here, while the parents sit down on 
some grassy bank, the children play around and gather ferns and 
flowers. All accumulate a store of health, by drinking in the good 
air. They learn to know the forms of flowers, the shapes of leaves, 
and they absorb, quite unconsciously, all the manifold beauty of 
Nature. The result is that to-day French art is one of the greatest 
arts of the world, because the people have become familiar with 
Nature. They never think of destroying a tree or a plant; they are 
brought up to respect them from early infancy. The reason so much 
vandalism occurs here is that the inhabitants of our cities are but 
rarely brought into contact with Nature. 

"Every man, woman and child in the two States should be made 
to understand that they are the proper owners of this great park. 
Recently a few thefts occurred in certain of the great French muse- 
ums, and at that time a journalist connected with one of the French 
papers, in order to illustrate the ease with which objects could be 
removed, stole something successfully from a large French museum. 
The matter was brought to the attention of the French authorities, 
and the reproof administered to the journalist was this, that as every 
museum in France belongs to the people, every man, woman and 
child in France owns the whole of each museum; hence who would 
be mean enough, or foolish enough, to steal any part of his own 
property ? So I may say here that if every man, woman and child 
would act as a guardian of this great park, to preserve it and watch 
over it, and to see that others do not injure it, this would be well. 
The less that is done to this great natural wonder the better. Let it 
remain as much as possible in its natural beauty. Let us have a 
great driveway along this magnificent river; let us have a driveway 

4o8 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Doctor for the rich and the poor; and for that middle class, frequently more 

^""^ neglected than either the rich or the poor. 

"The name 'Morgan Boulevard' was proposed by the speaker in 
the North American Review for September, 1902, as a designation 
for the main driveway. Mr. Morgan took the initiative in saving 
the Palisades by his munificent gift of ;? 125,000, and the Legislatures 
of both New York and New Jersey will certainly sustain the Joint 
Commission in applying his name to the driveway. We must all 
thank the Hon. George W. Perkins for having, at a crucial moment, 
represented the necessities of the situation to that greatest of Amer- 
icans, who has never failed us in an emergency; advancing the money 
for purchasing Fire Island at the time of the yellow fever epidemic, 
purchasing the Palisades and stopping the blasting there, and standing 
in the breach at the time of our great financial panic. Let this drive- 
way then be known as Morgan Boulevard; let these landings, and 
bluffs, and hills be named after some of the pioneers — the late Hon. 
William E. Dodge, the late Mr. J. J. Croes, of the first Commission; 
the Hon. H. McK. Twombly, and Dr. James Douglas, the two Presi- 
dents of the Commissions, all of whom have done good work and 
have given — as the survivors will continue to give — either money 
or their best thought and aid. 

"One word in regard to the matter of the reforestation of the 
Adirondacks. I had the pleasure of being invited by some members 
of the Water Commission to examine the watershed of the Hudson 
River recently, from the standpoint of a conservator of scenic beauty. 
There is one lake that by private enterprise has been made a scene 
of absolute desolation because of unwise administration resulting 
from private ownership. Tens of thousands of acres in this region 
have been sold to the State because they had absolutely no value to 
anybody else. Such land might be likened to the stone which the 
builder had rejected. But by a wise foresight we obtained those tens 
of thousands of acres, and they may be the means, with proper 
attention to scenic beauty, of giving us the greatest and most pic- 
turesque watersheds of any State in the eastern part of our land, 
where the population is most dense. This can be accomplished by 
a wise cooperation between the Water Board and your State Forestry 
Department, and with the wise and able administration of a Governor 
such as we have at present, who can bring these bodies together, and 

Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 409 

not have them working independently. It must be borne in mind Doctor 
that without your forests you would have no lakes, and for twenty '*'* 
or thirty years, until we have reforested our hills, we will not have 
the proper water for this river. If our Forestry Commission and 
Water Commission also work together to preserve the scenic beauty 
of the tract, the Adirondacks can be brought back to their original 
state, and nowhere will there be so grand and healthful a region. 
At the same time, by proper administration, this State will eventually 
realize an anuual income considerably in excess of what the entire 
outlay will be. 
"I thank you for your attention." 

THE CHAIRMAN: "We have with us a very distinguished Chair- 
visitor from our sister-State of New Jersey, the Hon. J. FrankHn™*"^ 
Fort, Governor of the State of New Jersey, who will now deliver 
an address, accepting the park on behalf of the State of New Jersey, 
and a dedicatory address." 

HON. J. FRANKLIN FORT: "New Jersey's interest in the 
preservation of the Palisades of the Hudson should be even greater 
than New York's. The longest stretch of them is in our State. 
The work of the Commission which has led up to this day and enabled 
these dedicatory exercises to take place has been very great. Only 
praise can be given for the splendid services and public spirit of the 
Commissioners. It demonstrates that all disinterested effort for 
the public good is not yet dead. For lack of such disinterested 
interest these Palisades, with all their natural beauty, would have 
been gone in a very few years. The hand of the ruthless destroyer 
in the strife for gain, which so dominates the spirit of our age, would 
have caused their destruction. 

"It is doubtful if ever so valuable a piece of property was ever 
purchased at such a reasonable price. The work of the Interstate 
Commission is an object lesson in Bnance for municipal park proj- 
ects. No other seven hundred acres adjacent to New York or else- 
where surpasses them in location or beauty. Historically these 
Palisades are of the greatest interest. If tablets and monuments 
shall be erected throughout their length and immediately adjacent 
to them, as they should be, to mark all the spots of concern in our 
advancing civilization, and all the places of revolutionary renown, 


4IO The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Governor the entire park will become one great object lesson in patriotism 
*'*"^ to our people. 

"The geologist can study of the formation of the earth for centuries 
in these cliff's. It is said by geologists that their perpendicular rock 
formations are of the Jurassic Period, and were forced up, through a 
long fissure in the earth's crust, during that period. They say this 
occurred over thirty million years ago. As to the accuracy of this 
time limit, I am unable to speak, but no doubt their guess would 
be better than mine. But, whatever the period of their existence 
or cause of their formation, the fact remains that these beautiful 
cliffs formed by Nature are here and worthy of preservation on every 

"On these rocks stood the majestic Indian in the days when no 
white man inhabited our territory. His monument should be here 
to typify the aborigines — the first American, now gone forever. 

"Here should be found tablets of stone upon which should be 
carved in relief the 'Half Moon' from which, three centuries ago, 
Hudson first beheld their beauty. Another such tablet should stand 
at each old ferry with proper carvings to portray the ferry as it was 
in revolutionary times; a monument at historic old Block House 
Point; one at Alpine to mark the place of coming of Lord Corn- 
wallis; a statue of Washington at the point where he stood beholding 
the sad sight of the fall of Fort Washington. 

"We already have a suitable monument marking Fort Lee. 
Through the park erect statues of Mad Anthony Wayne; of Major- 
General Greene; of General Hugh Mercer, who constructed Fort 
Lee; of General Putnam; of Robert Magaw, who made such a brave 
fight to hold Fort Washington, just across the river; of Captain 
Gooch, who carried a message across the river from Washington to 
the commander of Fort Washington in the midst of fighting at 
great risk to his life. 

"Those illustrations will suffice to show of what historic interest 
this park can be made, a place for object study, for the youth of New 
York and New Jersey in the history of their country, which centers 
about these interesting rocks. 

"Through all this thirteen miles of beauty and historic interest 
must run the proposed Hudson driveway. This the Commission 
should be authorized to build as they have planned, and let us hope 

Dedication of Palisades Interstate Park 411 

the States will furnish the necessary funds. What an attractive, Governor 
delightful driveway it will be. It will surpass in beauty that from 
Cave to Amalfi and transfer the most attractive drive of the world 
from the Mediterranean to the banks of the Hudson, in the States 
of New Jersey and New York. This is a great interstate enterprise 
and will compensate many fold for the expenditure. 

"The ceremonies of dedicating this great public enterprise and 
pleasure park would be incomplete were I to forget to commend 
the private beneficence which assisted to make the State aid adequate 
to accomplish it. J. Pierpont Morgan, always generous in gifts of 
art treasures and the like, by a donation of ;?i25,ooo made possible 
the first successful beginning of this superb, natural park, and at 
the final accomplishment of the completion of the great Palisade 
Park, Mr. H. McK. Twombly has donated land of a value of not 
less than ^75,000. 

"These two gifts far exceed all that New Jersey has appropriated 
or expended, and equal fully one-half of all that the great and pros- 
perous State of New York has done. Tablets in recognition of the 
munificence of these Palisades benefactors should also stand within 
these attractive grounds. The future generations should know, by 
a proper object lesson, what these men did to make this park 

"To the Commission, also, much praise is due. To Mr. Perkins, 
President of the Commission, in particular, we owe much, not only 
for his disinterested work, which is equally a debt we owe all the 
Commission, but for his personal advances which have run into 
many thousands of dollars. To all the Commission we are greatly 
indebted for the time and labor and personal attention given. It 
should be said, to their lasting credit, that the entire expense of the 
whole Commission for all these years does not reach ^^450. It is 
indeed gratifying to find men of affairs ready to serve the State so 
faithfully from motives of public spirit only. Both States owe these 
gentlemen much, and we are glad to recognize the obligation in this 
public way. 

"As we stand in this old Cornwallis house, well preserved, unique, 
historic, we feel a thrill of patriotic purpose that the surroundings 
impart. Our fathers did much here in the days of the birth of the 
Republic. We, their descendants, honor them, and benefit ourselves 

412 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Governor in preserving this park and these old buildings with their beautiful 

"•"■' surroundings and historic memories. 

"For all time this Palisades reservation is to be maintained, 
improved and preserved for the many millions of people all about 
it as a pleasure ground, for recreation, and as a place of natural 
beauty unsurpassed in any State or clime." 

The proceedings concluded v?ith the raising of the flag, a 
salute by the United States warships lying in the river, music 
by the band and the benediction. 

The presence of a group of Iroquois Indians, who per- 
formed a ceremonial dance, was a picturesque feature of the 



THE corner stone of the Hudson monument on Spuyten 
Duyvil Hill in the City of New York was laid on Mon- 
day, September 27, 1909, with ceremonies beginning at 
2 P. M. The arrangements for the exercises were made by the 
Hudson Monument Committee of which Dr. James Douglas is 
Chairman, with the cooperation of the Dedications Committee 
of the Bronx Citizens' Committee, consisting of Mr. Frank D. 
Wilsey, Chairman, and Messrs. John Ross Delafield, Archibald 
Douglas, Joseph A. Goulden, Adolph C. Hottenroth, Elias M. 
Johnson, William W. Klein, Henry Kroger, John Jay McKel- 
vey, William C. Muschenheim, Charles E. Reid and Henry 

The site of the monument is on the summit of Spuyten History 
Duyvil Hill, at the northerly approach to the projected Hudson °* ^''* 
Memorial Bridge. This hill at the time of Hudson's arrival 
on the Hudson river was occupied by an important fortified 
village of the local aboriginal clan known as the Weck-quas- 
keeks. The exact position of this village, which was called 
Nip-nich-sen, has not been defined accurately, but numerous 
indications at various points upon the hill show considerable 
and long-continued occupancy by the aborigines, some of 
which have been found recently in the immediate vicinity of 
the site of the monument, upon the property of Mr. William C. 
Muschenheim. The native residents were probably part of 
the same clan or tribe, indications of whose residence around 
the Dyckman meadows and on Inwood Hill, upon the Island 
of Manhattan, are still to be seen in the form of extensive shell 
heaps. It is probable that on the arrival of Hudson at the 
mouth of the Spuyten Duyvil Creek, then known as Schora- 


414 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

History kap-kok, a considerable population was on hand to witness 
' ^ the arrival of the strange sea-monster upon the broad waters 
of the Mai-kan-e-tuk. The story recorded in the log of the 
Half Moon makes it clear that on the arrival of that vessel she 
lay at some point off the shore of Upper Manhattan, the object 
of the wondering gaze of the Nip-nich-sen natives, and upon 
her return, on the ist of October, 1609, while anchored at the 
mouth of the creek, immediately below Spuyten Duyvil Hill, 
she was visited by canoes filled with armed men, and a conflict 
took place in which a number of Indians were killed. The 
site of this unfortunate affair, therefore, forms a deeply inter- 
esting connection between the first visit of Hudson and the 
dedication of the monument on the commanding height then 
occupied by the native owners of the Greater City. 

The locality is not without additional historical interest, for 
it was selected in the year 1776 as the site of three fortifications, 
forming the most northerly defenses of the Island of Manhattan, 
and known as Forts Nos. i, 2 and 3, occupied in turn by the 
American, British and German forces, as the tide of war swept 
back and forth over the debatable ground of Westchester 
County. One final scene of commanding interest took place 
on this spot, on the advance of the combined American and 
French armies, in 1781, when Washington and Rochambeau 
together surveyed the defenses of Manhattan Island, the 
observation of which led to the decision to divert the course of 
military operations to their conclusive strategic operation 
against Yorktown. 

Descrip- The Hudson monument was first proposed by Mr. William C. 

Monu- Muschenheim through whose efforts a citizens movement was 

ment organized to carry the proposal into effect. Therefore, although 
the monument is being erected with the official recognition of 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, the funds have 
been raised by private subscription. The design for the 
monument includes a fluted Doric column, standing upon a 

Dedication of the Hudson Monument 415 

cubical plinth relieved with appropriate mouldings and will be 
surmounted by a statue of Henry Hudson. The monument 
stands on an elevation of 200 feet, suggesting the number of 
years which elapsed between Hudson's arrival and the invention 
of steam navigation; and the top of the column, which will be 
100 feet above the ground and therefore at an elevation of 300 
feet, suggests the tercentenary of Hudson's advent. The statue 
to be placed on the monument will be 20 feet high. The 
column was designed by Mr. Walter Cook, the tablet on the 
base by Mr. Henry M. Shrady and the statue by Mr. Carl 
Bitter. It is estimated that the monument will cost ;^ioo,ooo 
when completed. 

Ground was broken for the monument on July 5, 1909, with Break- 
appropriate ceremonies, including an invocation by the Rev. Jf ^ ° j 
David Baines Griffiths, D.D., addresses by Hon. Leonard A. 
Giegerich, Hon. Joseph A. Goulden, and Dr. Edward Hagaman 
Hall, and a benediction by Rev. M. J. Murray. During the 
ceremony, four little girls. Misses Hope Johnson, Dorothy 
Radley, Helena Cox and Jane McKelvey, with silver spades 
turned four sods, each in the name of Henry Hudson and one 
of the four peoples who successively occupied the soil — the 
Indians who bade him welcome, the Dutch under whose 
auspices he sailed, the English from whom he sprang, and the 
American people who erected upon the spot fortifications in 
their brave struggle for national independence. After the 
exercises, a reception and lawn party were given in honor of 
the guests by Mr. Muschenheim. 

Although the weather on September 27 was inclement, there Laying 
was a large attendance at the laying of the cornerstone and the ^°™^' 
scene was very picturesque. In the enclosure in front of the 
official stand was a group of real Iroquois Indians, men, women 
and children, in native costumes, vividly recalling the days when 
the Iroquois held in subjection the aboriginal inhabitants of 
Spuyten Duyvil Hill. Nearby was stationed the First Battery 

4i6 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Laying of the First Battalion of Field Artillery, N. G. N. Y., Captain 
S°^" J°'^'^ ^- O'Ryan in command, to fire a salute; while in the 
distance on the river lay the great international war fleet and 
the replicas of the Half Moon and Clermont. 

Mr. Cleveland H. Dodge presided. After an overture by 
the band, the opening prayer was offered by the Rev. Ira S. 
Dodd, pastor of the Riverdale Presbyterian Church. The 
speaking then proceeded as follows, music by the band and by 
the New York Templar Quartette being interspersed between 
the speeches: 

Mr. C.H. CHAIRMAN DODGE: "I have been asked to welcome our 
Dodge distinguished guests this afternoon, and I consider it a great honor 
for this neighborhood that we have so many distinguished men here 
to-day. I suppose this little secluded nook of New York City has 
never seen such a gathering as we have here now. It is a great 
pleasure and privilege to welcome the Governor of the State of New 
York, Major-General Frederick D. Grant, Mr. Pendleton represent- 
ing the Mayor who is unfortunately detained, and Judge Higley, 
the Chairman of the Dedication Committee, and Archbishop Farley, 
that venerable head of the great Church 'which has done so much 
for New York City and one of whose sisterhoods has been such 
a blessing and beneficence to this neighborhood. 

"It is very fitting that we should be here to-day. There is no 
more fitting place in the City of New York for a monument to him 
whose celebration this is, because it was here that the Half Moon 
first anchored and Henry Hudson had his first meeting with the 
fathers of this distinguished band which we see here this afternoon. 
"In a certain sense, Henry Hudson discovered this spot, but it 
has not really been discovered until this afternoon; the majority of 
the people of New York City do not know of its existence. The one 
reason for that was the great exploit of him who gave the name to 
this spot. Those of you who know Irving's ' Knickerbocker's History' 
will recall the incident of the famous Anthony van Corlear. We 
really ought to have a tablet to Anthony van Corlear. His fame is 
perpetuated in the Highlands by Anthony's Nose, and his fame is 
perpetuated here by the name of this place. You remember that 
he came hastening down in a very bibulous condition from Albany; 

Dedication of the Hudson Monument 417 

and when he reached the neighboring creek and could get nobody Mr. C. H. 
to ferry him across, he swore that he would swim 'in spite of the ° ^^ 
Devil' and plunged into the stream. And then you remember the 
conclusion, how he got to the middle and how an arm came out 
of the water in the shape of a marsh bunker and Anthony van 
Corlear went to a watery grave. And since then very few people 
have tried to cross Spuyten Duyvil Creek. This place has remained 
so quiet and secluded that very few people have known of it; but 
when yonder beautiful hill of Inwood is connected with this hill 
of Spuyten Duyvil by one of the most beautiful bridges in the country, 
this monument which we are about to dedicate will stand at the 
northern approach, a most fitting place for a permanent monument 
to Henry Hudson. It is appropriate that this hill should be surmounted 
by the heroic figure of the explorer looking down upon the river 
which bears his name. It will stand for all time as a perpetual 
memorial of his great career and discovery, and then this little quiet 
nook will be found by the people of New York, and the greatest 
boulevard of the world and country and the park system of the 
Bronx will all pass by this beautiful monument. So that it is not a 
little local affair; it will be the perpetual monument to Henry Hudson 
by the people and citizens of New York. 

"I regret very much that General Woodford, the President of 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, has been detained by 
illness. I therefore will take his place and introduce the speakers, 
the first of whom will be Mr. George W. Perkins, the Treasurer of 
the Committee which has in charge this monument, who will make a 
statement on behalf of the Committee declaring the public nature 
of the project and pledging it, upon completion, to the City of New 
York. I present Mr. George W. Perkins." 

HON. GEORGE W. PERKINS: "Mr. Chairman, Ladies Hon. 
and Gentlemen: I do not know of any way to be more certain of^- ^■ 
pleasing you in my remarks on this occasion, and therefore enlisting 
your interest in them, than by making my remarks, in view of the 
weather conditions in which we are here to-day, very brief. 

"This monument was undertaken some time ago by some people 
resident in this part of the City who have been interested somewhat 

41 8 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Hon. in preserving the Palisades across the river from here, and in pre- 

G. W. 

serving the beauties of this particular neighborhood. And they 
have their work pretty well under way with a view to preserving 
a park here in all its natural beauty as it now exists on this side of 
the Hudson River. 

"There is comparatively little land left on Manhattan Island, or 
rather, above Manhattan Island, on the Hudson River in this vicin- 
ity, that can be preserved in all its natural beauty for future genera- 
tions. The City of New York presented Grant's Monument, as you 
all know, to Riverside Drive, and that Boulevard has been extended, 
as you know, first to 125th street and more recently to Dyck- 
man street. It eventually will be extended across the viaduct and 
Harlem River, or rather, Spuyten Duyvil Creek, to this beautiful 

"This will be the beginning of a park in this immediate neighbor- 
hood, and will connect what is known as Inwood Hill with this 
park, which is as you know a small district of a few hundred acres, 
that is in almost its original state of preservation. In time the Rapid 
Transit Commission will no doubt connect with this the Boulevard 
System of the Bronx and Pelham Bay. 

"The Hudson Monument Committee has undertaken by the 
contributions of individuals the erection of a commemorative monu- 
ment at this spot, and it is the intention to complete it from public 
subscription, and to present the completed monument to the City 
of New York. Already several hundred subscriptions have been 
made to the fund from all parts of the City, and you will be interested 
and pleased to know that the large number of our school children 
have contributed a few cents apiece towards this contribution. 

"As Treasurer of the Committee I believe I am the only person 
here to-day who is not going to enjoy the privilege of being blessed 
by giving. I am to be the one exception, and am to be reserved so 
that you will all have the privilege and the pleasure of giving to this 
enterprise. The financial state of the project is now quite satisfactory, 
the Committee only recently having solicited subscriptions from 
the public in general. We feel it probably will take only a year or 
so at the most to complete the enterprise, and, as I say, when com- 
pleted, it will be presented to the City as one of the decorative features 

Dedication of the Hudson Monument 419 

of the viaduct which the City is about to build connecting the City 
of New York with the mainland on this side of the Bronx. 

CHAIRMAN DODGE: "We all regret that the multiplicity of his 
other duties has prevented the Mayor from being with us this after- 
noon, but he sent a very good representative to reply to Mr. Perkins' 
speech, in the person of Hon. Frank Pendleton, Corporation Counsel." 

Chairman, Your Excellency, the Governor, Gentlemen of the Hudson p ji ^ob 
Memorial Committee, Ladies and Gentlemen: In rising to accept 
on behalf of the City this proposed monument dedicated to the 
memory of the man who, first of civilized men, saw the noble river 
which bears his name, I am impressed with the realization that this 
occasion commemorates much in the history of our country. Not 
only is it dedicated to the memory of the great and fearless searcher 
of unknown lands, but we stand on ground which recalls what I 
may designate as the two first memorable periods in the country's 

"Here the river saw the first conflict between Hudson and the 
Indians, illustrative of the period represented by the conflict which 
won this continent for civilization. Among these surroundings were 
enacted the struggles of the Revolutionary War which represents 
the second great period in the country's progress, that by which the 
young and struggling colonies became a mighty nation. 

"It is well that we, in the full realization of what has been accom- 
plished, should not fail to recall the trials and tribulations of those 
that have gone before us, and find in the memory of their deeds 
the inspiration to meet the questions with which we are confronted 
with the same spirit, the same determination and the same courage. 
It is for the purpose of cultivating such inspiration, courage and 
spirit that dedications of monuments such as this find their true 
reason and significance, and that in serving to recall the memory 
of those to whom they are dedicated they inspire the desire and 
determination to emulate the spirit which made their accomplish- 
ments possible. 

"It is in this spirit and hope that I have the honor to accept, in 
the name of the Mayor on behalf of the City of New York, this 
monument now here dedicated by you." 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


CHAIRMAN DODGE: "We will now go to the proceedings of 
laying the corner-stone. Dr. James Douglas, the Chairman of the 
Hudson Monument Committee, will now read a list of the documents 
to be deposited in the corner-stone box, after which the box will be 
sealed and placed in the corner-stone. I take pleasure in presenting 
Dr. James Douglas." 

DR. JAMES DOUGLAS: "I here call a meeting of the Hudson 
Monument Committee. We have to perform a rather doleful cere- 
mony because it implies that sooner or later the monument, although 
built of granite, will be demolished, and that the memorials which 
we lay in this box to-day will by some distant generation be opened, 
and indicate to them the exact date and certain conditions which 
existed at the time of the laying of the corner-stone. 

"It has been 300 years since the event we commemorate to-day 
occurred. Let us hope it will be many hundred years before the 
monument will be dismantled. Of this we can be assured, that 
whereas to-day the monument is being erected on the outskirts of 
what we call Greater New York, ere it be demolished it will stand 
on the southern outskirts of the still greater New York of the future. 

"Now, I call upon the Secretary to hand me the various memorials 
that are to be buried in this box within the corner-stone." 

Mr. John MR. JOHN JAY McKELVEY: "Mr. Chairman and Ladies and 

Jay Mc- Gentlemen: By direction of the Hudson Monument Committee, 

Kelvey ^^^ ^^^ behalf of the contributors who have made this monument 

possible, I now deliver to you, Mr. Chairman, for deposit in the 

corner-stone box, there to remain until time and changed conditions 

shall bring them to light again, the following articles: 

"That future ages may know the occasion which gave rise to this 
dedication, I deliver to you for deposit the official publications of 
the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

"That posterity may not forget the danger which threatens these 
beautiful Palisades which first met the gaze of Henry Hudson when 
he anchored off this spot in the river; and that it may be remembered 
with what splendid generosity the private citizens of two States com- 
bined to preserve those Palisades, I now hand to you the official 
publication of the PaHsades Commission. 

"That our children's children, even unto a remote generation. 

Dedication of the Hudson Monument 421 

may know what sort of a spot this was in the present day, I now Mr. John 
hand to you a collection of photographs of the spot and of the views •* ^ 

"That in the far-distant future there may be some evidence of the 
state of the medallic art, I hand to you for deposit in the corner- 
stone box, a sample or specimen of coinage from the smallest coin 
we have, up to the recent five-dollar gold piece, recently designed by 
St. Gaudens. 

"And that future generations may know of the enlightened press 
of the present day, I hand to you a copy of every morning news- 
paper and one of the afternoon newspapers, one of which is enclosed, 
and the others are already in the box. 

"And that our children may know of the cooperation of some of 
the societies with this Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, I 
now hand you, Mr. Chairman, the proceedings of the Celebration 
Commission of the American Museum of Natural History and the 
Zoological Society. 

"And that, ladies and gentlemen, completes the articles for deposit 
within this box." 

CHAIRMAN DODGE: "The articles will now be sealed by allMr.C. H. 
the members of the Committee and Mr. Frank D. Wilsey, Chair- "°°S^ 
man of the Dedication Committee of the Bronx. 

"Governor Charles E. Hughes will now lay the corner-stone and 
make us an address. We are greatly honored by having the Governor 
here to-day, and we appreciate it the more as he has so many claims 
upon his attention. We will now have the great pleasure of listening 
to an address by Governor Hughes." 

GOVERNOR CHARLES E. HUGHES: "Mr. Chairman and Governor 
Fellow Citizens: It is my happy privilege to declare the corner- Hughes 
stone of this monument to be well and truly laid. I shall not detain 
you under these weather conditions with extended remarks. 

"It is a matter of congratulation that in connection with a cele- 
bration commemorating so much that is noteworthy in our history, 
we should inaugurate this project of erecting a suitable memorial 
to a great man. This is indeed a belated testimonial to one who in 
the qualities of his character represents to us those virtues of 
daring, of unfailing courage, of persistence, of loyalty and of truth. 

422 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Governor which are essential to the maintenance of our institutions. It is to 
Hxighes jjg regretted that we know so little of the great discoverer. We first 
learn of him when he already had an extended reputation by virtue 
of work which has not been brought down to us. We know him at 
a time when he was regarded as best equipped for great undertakings; 
a man of experience, of ardor and of wisdom. He first emerges upon 
the historical scene in the prime of life. Efi^orts have been made to 
show that he was connected with men of importance and that his 
family was one of some distinction. We do not know whether we 
can regard him as the grandson of a man distinguished for his connec- 
tion with the company which had done much in the direction of 
the advance of trade; we do not know that he had inherited an 
already honored name. We know that he was trusted, and from the 
subsequent career of the man, with which we are familiar, we know 
that his early life was such that he must have given unmistakable 
evidence of the courage and fidelity which are so marked in his later 
and well-known voyages. I regard it as a happy thing that we are not 
signalizing this Celebration by a monument which would be taken to 
be exclusively in recognition of our own progress. 

"The history of this valley is more wonderful than fiction. The 
veritable occurrences in connection with the early settlements and 
with the great struggle for independence are more extraordinary 
than any work of romance. Our development as a free people, and 
particularly the progress of the last quarter of a century, are beyond 
the dreams or fancy of our fathers. 

"We are, in connection with the celebration of the discovery, 
recognizing the great advance that has been made in the utilization 
of Nature's forces and the extraordinary progress that has marked 
the last century in connection with transportation facilities, but back 
of all this, of course, lies the work of the generation of men who by 
fidelity to the light they had, in constant search for truth, have made 
this progress possible. 

"Henry Hudson was the first in these waters in the long line of 
heroes, the study of whose lives must be the inspiration of the men 
and women of the future, and to-day we honor the memory of Henry 
Hudson not simply because of his relation, in connection with this 
valley and this river, to commercial progress and our extraordinary 
prosperity, but because we find in him a man embodying the quali- 

Dedication of the Hudson Monument 423 

ties which we revere and in which we find a vindication of humanity Govemoc 
itself. H"«»'« 

"When I looked at the little Half Moon which lies at anchor not 
far from us, I marvelled at the intrepidity of the men who dared the 
perils of the North Atlantic in such a vessel. My amazement is 
increased when I recall that he chose such means to find a path 
through the frozen North to the Golden East, and that in such a 
vessel he set out to face the dangers of the Arctic Sea, knowing no 
limit to the daring which must pursue and must ascertain and must 
see that the uttermost parts of the earth are drawn together. 

"It does not detract from his just famf that he failed in the object 
of his quest. It does not derogate from his courage that he was 
unsuccessful in the venture which he essayed. He found what was 
far better; and here we commemorate his loyalty to the mission 
of his life as he saw it, knowing that is the way to progress; and in 
our own spheres may we find for our children those lands of happi- 
ness and paths of peace which may not be within our direct ken. 

"I mourn to think of the great discoverer in the Northern Sea that 
bears his name, left alone, shamelessly abandoned to death by a 
mutinous crew. There is no sadder picture that can be brought 
before us than that of the great discoverer, abandoned in an inland 
sea of the North to the most horrible of fates — the man of dreams, 
of fancy and imagination, lost in the frozen North because those 
upon whom he had a right to depend would no longer grant him the 
use of his own vessel. 

" How poetic it is to think of this man, summoned by the Chamber 
of Amsterdam to aid them in discovering the passage by the North 
to the East, which they feared might form a route of rival trade, and 
of his setting out upon such a mission and finding this land, destined 
to be the land of liberty, which in the largest degree would empha- 
size the ideals of those Dutchmen who had just succeeded in laying 
the foundation of the Republic of the Netherlands. 

We find him only to lose him. While he is with us, he is a man 
who knows no terror, who counts no difficulty too great, and we 
see him with the same courage going to his fate after the discov- 
eries which have made his name immortal. 

"I have been asked whether we have men to-day capable of the 
physical courage exemplified by the one who went on the voyage 

424 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Governor of discovery in the little Half Moon; but when I think of those 
Hughes attempting the conquest of the air, and when I think further that 
there is no venturesome undertaking which promises good to the 
human race but there are men willing to embrace all the dangers it 
may involve; and when I reflect that after three hundred years of 
history in this valley we are still as tenacious of the principles of 
truth and justice as our fathers were, and on a grand scale are 
endeavoring to apply these principles under free institutions, then 
I am sure we may say, with truth, that as the ages pass humanity 
does not lose its virility; does not lose its fundamental soundness of 
morality; but, blessed by progress, endowed with the riches of experi- 
ence, enjoying an extraordinary heritage of the devotion of the great 
men of the past, we face a future still richer in blessing, and in this 
fair land, we shall find constantly increased the opportunities of those 
who enjoy freedom, prize the advantages of education, and above all 
love their fellow-man and revere God." 

CHAIRMAN DODGE: "We have now the dedication of the 
Monument by the Hon. Warren Higley, Chairman of the Dedication 
Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission." 

Judge HON. WARREN HIGLEY: "Mr. Chairman, Ladies and 

Warren Gentlemen: The events in the life of a nation are justly measured by 
^ ^^ their far-reaching results. The discovery of America by Columbus 
in 1492, the settlement at Jamestown by the English in 1607, the 
founding of Quebec by the French in 1608, and the discovery of the 
noble river that lies before us by Henry Hudson three hundred years 
ago, are among the most important events and fraught with the 
most wonderful results in all history. We know but little of the life 
of Henry Hudson, unfortunately, but we know enough of his life to 
estimate him as we ought, as being one of the great and noted navi- 
gators of those days. That he was a bold and successful navigator, 
a skillful navigator, is evidenced by the fact that in 1607, 1608 and 
again in 1610 he was employed by the English Muscovy Com- 
pany, the greatest commercial company of England in that day, 
and that again in the spring of 1609 he entered the service of the 
Dutch East India Company for the purpose of discovering a short 
and better route to the East Indies by way of the Arctic; and thereby 
was selected by the representative commercial bodies of the world to 

Dedication of the Hudson Monument 425 

lead in a great discovery that would be of a special benefit and advan- Judge 
tage, especially in his engagement to the State of Holland. „."'^^° 

"The little ship was built and prepared for him, which was named 
the Half Moon. It was only about of eighty tons burden, a little 
less than seventy-five feet in length over all; and in this little vessel, 
on the 4th of April, 1609, Henry Hudson sailed forth to discover a 
route through the northern ocean to China, and thence to India. 
Faihng to find this route through the northeast passage, he turned 
his vessel westward and then southward, and on September 2, 1609, 
sailed into the mouth of this noble river that bears his name. 

"He then explored it as far as Albany in the hope of finding a 
waterway whereby he could reach the western or Pacific Ocean, and 
thence find a shorter route to India; but he found himself at the head 
of navigation, where he could go no farther; and after making many 
soundings he reluctantly returned to the mouth of the river and 
proceeded to Holland. 

"There, from the notes of his voyage, he made a carefully pre- 
pared report of his discoveries of this river, which soon after became 
known to the world. Immediately the Dutch traders came and 
settled here upon the banks of the river, and they were soon after 
followed by permanent settlements along the shores. 

"Thus did Henry Hudson, sailing a little Half Moon under the 
Dutch flag, become the real discoverer of this noble river that flows 
at our feet. 

"In recognition of this important event, from which has grown 
the most wonderful civilization of this or of any other race, and in 
honor of the men who have achieved it, you have to-day laid the 
corner-stone and the broad foundation upon which shall soon rise 
the towering shaft to be crowned with a colossal statue of the great 
mariner. Masterful seaman, brave commander, persistent in every 
work that was given him to do, faithful to duty even unto death, 
great discoverer, benefactor of mankind, in the name of the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration Commission, and in the name of the Hudson 
Monument Citizens' Committee, through whose patriotism and gen- 
erosity this noble shaft is about to rise to completion, I have the 
distinguished honor to dedicate this noble monument to the lasting 
memory and eternal fame of the hero, the navigator, the martyr — 
Henry Hudson." 

426 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

CHAIRMAN DODGE: "The benediction will be pronounced 
by the Rev. Archbishop Farley, whom the whole of New York, 
regardless of creed, love and revere." 

Arch- MOST REV. ARCHBISHOP FARLEY: "May the blessings 

bishop ^£ Almighty God descend upon the monumental act that has been 

performed here to-day and upon all here assembled and abide with 

them forever, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 

Holy Ghost, Amen." 

CHAIRMAN DODGE: "The guests invited to the reception 
will pass down in the direction of the historic Johnson Homestead." 

Recep. The reception at the Johnson homestead was in charge of 
*""* the following Ladies Committee: Mrs. Isaac B. Johnson, 
Chairman, Mrs. Thomas C. Buckner, Mrs. John Carse, Mrs. 
Walter Cox, Mrs. Cleveland H. Dodge, Mrs. Archibald 
Douglas, Mrs. Arthur G. Johnson, Mrs. James W. Johnson, 
Mrs. Darwin P. Kingsley, Mrs. John Jay McKelvey, Miss 
Giulia Morisini, Mrs. George W. Perkins, Mrs. Emma Radley, 
Mrs. Wyatt Taylor. 


THE tablet on the United States Custom House at the foot 
of Bowling Green, New York City, marking the site of 
old Fort Amsterdam and its successors under various 
names from 1626 to 1790, was erected by the New York 
Society of the Order of the Founders and Patriots of America 
and was dedicated under the auspices of the Commission on 
Wednesday, September 29, at 11 A. M. The officers of the 
Society at the time of the dedication, were as follows : 

Governor, Geo. Clinton Bacheller, LL.D. 

Deputy Governor, Col. Henry W. Sackett. 

Chaplain, Rev. Edward Payson Johnson. 

Secretary, Mr. Charles Edey Fay. 

Treasurer, Mr. Theodore Gilman. 

State Attorney, Mr. John C. Coleman. 

Registrar, Mr. Clarence Etlienne Leonard. 

Genealogist, Mr. Louis Annin Ames. 

Historian, William Edward Fitch, M. D. 

Councillors: Col. George £. Dewey, Mr. Theodore Fitch, Maj.-Gen. Frederick Dl Grant, 
U. S. A, Edward Hagaman Hall, L. H. D., Col. Ralph Earl Prime, Mr. Richard Hubbard 
Roberts, Mr. Edgar Abell Turrell, Mr. Charles W. Wilkinson and General Stewart L. 

Committee on Tablet: Mr. Theodore Fitch, Chairman, George Clinton Bacheller, LL.D., 
Maj.-Gen. Frederick D. Grant, U. S. A., Edward Hagaman Hall, L. H. D., Col. Ralph E. 
Prime and Gen. Stewart L. Woodford. 

Sub-Committee on Dedication of Tablet: William Edward Fitch, M. D., Chairman, Mr. 
Clarence Ettienne Leonard, and Mr. Charles W. B. Wilkinson. 

The site marked by this tablet possesses the unique distinc- History 
tion of being the Cradle of the Metropolis. When Peter °* ^"* 
Minuit, the first Director-General of New Netherland, arrived 
in 1626 and planted the first permanent colony on Manhattan 
Island, the first concern of the Dutch pioneers was to stake out 
a fort, under the direction of Kryn Frederick, an engineer sent 
along for this purpose. This fort — probably the first perma- 
nent structure raised on the Island — was originally a block- 


428 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

History house surrounded by palisades. It was located within the area 
bounded by Bowling Green, State, Bridge and Whitehall 
streets, and was named Fort Amsterdam. At that time it 
stood on the water front, the original water line coming down 
the west side of the Island approximately along the line of 
Greenwich street, then bending southeastward across the corner 
of Bridge and State streets, and thence following the southern 
and eastern sides of the Island along the line of Pearl street. 
Battery Park, therefore, is all made land, or "gedempte," as 
the Dutch would say. 

In 1633 Director-General Wouter Van Twiller began a new 
fort on a larger scale. It was about 300 feet long by 250 feet 
wide, required two years to construct, and cost 4,172 guilders. 
It was four-square, with a bastion at each corner. In 1642 an 
imposing two-storied stone church was built within the fort. 
For many years the fort was the seat of government, the harbor 
of refuge and the place of worship, and the history of New 
Netherland and of Colonial New York could be written very 
fully from the events connected with this site. 

With almost every change of dynasty the fort took a new 
name. When the English captured it in 1664 it was named Fort 
James. When the Dutch recaptured it in 1673 it was named 
Fort William Henry. In 1674, with the English again in pos- 
session, it was called Fort James again. In 1689, when James 
fled the throne and William and Mary ascended it, the colonists, 
with delightful adaptability to circumstances and loyalty to 
the reigning monarch, promptly named it Fort William. In 
1702, when good Queen Anne mounted the throne, the colonists 
zealously attested their loyalty to her by giving it the name of 
Fort Anne. So it remained until the Queen died in 17 14 and 
George I was proclaimed King, whereupon the fort was 
promptly rechristened Fort George. During the reigns of 
the three successive Georges, the name of the fort remained 

Dedication of Fort Amsterdam Tablet 429 

Meanwhile the fort had been strengthened and reinforced by History 
a battery extending in a semi-circle along the water from what 
is now the corner of Greenwich street and Battery Place to 
about the corner of Whitehall and Water streets. The full 
complement of the fort and battery was 120 guns. 

For many years the fort was the seat of government over a 
wide region. In the days of New Netherland its jurisdiction 
reached from the Connecticut River on the east to the Delaware 
River on the west and south. In the days of Colonial New 
York its jurisdiction, overleaping intermediate New England, 
extended as far as Pemaquid, Maine, where there was a fort 
maintained from Fort George as a base. 

For over 150 years the fort, under its various names, was 
the ceremonial center of the Colony. Here the Indians gathered 
in all their barbaric picturesqueness to negotiate treaties with 
the white men. When the Governors of New Netherland and 
New York were imported and not native born, this was their 
formal reception place and residence, and here one ceremony 
followed another, increasing in stateliness and splendor as the 
colony grew and the ornaments of government increased. 
Hither yearly upon the King's birthday the city officials "in 
their formalities" and the leading citizens repaired to drink the 
King's health amid salvos of artillery, and at other times, when 
the colonists were less cordially disposed toward the govern- 
ment, some of the most exciting incidents in the city's history 
were enacted under the frowning walls of the old fort. At 
last, when the British evacuated the city in 1783, Washington 
reviewed the triumphal American procession from the fort's 
dilapidated walls. 

In 1790 the fort was demolished to make room for a Govern- 
ment House, which was intended for a Presidential Mansion. 
The removal of the National Capital from New York, however, 
relegated the structure to the uses of a Gubernatorial residence; 
and when New York lost the honor of being the State Capital, 

430 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

the building was used as a Custom House. Between that 

Custom House and the present Custom House one or two 

generations of commercial buildings have intervened. 

The The memorial is a handsome bronze tablet, 2^ by 4^ feet 

J!_ * in size made by Messrs. J. & R. Lamb and is erected 

scribed in the vestibule on the northern side of the building. The 

upper part of the tablet contains an accurate outline of the 

fort in 1774 as explained in the first part of the inscription. In 

the lower left hand bastion is the seal of the Society and in the 

lower right hand corner a compass showing the bearings as 

taken from the original survey. The inscription reads as 

follows : 

This outline of the fort is made 

on a scale of 12.5 feet to the 

inch from "A plan of Fort George 

in the City of New York 

made at the request of the 

Honourable John Cniger Esquire 

and the rest of the committee 

appointed to fix on a suitable 

place for building a 

Government House made this 

nth April 1774 by Gerard Bancker." 



MAT 4, l6z6 

Iroquois A picturesque feature of the ceremonies was the presence of 
Indians ^ company of real Iroquois Indians who gave some of their 

Dedication of Fort Amsterdam Tablet 431 

ceremonial dances and songs, within ear shot of Bowling Green, 
where Iroquois chiefs had sat in the early days of New York to 
make treaties with the Governor of the Colony. 

Dr. Batcheller, Governor of the New York Society of Found- 
ers and Patriots, presided. Following is a report of the 

Gentlemen : The longer I live, the more I am convinced that history George C 
is simply and only and always his-story — the story of a man, a man ,f "^ " 
who knew how to do things — and did them. 

"In passing through this city, within the last few days, I stood by 
Grant's Tomb on the Hudson, so that Hudson and Grant are now 
inseparable in my thought. I saw the thirteen trees that Alexander 
Hamilton planted, and his tomb in Trinity Churchyard. I looked 
on statue after statue, of Washington and Lafayette, of Seward and 
Lincoln, of Franklin and Ericsson, and many others that grace our 
parks and open places. In front of St. Paul's I saw the marble slab 
that tells the story of Montgomery, and, just across the way, a'tablet 
that records the birth of the first white child on this island. Turning 
the dusty pages of the yesterday of life, we read that a few old guns 
gave the name of Battery to the lower end of Broadway. Before us, 
on a place still called Bowling Green, the lusty Dutchmen played 
ten pins. Golf and tennis, baseball and cricket are our recreations 
to-day. A fence running from old Trinity to the East River was 
built to keep the negroes in and the Indians out, and we call it Wall 
street to this day. 

"The population of our entire country, in those olden times, did not 
equal one-fourth the number of people in New York State to-day — 
and who will dare to prophesy the future of our country one hundred 
years from now. This building, massive and magnificent as it is, 
may not be here, but this tablet will remain to tell the wholesome and 
heroic story of Henry Hudson's life. We are the heirs of all the ages, 
and all the ages, yet unborn, are to be our heirs. God buries His 
workmen, but the work goes on. 

"Three hundred years ago, and we are living in the days of Good 
Queen Bess, of Shakespeare, Rare Ben Jonson, Milton and Bacon. 

"Another hundred years, and the century finds us shaking hands 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Doctor with old Ben Franklin, John Wesley, Thomas Jefferson, and George 
George C^VTashington 

gjjgj. "The hundred years just come and gone have been eventful in 

that we have become a great nation, and the century is full of Tennyson 
and Carlyle, of Emerson and Cooper, of Macaulay and Motley, of 
Dickens and Thackeray and Longfellow. 

" ' Until the dead alone seem living, 
And the living alone seem dead/ 

"I grow reminiscent, and reluctantly relinquish memory, but 
the program defines my position and limits my time. Before I 
proceed further I would say that I am sure you will all agree with me 
in my regrets that owing to the great burden and various functions 
that press so heavily upon General Stewart L. Woodford, President 
of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, it will be impossible 
for him to be with us and take part in the exercises this morning. 
General Woodford desires that I express for him his regrets. I am 
highly honored and proud of the duty I have to perform in presenting 
to you Dr. Edward Hagaman Hall, formerly Governor of this Society, 
my friend and predecessor, who will now address to you a few remarks 
on the exploration of the Hudson River by Hendrick Hudson, in 
September 1609, and the founding of Neve Amsterdam, May 4, 

Doctor EDWARD HAGAMAN HALL. L.H.D.: "Mr. Governor and 
E. H. Ladies and Gentlemen: We meet here to-day to commemorate, by 
this enduring bronze, three important events in the history of our 
City, State and Nation : the first exploration of our queenly river by 
Henry Hudson, the founding of our imperial city by the Dutch, and 
the achievement of our national independence. Of the first two 
events it is my pleasurable duty briefly to speak. 

"In these days of conflicting claims by rival explorers it may not 
be amiss on this occasion to say a word concerning Hudson's title 
to fame as the first European explorer of the river which bears his 
name. A few days ago ground was broken in Battery Park for a 
monument to Verrazzano who entered our harbor in 1524. We 
should feel indebted to our French and Italian citizens for their 
enterprise in erecting that monument, for it serves to emphasize the 
wide difference between the achievement of the Italian navigator 
who sailed under French auspices, and that of the English navigatoc 

Dedication of Fort Amsterdam Tablet 433 

who sailed under the Dutch. Verrazzano entered New York harbor Doctor 
but did not explore the river, and no beneficial results ensued from * ' 
his brief stay. Henry Hudson explored the river to the head of 
navigation, made its resources known to the world, opened it up to 
civilization, and made his knowledge useful to mankind. 

"Among the many proofs that Hudson was the first European 
thoroughly to explore the river, there is one convincing fact which may 
be stated in a few words. The declared object of the great naviga- 
tor's voyage of 1609 was to find a passage to the Orient by the north- 
east or the northwest. When baffled by the Arctic ice, he deliberately 
turned his prow westward to seek a passage to the western sea which 
was believed to exist in the latitude of 40 degrees, and he entered our 
river in the firm belief, based on guesswork maps of the period and 
the hearsay advice of Captain John Smith, that it led to the western 

"Now, through his association with the English Muscovy Company, 
and with that group of famous geographers who made Amsterdam at 
that time the center of geographical knowledge, Hudson was con- 
versant with all the discoveries of English and Continental navigators 
prior to that time. If, therefore, any European had previously 
explored the river, Hudson would have known that it did not lead to 
the Orient, and he never would have entered it. The very fact that 
Hudson explored our river under the circumstances is indubitable 
proof of the priority of his exploration, to which might be added other 
evidences too numerous to mention on this occasion. 

"We honor Hudson's memory to-day for two reasons: First, he 
has given us a noble example of courage of conviction which is the 
basis of all right living. He had not only physical courage to brave 
great and unknown dangers, but he had also the moral courage to 
maintain his convictions, even in the face of death. No soldier upon the 
battlefield, no martyr at the stake, has ever been glorified by a more 
heroic end than that of the great navigator, who, because he would 
not yield his beliefs and convictions to a mutinous crew, was set 
adrift in the dreary waste of Hudson's Bay, to perish by the slow 
tortures of freezing or starvation. Our first debt to Hudson then is 
for his example. 

"Our second debt is a material one. He is a benefactor of his 
race who makes the lives of his fellowmen more worth living. Hudson 

434 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

DOC or opened up to civilization a land of which he said: 'It is as pleasant a 
Hall* i^^d as one need tread upon. The land is the finest for cultivation 
that I ever in my life set foot upon.' This land has since become a 
land of peaceful industry and happy homes. A great and prosperous 
people now inhabits it, and the world is happier and better for the 
civilization that has grown up within these once savage borders. 
Truly, Henry Hudson was a benefactor. Truly we owe his memory 
a great debt of gratitude. 

"Our tablet commemorates next the founding of New Amster- 
dam. When Rome and Athens were hoary with age, when London 
tower was moss-grown and lichen-covered, and when the origins of 
the capitals of the Orient were lost in the myths of mythology, New 
York was yet unborn; and the islands which gem our waters were 
yet in their native beauty as in the day of Creation. The industrious 
beaver built his dam in the neighboring brook now covered by the 
dry pavements of Beaver street. The native wild men drew up their 
canoes on the neighboring shores. Then came the magic working 
voyage of Hudson; and close after him the industrious but transient 
traders; and then, less than 300 years ago, came that little band of 
Dutch pioneers who on this spot erected the first permanent structure 
on Manhattan Island — Fort Amsterdam. Within the four walls 
of that little fortress the Metropolis of the West was born. We stand 
therefore at the cradle of our beloved city. We stand at a sacred 
place. The little princess, born here of the free blood of the Dutch 
Republic, has grown to be the Queen of the West. She sitteth on 
her throne. She openeth her shining gates to the rising Sun. The 
argosies of the world bear their treasures to her feet. The people 
of all Nations gather within the borders of her benignant hospitality. 
Her domain has become "the crowning City, whose merchants are 
princes, whose traffickers are the honorable of the earth.' 

" O, City of our home, as we stand here at the place of thy nativity 
in this great festival of our happiness and reverently dedicate this 
tablet in memory of thy birth, we dedicate ourselves to thee in loving 
and loyal devotion. 

"'Our hearts, our hopes are all with thee — 
Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tear 
Our (aith triumphant o'er our fears, 
Are all mth thee — are all with thee.'" 

Dedication of Fort Amsterdam Tablet 435 

PRESIDENT BATCHELLER: "It gives me great pleasure to 
have the honor to introduce to you the Hon. Theodore Fitch, former 
Governor of this Society, who will address you on the subject of 
American Independence, I775 to 1783. 

MR. THEODORE FITCH: "Mr. Governor and Ladies and ^^j.^''*"* 
Gentlemen: On the 9th of July, 1776, New York received news that 
Congress had adopted the Declaration of Independence by the vote 
of twelve of the Colonies, New York not voting as her delegates 
had not received instructions. On the evening of the same day by 
order of Washington, it was read before every brigade of his army 
then stationed in New York. The news was received with enthusiasm 
and the leaden statue of George III, which stood directly in front of 
this spot only a few feet distant, was pulled down. 

"In a general order issued the next day Washington condemned 
the act as riotous, but nevertheless the statue was down, and some of 
the fragments were afterwards melted into bullets for the patriots 
to use against the British. 

"The Convention of New York in session at White Plains on the 
loth ratified the Declaration of Independence, and instructed their 
delegates in Congress to vote for it. The Thirteen Colonies were 
now a unit in the struggle for independence. 

'In the Summer of 1776 Fort George witnessed a sad spectacle. 
It looked on Staten Island on which Gen. Howe's army of 25,000 men 
was encamped. It saw Lord Howe's powerful fleet in the harbor. 
It saw 20,000 British troops carried across the Bay and landed at 
Gravesend on their march to capture Washington's army. It looked 
on Brooklyn Heights where Washington was entrenched with 8,000 
men, while Stirling and Sullivan with 5,000 raw recruits a little 
further down awaited the attack of Howe's veterans. 

"It was the 27th of August, 1776. Howe had routed Stirling and 
Sullivan after desperate fighting. The disastrous battle of Long 
Island had been fought. 

"Howe moved up his army to besiege Washington at Brooklyn 
Heights, confident, with his superiority of forces and command of 
the water, that Washington with his army then of 10,000 men, there 
entrenched, could not escape. 

"On the night of the 29th by a most masterly retreat in the darkness 
and fog, without alarming the enemy, Washington brought his entire 

436 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mr.Theo, army safely across the river, and foiled Howe's plan to capture his 
Fitch army, which, if successful, would doubtless have ended the war then 
and there. 

"Fort George, which was garrisoned by British troops from Sep- 
tember 15, 1776, when Gen. Howe took possession of New York 
City, until the 25th of November, 1783, witnessed other momentous 
scenes. On the latter day it witnessed the evacuation of British troops 
from the City of New York and the end of British dominion over the 
Thirteen Colonies. 

"Before leaving, the British soldiers nailed their colors to the staff 
in the fort, knocked off the cleats and greased the pole to prevent 
the unfurling of the American flag. But the attempt was futile. 
John Van Arsdale nailed on the cleats, sanded the greased pole, 
ascended the flag-staff, tore down the British colors and raised the 
Stars and Stripes which floated from the Fort before the British fleet 
had left the lower bay. 

"The American army took possession and from Fort George 
Washington reviewed his troops on the same day. 

"Only a short distance from the Fort at Fraunces' Tavern on the 
4th of December, 1783, Washington delivered his farewell to his 
ofiicers, walked to Whitehall and took a barge to Paulus Hook, on 
his way to Annapolis to surrender his commission to the Continental 

"The brief period assigned for my remarks prevents any extended 
history of the American Revolution. 

"From the battle of Lexington, on the 19th of April, 1775, when 
untrained Minute Men defeated British veterans and drove them in 
panic to the shelter of their entrenchments, to the surrender of Corn- 
walHs at Yorktown, on the 19th of October, 1781, the story of American 
valor is written in living letters. What memories of heroic conflict 
are associated with the names Bunker Hill, Fort Washington, Trenton, 
Princeton, Ticonderoga, Bennington, Oriskany, Brandywine, Bemis 
Heights, Monmouth, Stony Point, King's Mountain, Cowpens, 
Guilford, Eutaw Springs ! What recollections of privations are 
evoked by the mention of Valley Forge, and of suffering and martrydom 
by the name of the prison ship Jersey anchored in the Wallabout 
just across the river, and the Provost Prison in the City Hall Park 
under the jailor Cunningham! 

Dedication of Fort Amsterdam Tablet 437 

"Among the generals who contributed much to the establishment Mr. Theo. 
of American Independence, and whose names on 'Fame's eternal 
bead roll are worthy to be filed,' I will mention merely Greene, Lafay- 
ette, Steuben, Stirling, Sullivan, Schuyler, Montgomery, Morgan, 
Putnam, Herkimer, Marion, Sumter, Kosciosko and the first admiral 
of our navy, the heroic John Paul Jones. 

"We honor the private soldiers who fought the battles of the 
Revolution, actuated by the purest patriotism. They were without 
adequate pay, poorly fed, insufficiently clothed and equipped, but 
they were patriots who fought for liberty and country. 

" But the man of all others who was instrumental in establishing 
American Independence was Washington. His patriotism was 
unsullied. His military ability and generalship were of the highest 
order. He was superior to the petty jealousies and intrigues of Lee, 
Gates, Mifflin, Wilkinson and Conway. He patiently obeyed the 
orders of an inefficient and vacillating Congress and finally prevailed 
upon it to adopt a right policy. He quieted the murmurs of an ill-fed 
and poorly equipped army, healed the dissensions and bickerings of 
a militia which had all the jealousies and independence of restraint 
which characterized the sections from which they came, prevailed on 
them to renew their short terms of enlistment, sustained their courage 
in defeat, and welded untrained militiamen into an army of seasoned 
veterans. With an inferior force, he was always confronted with 
the problem of how to outwit, baffle and capture a superior army. 
He succeeded in defeating the various plans of campaign of the enemy, 
such as that for the capture of his army before his retreat from Long 
Island to White Plains, across New Jersey and to the entrenchments 
at Morristown, also the plans to separate New England from New 
York and the other Colonies, and the possession of the Hudson and 
the Mohawk Valleys, and the capture and separation of the Southern 
Colonies. Especially do we honor him for the skillful plan arranged 
with Rochambeau, and the wonderful strategy with which he com- 
pletely deceived CHnton and left him unsuspecting at New York 
until too late, while he swiftly marched his army from Westchester 
County four hundred miles to join the French fleet and army awaiting 
him at Yorktown and capture Cornwallis and his army of 8,000 
men and end the war. 
"DeGrasse, Rochambeau and Lafayette did their part well, and 

438 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mr.Theo. Cornwallis, unable to defend himself longer, sent his flag of truce 
to propose capitulation on the 17th of October, 1781, exactly four 
years to a day from the surrender of Burgoyne at Saratoga, which is 
named by Creasy among the fifteen decisive battles of the world. 
The surrender of Cornwallis was on the 19th of October, 1781, and 
there was practically no more fighting between the regular forces. 

"When the patriots fired their muskets at Lexington it was not for 
separation from England, although it was armed rebellion. Very 
few then thought of anything but the redress of grievances and to 
remedy the abuses to which the Colonies had been subjected by 
George III. Their efforts were to establish a policy of toleration 
and proper protection of their interests and recognition of their 
rights as English subjects. No taxation without representation was 
their chief demand. But events moved rapidly, and the people soon 
became convinced that independence was necessary to preserve 
their self-government, and the Declaration of Independence followed. 
Thenceforward the war was fought for independence. Rebellion 
had become revolution, and the revolution was justified by success. 
After independence had been won, the Thirteen Colonies under the 
Articles of Confederation were a league of independent States bound 
together with a rope of sand, without national power or authority, 
and it was not until the adoption of the Constitution in 1789 that the 
United States became in reality a nation strong and powerful as welj 
as independent. 

"To-day we welcome all the nations represented at the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration. Among them we greet the Netherlands which 
sent the Half Moon to these waters 300 years ago and which established 
on Manhattan Island civil and religious liberty and toleration. 

"We welcome Germany which sent to aid us in the Revolution 
that trained soldier Baron von Steuben, who rendered such efficient 
service in drilling our raw recruits and making our army fit to cope 
with the veterans opposed to it. 

"We welcome France, our ally in the Revolution, whose fleet and 
army cooperating at Yorktown made the surrender of Cornwallis a 
necessity, and whose battleships, fitly named Justice, Truth, and Lib- 
erty, have now come to do us honor. 

"But especially, now that the resentment and bitterness of the 
Revolutionary struggle have faded away, do we welcome England 

Dedication of Fort Amsterdam. Tablet 439 

to our Celebration, and her fleet again in our harbor with the Inflexible Mr. Theo- 
commanded by Admiral Seymour leading her powerful battleships, ^^'^" 
and coming not as our foe but our friend and honored guest. 

"As Founders and Patriots, most of our Order descend from the 
original English Colonists, and we are proud of English institutions 
and English laws, of her language and literature, which are our 
common heritage. All of the glorious history of England before her 
Colonists settled in this country is ours, and as Americans of English 
descent we glory in all of it that an Englishman can glory in. 

"The standards of our Order are two — one is the American Flag, 
the other is the Cross of St. George, the red cross on the white ground, 
surmounted, however, by thirteen blue stars, and both command our 
admiration and regard. We wear with pride as the insignia of our 
Order the button which represents the Cross of St. George. 

" England's glory, with all that it represents, is ours, and as Ameri- 
can citizens we rejoice that we are kinsmen whose sympathies and 
aspirations are in accord, and that the destinies of the United States 
and of England appear now to be linked together to enhance the wel- 
fare and happiness of millions of the English-speaking people, and 
for the benefit of the entire Anglo-Saxon race, and the advance of 

PRESIDENT BATCHELLER: "Ladies and Gentlemen: We 
have here a unique assemblage of aborigines, natives of this State. 
Dr. Hall will tell us what their ceremony consists of. He is well 
versed in the history of the Indians." 

DR EDWARD HAGAMAN HALL: "Mr. Governor, Ladies and Dr- E. H. 
Gentlemen: The Indians who are here with us are real Indians; they 
are not white people painted up for this occasion. They represent 
the real 'first families of New York.' They are the descendants of 
the Iroquois Indians, or the Five Nations, sometimes called the Six 
Nations when there were six nations. They are now going to give 
you one of their ceremonial songs and one of their ceremonial dances; 
and I wish to say to you, so you may appreciate what they are doing, 
that this is not a show. They have been brought here by Mr. Moore 
for the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission, with the idea that 
we are celebrating a great ceremony in honor of the birth of this 
City. They have therefore come here, not as a side-show, but in a 
religious spirit to a great and wholesome celebration. They have 


The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 


been brought here to live part of their lives over again. Their ances- 
tors were the controllers of the Indians vrho lived on these Islands. 
Their ancestors gathered here before the Fort, and were in the Fort 
to make treaties. As I have said, they are here, not as an exhibition 
or as a show, but to repeat some of their ceremonies which have been 
handed down to them. They are going to give a song called 'The 
Prairie Song' and a ceremonial dance called the 'Feather Dance.'" 

After the ceremonies by the Indians, Dr. Hall continued : 

"That dance has never been given outside of the reservation on 
which those Indians live. The oldest Indian here is William Crow, 
who is 89 years old, whom I have the honor now of introducing to you." 

Following is an interpretation of what the Indian said : 

WILLIAM CROW: (The Indian): Ladies and Gentlemen: I 
am glad to be here with you on this occasion. I am glad to see so 
many people here to see us, this small band of Indians left here to 
be in this Celebration. We leave it all to the Great Spirit, to our 
Great Father, that we should live happily henceforth together. That 
is all we have to say; and I thank the gathering for your kind 

PRESIDENT BATCHELLER: "Late yesterday afternoon I 
received a despatch from Major-General Frederick D. Grant, of the 
United States Army, that he had been called unexpectedly to Wash- 
ington, D. C, and expressing his regret that he could not be present 
to present this tablet to the United States. But I am happy to say 
we have with us this morning a veteran, a founder of this Order, 
a man who is always ready at a moment's call, our Past-Governor, 
and Past-Governor-General. I take pleasure in introducing to you 
Col. Ralph Earl Prime." 

COL. RALPH EARL PRIME: "Mr. Chairman, Associates, 

Ralph E. Ladies and Gentlemen : We are met here to-day to unveil a tablet 

which shall last when we, like all our ancestors, have passed away, 

and which shall tell to future generations and the children that shall 

succeed us in our places, the story of these events referred to to-day. 

"It has occurred to me that it is exceedingly fit that this part of the 
function should be at the hands of the Society whom we represent, 
a Society which, alone of all the American Patriotic Societies, takes 
up all of these events which relate to the history of our city and our 


Dedication of Fort Amsterdam Tablet 441 

country; as all of our associates claim their eligibility through descent Colonel 
from men who have participated in all of it. Ralph E. 

"In the midst of these festivities, it has seemed to me fit also that 
we should not forget the Providence that has run through all of the 
events which are celebrated here to-day, and which are memorialized 
in this tablet. They do not go back any of them to the beginning 
of America. Columbus far outreached in his exploration and dis- 
covery the settlement of the City of New York, and the discovery of 
the Hudson River, but there marched along our shores a Greater 
Sentinel than ever guarded camp. The Almighty kept off the dis- 
coverer from these shores until He had prepared a people for it, 
whose descendants have since garrisoned it and made it what it is; 
until the Puritans of England, the Huguenots of France, the Walloons 
of Flanders and the Dutch of Holland, had been educated in the 
furnace of the adversity which came upon them, to make hardy men 
and women who should found this land for us, their descendants. 
We have gathered, I say, to unveil this tablet. And now, Mr. Gov- 
ernor, as representing the New York Society of the Order of the 
Founders and Patriots of America, and in your name, we commit 
to the keeping of the Government of our great country this bronze 
tablet which shall endure when we have passed away." 

PRESIDENT BATCHELLER: "Associates, Gentlemen and 
Ladies : Our next speaker is a gentleman too well known for me to 
elaborate my remarks. He is known throughout our land. You 
will now hear from New York's Collector of the Port, and I have 
the distinguished honor of introducing to you, Hon. William Loeb, Jr." 

HON. WILLIAM LOEB, JR. (Collector of the Port of New Hon. 
York): " Governor Batcheller, Members of the Order of the Founders Y"^' 
and Patriots of America : As Custodian of this building which is so 
intimately connected with the commerce of the country, and for the 
development of which Hudson, by his exploration, and Fulton, by 
his invention, so largely contributed, I take pleasure on behalf of the 
Government, in accepting the custody of this tablet, and I con- 
gratulate the members of the Order of the Founders and Patriots 
of America upon the important work which you are doing for the 
country and posterity in marking historic sites such as this upon 
which we are assembled, and in commemorating events such as 
these we are now celebrating." 

442 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

P. John 


PRESIDENT BATCHELLER: "The closing exercise will be 
a benediction pronounced by the Rev. Edward Payson Johnson, 
D.D., the Chaplain of this Society." 

Rey. Dr. REV. EDWARD PAYSON JOHNSON, D.D.: "God of our 

fathers. Who brought them safely across vast unknown seas, and 
delivered them from great perils and savage foes; Who established 
them graciously in this goodly land, and in the time of oppression, 
invasion and treachery raised up for them faithful friends, and gave 
them victory and national freedom; surely Thou hadst a favor, a 
merciful favor, unto our fathers, O Mighty King of Heaven and 
Earth! We therefore glorify Thee, and give thanks to Thee, for 
Thy wondrous and long-continued grace to them; and also for their 
changeless faith in Thy guardianship and guidance; for their devout 
reverence for Thy Holy word and Thy Holy Son; and for their sincere 
endeavor always to do the right. We glorify Thee for their sturdy 
virtues and fidelities. We rejoice that we are the sons of such sires. 

"Yet, O God Most Holy! Strengthen us that we may not merely 
glory in our ancestry and our inheritance; but may also conscien- 
tiously and continually honor them! DeUver us utterly from the curse 
of the intolerant spirit. Preserve us wholly from the worldliness that 
measures man's value by his earthly goods, and contends that one's 
life doth consist in the things he possesseth. 

"Increase in us more and more the self-control and calm fearless- 
ness, the gracious goodness and gentle humanities which we so 
unaffectedly admire in Thy Dear Son Jesus. Help us, O God, to 
be persistently eager and passionately loyal in following after the 
things which are true, and honest and of good report. Strengthen 
us steadfastly to long and labor for nothing less than bringing to all 
our Land, and all the earth, the Golden Age of Heaven, with its 
brightness and joy, its peace and purity. Bless us, O Holy God, in 
making us each one a blessing to all mankind. And to Thy name, 
Father, Son and Holy Spirit, we will ascribe the honor, the glory, the 
praise and the power, world without end. Amen." 

PRESIDENT BATCHELLER: "There will be another ceremonial 
dance by the Indians before we separate." 

After the ceremonial dance by the Indians the assembly 


THE monumental tablet erected on the site of Fort Tryon 
in New York City by the American Scenic and Historic 
Preservation Society, through the generosity of Mr. 
Cornelius K. G. Billings and with the cooperation of Mr. Wil- 
liam C. Muschenheim, was dedicated under the auspices of 
the Commission on Wednesday, September 29, at 4 P. M. 

The tablet is erected upon the face of the living rock on the History 
west side of Fort Washington avenue, six-tenths of a mile ° ' * 
north of the Fort Washington Monument. The latter is in the 
Hne of 183d street if projected.* The fortification of this 
commanding height was undertaken by the American forces 
in the summer of 1776, and the earthworks which crowned the 
summit of this part of Mount Washington, locally known as 
Forest Hill, formed the northerly outwork of Fort Washington. 
The character of the hill and the nature of its natural defenses, 
which were supplemented by abattis of felled trees, made this 
position exceedingly strong from a military point of view, had 
it been adequately provided with artillery. It was, however, 
equipped with only three small six-pounder cannon, and on 
the occasion of its defense on the i6th of November, 1776, it 
was manned by a battalion of Virginia and Maryland soldiers, 
about six hundred in number, the survivors of the two Southern 
regiments which took part in the Battle of Brooklyn, commanded 
by Colonel Moses Rawlings. The attack which was made 
upon the fort was conducted by Baron Wilhelm Knyphausen, 
leading personally, with much gallantry, the Hessian division 
of about four thousand six hundred men, with a battery of 
howitzers. This force advanced across the Dyckman meadows 

' For the historical data in this paragraph we are mdebted to Mr. Reginald Felham Bolton. 


444 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

History and directly assaulted the fort, making three successive charges 
at the point of the bayonet. The accurate and incessant firing 
of the Southerners ensconced behind rocks and trees defeated 
two of these attacks and stayed the advance of the entire opera- 
tions against Fort Washington until the fort was taken in flank 
on the Hudson side by a detachment from the Hessian forces 
under the redoubtable Colonel Rail, just at the time when the 
commander of the fort, as well as his major, Otho Holland 
Williams, fell wounded. The final charge of the Grenadiers 
of the von Koehler battalion, under Colonel Rail's personal 
leadership, resulted in a butchery of the garrison by the bayo- 
nets of the Hessian soldiery, which was witnessed by Washing- 
ton himself, who stood on the brink of the Palisades anxiously 
watching the progress of this part of the defense of Fort Wash- 
ington. The Hessians as well as the Americans suffered 
severe losses, particularly among their officers, of whom 
several of high rank were killed, and were buried, with many 
private soldiers, around the neighborhood of the Fort. After 
its capture, the Fort was renamed Fort Tryon, in honor of the 
last British Governor of the Province of New York. The fort 
was strengthened and enlarged into a six-gun battery, and the 
earthworks, of which a few remains may still be seen, are 
probably the remaining evidence of this work which was largely 
carried out by men of the Hessian Royal Body Guard and of 
the von Donop regiment. The memorial at Fort Tryon com- 
memorates, in particular, the heroism of the first woman who 
took an active part in actual warfare in defense of American 
liberties. Margaret or Margery Corbin was the wife of John 
Corbin, a private soldier of York County, Pennsylvania. He 
was probably of Scotch-Irish descent. She accompanied her 
husband in 1776 and shared with him the privations of his life 
as an artilleryman. On the occasion of the assault and defense 
of the northern outwork of Fort Washington, she was aiding 
her husband in the loading and cleaning of one of the guns. 

Dedication of Fort Tyron Tablet 445 

when at the most critical part of one of the assaults John History 
Corbin was killed. Margaret immediately took charge of 
the cannon and loaded and fired it herself, with conspicuous 
"skill and vigor," until she in turn was also wounded by grape- 
shot from the Hessian battery. She was afterwards specially 
mentioned by Congress. She recovered and lived as a pen- 
sioner of the United States until about the end of the century. 

The Fort Tryon tablet, which was designed by Mr. Charles ^escrip- 
R. Lamb and erected by J. & R. Lamb of New York, cost xablet 
;?5,ooo. It is about 9 feet wide and 12 feet high, and is built 
of black polished granite from Maine, embellished with bronze 
work and an inlaid cannon. The latter is a real piece of 
ordnance, known as a French gun, which was obtained from 
the United States arsenal at Watervliet. The tablet bears the 
following inscription : 

1776. Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 1909. 

On this Hilltop Stood 

Fort Tryon 

The Northern Out-work of 

Fort Washington 

Its Gallant Defence Against 

The Hessian Troops 


The Maryland and Virginia 


16 November 1776 

was shared by 

Margaret Corbin 

The First American Woman 

to take a Soldier^s Fart 

in the War for Liberty. 

Erected Under the Auspices of 

The American Scenic and Historic 

Preservation Society 

Through the Generosity of 

C. K. G. Billings 

The tablet was dedicated with impressive ceremonies on Program 
Wednesday, September 29, 1909. The scene was rendered"* 
picturesque by the presence of a group of Iroquois Indians, 

44^ The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

who gave their ceremonial "Feather Dance." The program 
of exercises was as follows : 

George F. Kunz, Ph.D., ScD., President of the American Scenic and His- 
toric Preservation Society, Presiding: 

Invocation: Rev. Frank Oliver Hall, D.D., Chaplain-General, National 
Society Sons of the American Revolution. 

Address: "Purpose of the Tablet." Dr. George F. Kunz, President, 
American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. 

Address: Presentation of the Tablet on behalf of the Donor. Col. Daniel 

Unveiling of the Tablet: Miss Blanche Pauline Billings, escorted by Mr. 
Albert M. Billings Ruddock. 

Salute by a detachment of the First Battery Field Artillery, N. G., N. Y. 

Address: "The History of Fort Tryon." Mr. Reginald Pelham Bolton. 

Address: "Margaret Corbin, the Heroine," Mrs. William Gumming Story, 
Chairman of the Hudson-Fulton Committee, Daughters of the American 

Address: "The American Woman in Peace and War." Miss Helen 
Varick Bosv^ell, National Federation of Women's Clubs. 

Song: "America." The Audience. 

Benediction: Rev. Milo H. Gates, Chaplain Washington Heights Chapter 
D. A. R. 

F Kunz ^^' ^""2, in opening the proceedings, spoke as follows: 

DR. GEORGE FREDERICK KUNZ: "Ladies and Gentlemen: 
On this quiet spot, which has changed but Httle from the time when the 
white man first landed on Manhattan Island, we are assembled to-day 
to give honor to those who, one hundred and thirty-three years ago, 
stood shoulder to shoulder in defense of the liberty of their native 
land. This tablet, erected through the generosity of Mr. Cornelius 
K. G. BilHngs, will take its place among the other memorials dedicated 
to the heroes of the past. 

"There is a deep-rooted sentiment in the human heart which urges 
us to honor those who have done noble deeds of valor or generosity, 
and this is both right and fitting, for the spirit of a good doer lives on 
in the memory of after generations and inspires them to higher and 
ever higher efforts. 

"Although none of us here present may ever be called upon to take 
up arms in defense of our country as did the heroes of the Revolution 

Dedication of Fort Tyron Tablet 447 

and those of our other wars, nevertheless we all have to fight the battle Dr. Geo. 
of life, to combat error and wickedness and to strive for truth and ^' ^"°* 
goodness, and this battle is often the hardest to fight. 

"In Russia, on the spot where a human life is lost, a small cross 
is erected and all who pass by, even thieves and other criminals, cross 
themselves devoutly. This tribute of the living to the dead is just 
and proper; but are not far deeper feelings aroused when we stand 
on the spot where brave men, whose example is an inspiration for 
ages, have laid down their lives, willingly and gladly, for the success 
of a great and pure cause ? Such a spot is hallowed ground, and we 
feel as though the spirits of those who have gone still linger here, 
for nowhere else is the reality of their sacrifice brought home to us so 

"The defense of Fort Tryon was signalized by an act of bravery 
that should especially appeal to the progressive American woman of 
our day. When Margaret Corbin stood by the gun alongside of 
which her husband was shot down and took his place in the ranks of 
the defenders, to be wounded herself, she was unconsciously setting 
an example for the women of a later time. For though oratory and 
argument are the weapons used in the political arena, the same quality 
of dauntless courage is requisite to gain the day, and perhaps some of 
our sisters who are standing fearlessly by argumentative guns may in 
time be considered as heroic in their own way as was Margaret 

"This memorial has a firm foundation, for it rests upon the geo- 
ogically oldest ridge of the world. Manhattan Island, now the heart 
and center of the second largest city in the world, has natural advan- 
tages peculiarly fitting it for its proud destiny. Washed on all sides 
by tide-water, surrounded by such great and beautiful rivers, the 
primitive rock covered by a sandy soil, the geological conditions are 
most favorable for the health, the well-being and the commercial 
prosperity of the inhabitants. Hence it need not surprise us that, 
quiet and peaceful as is still this northern end of the island, to the 
south and across the East river there is a population of three and a 
half million, while the whole great territory of our city embraces a 
population of upwards of four millions. 

"Was there ever a more beautiful island than this, as Henry 
Hudson first saw it ? Its sloping shores, its low and pleasing hills, 

448 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Dr. Geo. its ponds and streams, all combined to make an ideal picture of tran- 
quil beauty. But how the hand of man has changed it! The hills 
have been leveled, the water courses and depressions have been filled 
in, and hundreds of miles of streets have been laid out with geomet- 
rical precision. No one, a century ago, even in the wildest flight of 
his imagination, would have dared to predict that so mighty a city, 
with its great structures and its unrivalled facilities for transit, would 
develop on this island and its vicinity. 

"Last Saturday fully four, and perhaps five million citizens and 
visitors saw the greatest naval pageant that has ever taken place on 
a river near a great city. But in gazing on the imposing array of 
seventy warships, seven hundred merchant vessels and many hundred 
smaller craft, we noted that there was room for ten times as many, 
without risk of confusion or congestion, and we realized more fully 
than ever before that our majestic river will afford ample room even 
for the phenomenal growth of another century. 

"Tablets like this and everything that helps to stimulate civic 
virtue and encourage high ideals in our immense population are of 
inestimable value, and nothing is better calculated to accomphsh 
this than memorials of the heroism and self-sacrifice of our ancestors. 

"May those assembled here to pay tribute to the gallant defenders 
of Fort Tryon take to heart the noble example set by those heroes, 
and may the boys and girls, the hope of the future, also draw a lesson 
from the past that will make them both happier and better. 

"The deed is done, the victory won, and while paying due tribute 
to those who helped to free our land, let us hope that the memorials 
of our own and later days will celebrate the triumphs of art, industry 
and commerce, and that this tablet and all other memorials of bloody 
strife will be an assurance to our children that the era of war is 
past and that Peace must reign even to the uttermost parts of the 
earth, even if it is maintained by great fleets and navies, and bet- 
ter Jtill by international arbitration; but better war than permanent 

Colonel Colonel Daniel Appleton, N. G. N. Y. spoke as follows: 


Appleton COL. DANIEL APPLETON: "Ladies and Gentlemen, Soldiers 

and Sailors : It affords me the greatest pleasure to present this beauti- 
ful and artistic tablet to the American Scenic and Historic Preservation 

Dedication of Fort Tyron Tablet 449 

Society at the request of Mr. Billings, the donor. I should like to Colonel 
tell you some of the many unobtrusive patriotic and generous acts of ^*'"" 
Mr. Billings that I know of and that you do not, but Mr. Billings is 
present, and knowing his innate modesty and how much he shrinks 
from publicity, I will refrain, for I value very highly his personal 
friendship. I will, therefore, confine myself to trying to draw a 
lesson from the past to help us in the future. 

"This tablet appeals to Mr. Billings and myself very forcibly, 
because it not only records the bravery of our ancestors at the dark 
period of the Revolution, but it gives us an opportunity of calling 
your attention to the importance of preparedness for war. 

"No people in the world are more patriotic, more brave, more 
impatient for success than Americans. We are to-day. in war times, 
as patriotic as were our ancestors at Fort Tryon in 1 776, and is there 
any incident in history more sublime, more heroic, more patriotic 
than that of Margaret Corbin, the wife of a Pennsylvania private, 
who, here on this spot, in the thickest of the fight when men were 
falling around her, her husband dead at her feet, took a man's part — 
' loaded and fired a gun herself with vigor and skill,' until she too fell. 

" Fellow citizens ! We need that same innate spirit of enthusiasm 
to animate us to-day. We want you to show your patriotism now in 
time of peace. We want you to encourage your brothers, your hus- 
bands, and your sons to go in for military training, for rifle shooting, 
and for learning the art of war. 

"Parents! We want you to teach your children to respect and 
honor the army and navy. Archbishop Ireland says: 'It is a bad 
sign when the army and navy are not generally honored and revered. 
It is a bad sign for any country when the uniform of the soldier does 
not secure honor for the wearer.' 

"Whether we wish it or not, we must look a probable war in the 
face. Just as long as commercial rivalry exists, nations will appeal 
to arms, Hague conferences notwithstanding. 

"Our school histories describe the battles we have fought and 
won, but do they describe the delays, the disasters that have pro- 
longed those wars ? Let us avoid the mistakes of the past. Let us 
be prepared for any and every emergency. We are no longer isolated, 
we are a world power. We have not only our own coast to guard, 
but over-sea lands to protect. 

450 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Colonel "It will hardly be denied that the happiness and welfare of a 

Dame people depend to a large extent on a full and abiding; sense of security 
Appleton r .,, , ^ •' 

trom any possible attack. 

"Of the great nations of Europe, there is only one, the Empire 
of Germany, in which the feeling of confidence prevails. The young 
German knows that he need fear no foe — need fear no invasion for 
all his comrades are strong men armed. 

"The young American, though potentially a strong man, is yet a 
man unarmed. We are strong in the sense that we have many men 
and that those men are brave. In a military sense we are weak 
because a very small proportion of the men know anything of military 
service. We are weak in many of our wonderful resources. We 
have no transportation for moving an army. We have no merchant 
marine. Our coasts are inadequately defended. Our military 
resources may be inexhaustible but they are as yet undeveloped. We 
Want an army and navy so efficient and strong in numbers and 
organization that no sane opponent would contemplate invasion. 
The army, of course, to-day, includes the organized militia. 

"Let our National Guard be a strong right arm for National 
defense, and let the ranks be always filled. 

' 'Our unpreparedness is our danger. It is an incentive to foreign 
nations to make adequate preparations to invade us. Paradoxical 
as it may seem, if our preparations were to become adequate, the 
risk of their ever being used would disappear. 

"'In Peace prepare for War.* Those five words have done far 
more to avoid war than all the books and articles that have been 
written since the world began. 

" Let us not neglect so important, so obvious a duty as preparedness 
for war. Then if we are called upon to meet the enemy, on land or 
sea, or perhaps in the air, we shall be sure of a quick, short and 
decisive victory. 

"Time permits me only to lightly touch upon this National problem, 
only to draw your attention to it. 

" Friends there may be diversity of opinion regarding preparedness 
for war, but I am sure that you will all join in heart with me, in express- 
ing our gratitude to Mr. Billings and our appreciation of his beautiful 
gift to the city. 

"This tablet is a work of art, of beauty and of patriotism. It 

Dedication of Fort Tyron Tablet 451 

honors the dead, and inspires the living. It points the way to duty, to 
patriotism and to preparedness for war, even to the giving of our 

Mr. Reginald Pelham Bolton spoke as follows: Mr. R. P. 

MR. REGINALD PELHAM BOLTON: "Mr. President and^""*"" 
Ladies and Gentlemen: In the regrettable absence of our venerable 
historian. General James Grant Wilson, I am asked to speak of the 
historical associations which cluster around this scene. It is no small 
privilege for a great community to find among its members some of 
those, who, like the donor of this memorial, are the possessors and 
guardians of some historic place or structure in the possession of 
which they take a pride and exhibit an interest. 

"And surely, among the places fragrant with memories of the 
deeds of those who fought to win for us our cherished institutions 
no one exists in which the historic interest is more fully blended with 
the scenic interest than in Fort Tryon. 

"Before us we see not merely the site of an event of national interest, 
but also the very rocks and hills upon which the struggle took place 
which made of this end of Mount Washington an American Ther- 
mopylae; centered between the hills of Fordham, of Spuyten Duyvil 
and the precipices of the Palisades, and between the placid waters 
of the Harlem and the broad estuary of the Hudson, no place within 
the bounds of the greater city can exhibit a more picturesque setting 
added to the rugged character of the eminence on which we stand. 

"Such may well have been the thoughts of some of the British and 
Hessian soldiery as on November the sixteenth of the first year of 
Independence, they came in sight of the hill, in their advance upon 
Fort Washington. 

"The hill no doubt presented a strange and formidable appear- 
ance from a military point of view, for the trees were felled to form 
the abattis behind which lay the Southern boys of the Maryland and 
Virginia battalion armed with their turkey rifles. And as the Hessian 
division, under the personal command of Baron Knyphausen, moved 
over the Dyckman vale below us, the rifles rang out the first notes 
of the defiant defense, in answer to the pounding of the guns of the 
frigate Pearl, tacking to and fro in the Hudson oflF this point. 

"As the Hessians swarmed up this hillside, climbing over trees 

452 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mr. R. p, and rocks, led in person by their gallant commander, their artillery 
opened fire with grape-shot upon the little fort which crowned the 
spot where we stand, and the fierce fight which lasted for three hours 
began, watched with anxious solicitude by the great leader of the 
American cause, from the Palisades yonder. The overwhelming 
forces of attack were supplemented by a military manoeuvre by which 
the Grenadier battahon of von Koehler, led by that picturesque 
character Rail, was brought around the margin of the Hudson to 
the flank of the fort. Twice the advance of the main Hessian body 
was rolled back, but the ammunition was failing; and the weapons 
of many of the defenders were too foul to fire. Upon the final 
charge on front and flank the little garrison was overwhelmed 
and the sight of the succeeding slaughter of many by the bayonets 
of the enraged Hessians brought unaccustomed tears to the eyes of 

" Such very briefly is the story of the gallant defense of the north 
outwork of Fort Washington by the Southern boys of which this 
noble monument will visibly remind the passerby for all time. 

"Among the various events which this great Celebration has 
brought prominently into view, none appeals more directly to the 
spirit of patriotism which it is so necessary to foster, and none evi- 
dences a greater degree of the noble spirit of self-sacrifice, than the 
heroism and actions of those young Southern men, fighting on northern 
soil for the benefit of the nation. 

"It is by the widening interest in the motives and causes of his- 
torical events that we have reason to believe in the perpetuation of 
the American spirit of liberty and equality, and surely the Hudson- 
Fulton Celebration, covering as it does in this and other memorials, 
events of historic interest far beyond the scope indicated by its title, 
is achieving a work of vast future import. 

"While we thus unite in acclaiming the work and sacrifices of the 
heroes of the past and in acknowledgment of the value of the results 
of their labors and achievements, let us not forget that in all their 
doings, as in all the results flowing therefrom, the strong hand of the 
Almighty has been peculiarly visible to the advantage of our land 
and its people, and let us ascribe to the Highest Source the results 
which this great Celebration is commemorating, as I venture here 
to do in the following form: 

Dedication of Fort Tyron Tablet 453 


Hudson-Fulton Celebration Bolton 

"Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us 
But unto Thy Name give Glory." 

God of the Mai-kan ' 
On his fierce lust Thy ban, curbing the savage man, 

Twas ever thus 
Thine the restraining Word; Thine was the Power, O Lord 

Not unto us, O God, 
Not unto us. 

God of the Pioneer,' 
Thine was the Hand to steer, through mist and waters drear, 

And ever thus 
Thou wast his watch and ward; to Thee the blessing. Lord, 

Not unto us, O God, 
Not unto us. 

God of the Patriot'' 
Directing every shot, that brought his foes to naught, 

'Twas ever thus. 
Thy hand upon his sword; Thine be the Glory, Lord, 

Not unto us, O God, 
Not unto us. 

God of the Engineer,* 
Making his purpose clear, hope and achivement near, 

Ever 'twas thus. 
Thine the benign accord; Thine all our gain, O Lord, 

Not unto us, O God, 
Not unto us. 

God of our Babylon, 
Strong in her steel and stone; weak against wrong alone, 

And ever thus. 
Be Thou her Guide, O Lord; then Thine the great reward. 

Not unto us, O God, 
Not unto us. 

Mrs. William Cumming Story spoke as follows: Mrs. W. 

MRS. WILLIAM CUMMING STORY: "Mr. President and " ^'"'^ 
Ladies and Gentlemen: In representing the Daughters of the Ameri- 

' The aboriginal inhabitant. ' The Revolutionary soldier. 

' Henry Hudson. * Robert Fulton. 

454 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mrs. W. can Revolution I am sensible of the honor that you have conferred 
■ °^^ upon me in asking me to speak on this important and interesting 
occasion. I realize that our organization stands for high ideals and 
a great purpose, and, unless we can in our day serve worthily the 
community in which we live, we will fall short in the responsibility 
that rests upon us as descendants of the noble men and women who 
sacrificed life, Hberty and happiness that our Republic might live. 

"It is well, therefore, that we should recall the heroism of this 
past and I am happy in having assigned as my topic one of the brave 
and true women who served our country and on this spot proved her 
devotion, Margaret Corbin. 

"Margaret, daughter of Robert Cochran, was born in what is now 
Franklin County, Penn., November 12, 175 1. During the Indian raids 
of 1756, her father was killed and her mother taken prisoner. The 
mother was never heard from again, though seen in 1758, one hun- 
dred miles west of the Ohio, and the children, Margaret and her 
brother John, remained under the care of their maternal uncle. 

"About 1772, Margaret married John Corbin, a Virginian by 
birth, and when, at the beginning of the Revolution, he enlisted as a 
matross, in Capt. Proctor's First Company, Pennsylvania Artillery, she, 
having no children to demand her care at home, accompanied her 
husband, giving woman's care to him and his comrades in the army. 

"At the attack on Fort Washington, a shot from the enemy killed 
John Corbin, and as there was no one to take his place at the gun, 
the officer in command ordered it withdrawn. Here, Margaret 
Corbin showed what manner of woman she was. Unhesitatingly 
she took her husband's place, quietly and steadfastly she held his 
post, performing his duties, with skill and courage, until seriously 

"The officers of the army warmly appreciated her services, and 
the State of Pennsylvania made prompt provision for her, but inade- 
quate to her needs, and the case being brought to the consideration 
of the Board of War, Congress, in July, 1779, resolved: — 

"That Margaret Corbin, wounded and disabled at the battle of 
Fort Washington, while she heroically filled the post of her husband, 
who was killed by her side, serving a piece of artillery, do receive 
during her natural life, or continuance of said disability, one-half the 
monthly pay drawn by a soldier in the service of these States; and that 

Dedication of Fort Tyron Tablet 455 

she now receive out of the public stores, one suit of clothes, or the Mrs. W. 
value thereof in money.' Story 

"On the rolls of the Invalid Regiment in Pennsylvania, com- 
manded by Col. Lewis Nicola, as it was discharged in April, 1783, is 
found the name of Margaret Corbin. She was pensioned by her 
native State, at the close of the war, and until her death, which was 
caused by the wounds received in battle. 

"She resided in Westmoreland County, beloved, honored, and 
respected by every one. She died about 1800, the precise date not 
being obtainable. De Lancey, writing of the capitulation of Fort 
Washington, wrote : ' The deed of the Maid of Zaragoza was not 
nobler, truer, braver, than that of Margaret Corbin, of Pennsylvania. ' " 

Miss Helen Varick Boswell spoke as follows: MissH.V. 

MISS HELEN VARICK BOSWELL: " Mr. President and Ladies 

and Gentlemen : I always like to talk about the American woman, 

in whatever connection her name may appear. 

"When I found myself scheduled to discuss her ' in peace and in 
war,' here before this beautiful tablet which is inscribed with the name 
of a woman so worthy of the reverent appreciation of every patriot 
in America, I thought of that other woman whose presence at the 
great function of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission in the 
Metropolitan Opera House a few evenings since was in itself a glowing 
exposition of the true American woman such as no word picture of 
mine, however eloquent, can create. She was a little woman, frail 
and bent, but the majesty of her womanhood made her the greatest 
among all that distinguished company. 

'Years ago, when the heart of our beloved Republic was throbbing 
with the agony of its Civil War, she gave the slogan of liberty to the 
Union in her ' Battle Hymn.' Through all the years that lie between 
us of to-day and that period so pregnant with possibilities of progress 
to our nation, that same little woman has stood before us in many a 
bloodless campaign in behalf of our country's honor — always the 
same matchless heroine, the same typical American woman — Mrs. 
Julia Ward Howe! 

"As my beloved friend and leader, Mrs. Story, was speaking of the 
illustrious deed which has inscribed the name of Margaret Corbin, 
not only upon this bronze memorial behind me, but upon the yet 

456 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

MissH.V. more enduring tablet of the hearts of the American people, I thought 
iiosweu pf j.jjg many thousands of women who are to-day standing side by 
side in the industrial world, as truly heroines as she who long ago 
shared in the gallant defense of this historic ground. These heroic 
women are almost as numerous as the men who are filling the ranks 
of wage and salary earners, and they are cheerfully, courageously — 
aye, and successfully, most of them maintaining their loved ones. 
Fathers and mothers, children and alas, too often — husbands, are 
dependent upon the fortitude which never fails of these thousands 
and tens of thousands of women who are crowding the ranks of the 
industrial world. It is indeed the 'woman's invasion' in time of 
peace, but she fills her role with credit to her own energy, her own 
ability, and with honor to the country whose flag and the deathless 
principles it stands for has made her emancipation a reality. 

"The sun is setting and as he descends his splendor illumines the 
warships of many nations as they lie amicably side by side within the 
borders of our own fair land — here upon the bosom of the broad 
Hudson almost at our feet. Those ships are manned by sailors from 
other lands than ours, and yet as dear to them as ours to us. To each 
his own flag, his own soil, are the dearest on earth, for 

" ' Breathes there a man with soul so dead 
Who never to himself hath said 
' This is my own, my native land .'' 

" Of all that multitude, gathered here in a common brotherhood 
from 'all the nations of the earth,' there are few who have not 
come from some place in this wide world where a woman is watching 
for them, praying for them, working to keep their home, however 
humble, full of comfort and peace for their returning loved ones. 
They are all heroes — for I like to use the generic term irrespective 
of sex — these women of every nation, who so faithfully fill their 
places 'in that station in Ufe to which it has pleased God to call them;' 
and I know how ready is the tribute of my masculine hearers to the 
true womanhood of all the world. 

"Yet, I dare to believe that most of you are a little more ready to 
yield your allegiance to the American woman, and I dare to promise 
for her that she will hold up your hands, in peace as in war, and send 
you forth to do battle for the right, wherever the battle is to be fought. 


ON Saturday, October 2, 1909, at 12 o'clock noon, the 
Memorial Arch erected by the Daughters of the Revo- 
lution of the State of New York on the Stony Point 
Battlefield State Reservation on the Hudson River vsras dedi- 
cated, under the auspices of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration 
Commission, by the American Scenic and Historic Preserva- 
tion Society (custodians of the Reservation) and the New 
York State Daughters of the Revolution. 

The Stony Point Committee of the Hudson-Fulton Celebra- Stony 
tion Commission consisted of Mr. Gordon H. Peck, Chairman, ^ ' _ 
Mr. Henry K. Bush-Brown, Hon. Thomas H. Lee, and George mittees 
Frederick Kunz, Ph.D., Sc.D. 

The Stony Point Committee of the American Scenic and 
Historic Preservation Society consisted of Mr. Gordon H. 
Peck, Chairman; Mr. Henry K. Bush-Brown, Edward Haga- 
man Hall, L. H. D., Mr. Francis Whiting Halsey, and Hon. 
Thomas H. Lee. 

The Patriotic Committee of the Daughters of the Revolution 
consisted of Mrs. John H. Abeel, Chairman; Mrs. Zeb Mayhew, 
ex-officio, Mrs. Robert J. Davidson, Miss Josephine Wandell, 
Mrs. Joseph J. Casey, Mrs. Henry W. Heifer, Mrs. Ashbel P. 
Fitch, Mrs. Wm. H. Hotchkin, Mrs. S. A. Goldschmidt, Miss 
K. J. C. Carville, Mrs. Clarence L. Bleakley, Mrs. Charles F. 
Van Inwegen, Mrs. Albert R. Genet, Mrs. Arthur A. Hebert, 
Mrs. Leverett F. Crumb, Mrs. Wilbur F. Wakeman, Secretary. 

The arch, designed by Mr. H. K. Bush-Brown of Newburgh, Descrip- 
N. Y., and built out of rough native rock of Stony Point with ^^^.^j^ 
the exception of some of the granite trimmings, stands at the 
entrance to the bridge which leads across the West Shore 


45^ The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Descrip- Railroad cut to the Reservation. The masonry measures 
. . thirty-two feet in width, twelve feet in depth, and twenty-three 
feet in height, and the archway is twelve feet wide, twelve feet 
deep, and fifteen feet high. On the western front over the 
archway is the inscription "Stony Point State Park," and the 
cry of the Americans as they captured the works: "The Fort's 
Our Own." On the same front, on either side of the archway, 
is a tablet. The northern tablet bears the following inscription: 

(Scenic Society Seal.) 





JULY 15-16, 1779, 









The southern tablet bears the following inscription: 

(D. R. Seal.) 














Recep- jjjg Excellency, the Hon. Charles E. Hughes, Governor of 
Governor the State of New York, arrived from Newburgh on the flag- 

Dedication of Stony Point Arch 459 

ship of the Naval Militia a little before noon and was received 
with appropriate honors upon landing at the steamboat wharf. 
He then made a tour around the reservation and was accom- 
panied to the speakers' stand immediately west of the Memorial 
Arch by the following escort: 

Marsha!, Mr. William Benson. 
Glassing's Military Band of Haverstraw. 
Company N, 23d Regiment, N. G., N. Y., Alexander F. Martin, Captain. 
Haverstraw Cadets. 
Fox's Military Band of Haverstraw. 
Edward Pye Post, G. A. R., of Haverstraw. 
Detail of Edward Pye Post, G. A. R., in Continental Uniform, Edward 
Weiant, Captain, as Guard to the Governor. 
Carriages containing 
His Excellency, The Governor of the State of New York. 
The Governor's Staff. 
The Speakers. 
The Stony Point Committees. 

A battery of two guns from the United States Military 
Academy at West Point fired salutes to the Governor upon his 
arrival and departure and upon the unveiling of the arch. 

The assembly was called to order by the Hon. Thomas H. Hon. 
Lee, who introduced as the presiding officer of the day, the ge-,yard 
Hon. Frederick W. Seward, ex-Assistant Secretary of State and Presiding 
ex-Acting Secretary of State of the United States under Presi- 
dent Lincoln. Secretary Seward is the last surviving member of 
President Lincoln's cabinet, having acted as such in place of 
his father, William H. Seward, who was ill just prior to the 
President's assassination. Mr. Seward conducted the exer- 
cises in the following order: 

Invocation and Collect for the Daughters of the Revolution, Rev. Edgar 
Tilton, Jr., D. D., Chaplain D. R. State of New York. 

Music — "Columbia, Gem of the Ocean." 

Greeting and Presentation of Memorial Arch, Mrs. Zeb Mayhew, Regent 
D. R., State of New York. 

460 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Unveiling of Memorial Arch, Mrs. John H. Abeel, Chairman, Patriotic Com- 
mittee, D. R., State of New York. 

Music — "The Star Spangled Banner," Junior Sons and Daughters and 
School Children of Stony Point and Haverstraw. 

Oration and Dedication of Memorial Arch, His Excellency, Hon. Charles E. 
Hughes, Governor of the State of New York. 

Acceptance of Memorial Arch, Mr. Francis Whiting Halsey, Trustee of the 
American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. 

Music — "America." 

Patriotic Address, Mrs. Frank E. Fitz, President-General D. R. 

Address, "Art and the History of America," H. K. Bush-Brown. 

Benediction, Rev. Edgar Tilton, Jr., D. D. 

The invocation, addresses and benediction were as follows: 
Rev. Dr. REV. EDGAR TILTON, JR., D.D.: "Let us invoke the Divine 
Tilton Presence. Almighty and ever-living God, Creator, Ruler and Pre- 
server of the world and of mankind; Father of our Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ, the living God and Saviour of all men, hear us to-day 
as we invoke Thy Presence. We thank Thee, O God, for the spirit 
of brave adventure to which this Nation owed its birth. We thank 
Thee for the Nation's history and the Nation's progress. We thank 
Thee, O God, that when the rains descended and the floods came 
and the winds blew and beat upon her, she fell not, for she was 
founded upon a rock. O God, as Thou has preserved the Nation 
in the past, so preserve her in the future; and as Thou hast in the 
past given to her wise rulers and statesmen, so in the days to come, 
may we have wise men to rule over us, men after Thine own heart; 
and may this Nation be governed according to the principles which 
we find in Thy Holy Word. O God, we pray that peace may always 
reign here and abroad, and that all the Nations of the world may 
recognize Thee as the only ruler, as Jesus Christ, and recognize 
Jesus Christ as the Prince of Peace. Let Thy richest blessing rest 
upon us this day throught this service. Be near to those who shall 
speak; and may all the services of the hour redound to Thy honor 
and glory. 

" O Thou who turnest the hearts of the children to the fathers, and 
hast declared that the righteous shall be had in everlasting remem- 
brance, we thank Thee for the inspiration which called into existence 
the Society of the Daughters of the Revolution; and the blessing 

Dedication of Stony Point Arch 461 

which has hitherto attended it. And we pray Thee to continue to 
aid our Society in this and succeeding generations, in the pious work 
of perpetuating the memory of the sacrifices and sufferings, and valor 
of our fathers, through which our priceless heritage was won. 

"And finally, when we also shall have served Thee in our genera- 
tion, may we be gathered unto our fathers, having the testimony of a 
good conscience; in favor with Thee our God, and in perfect charity 
with the World. 

"All of which we ask through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." 

HON. FREDERICK W. SEWARD: "Fellow Citizens: We are Hon. 

met to-day to dedicate this Memorial Arch erected by the patriotic ^' ^' 

zeal of the Daughters of the Revolution, to the memory of those who 

fought on this battlefield during the War of Independence. 

"Stony Point itself is a monument, and a witness of three great 
events of American history. Stony Point looked down upon that 
little ship of Henry Hudson on her voyage of discovery, when she lay 
at anchor in yonder cove. Stony Point looked down upon Robert 
Fulton's Clermont when she came up the river to open the era of 
steam navigation; and Stony Point was the battlefield where was 
fought the decisive struggle which secured to the Americans the con- 
trol of the main line of communication between the Colonies through- 
out the whole Revolutionary War. That naval pageant that went 
up the river yesterday typified all three of these great events, for the 
Half Moon came up again flying her old flag, commanded by a 
Dutch crew; the Clermont came up again bearing descendants and 
kindred of Robert Fulton, and both escorted by an immense fleet of 
merchant marine and naval vessels, all vieing to do honor to that 
Flag which was fought for here at Stony Point. 

"It was wise and patriotic in the Daughters of the Revolution to 
see the connection between all these events, and to link their dedica- 
tion with the celebration of those other great achievements which 
have so largely contributed to the advancement and the welfare of 
our country and of the world. 

"And now I have the pleasure of introducing to you the Regent 
of the Daughters of the Revolution, Mrs. Zeb Mayhew." 

MRS. ZEB MAYHEW: "Mr. Chairman, Governor Hughes, Mrs. Zeb 
Daughters of the Revolution and Friends: To perpetuate the patriotic Mayhew 
spirit of the men and women who achieved American independence; 

462 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mrs. Zeb to commemorate important events connected with the war of the 
Mayhew Revolution: those are the objects of our society as set forth in our 
Constitution; which we have endeavored to accomplish in this 
Memorial Aich. 

"It is said that anticipation is greater than realization. We, the 
descendants of those men and women who achieved American inde- 
pendence, are gathered here to-day to do them honor and to share in 
the joy of realization which far exceeds our fondest hopes. We are 
eighteen years old, still having birthdays, and as a State Society this 
is our 'coming-out' party. Heretofore, we have had doll parties, com- 
paratively speaking, and have placed many handsome tablets to 
commemorate historical spots; we have also placed a stained glass 
window on Harlem Heights, but this is our first big party on our 
own account; and we thrill with pride and enthusiasm to know our 
efforts are recognized; and we are greatly honored in having with 
us the Chief Executive and first citizen of the State, the Hon. 
Charles E. Hughes, besides other prominent gentlemen well known 
to you all. 

"The idea of placing a memorial here among the hills and vales 
which witnessed the birth-throes of a nation, budded in the mind of 
Mrs. Robert J. Davidson, of Rockland County. We all responded 
to her call, for what more inspiring place could be found than Stony 
Point, this natural monument to sublime heroism, ground made 
classic by the history of the country. The building of this Arch by 
a small body of women in these busy days called upon our time, 
purse, and much labor and sacrifice. As I look at its hugh figure 
looming there in veiled grandeur, veiled in a Nation's emblem of 
peace, love, strength and freedom; and to think how we have all 
worked and sold tickets and even played bridge in its behalf, I am 
reminded of the good old praying member of the church who was 
suddenly afflicted with nearly all the ailments. He had rheumatism 
and aneurism and curvature of the spine and was finally struck with 
paralysis, and after several months suffering finally got better, and 
one evening they had a prayer meeting, and he went to the prayer 
meeting. The old preacher arose and said: 'Brethren, I want us 
all to have a good time to-night; I want every one of you to get up 
and tell what the good Lord has done for you. Now, Brother Jones 
has been severely afflicted, and has not been with us for many months. 

Dedication of Stony Point Arch 463 

Brother Jones, get up and tell us all the good Lord has done for you.' Mrs. Zeb 
Brother Jones arose and hobbled up into the aisle, and after a long Mayhew 
pause, said, 'Well, he has about ruined me.' I think the Daughters 
will agree that to get this memorial ready for this Celebration has 
about ruined us. 

"The story of the men who made Stony Point immortal is too 
well known to need more than passing comment; how on the early 
morning of July i6, 1779, Anthony Wayne and a small corps of 
troops surprised the well-fortified English and with unloaded muskets 
picked their way behind the parapets, climbing over stones and 
fighting only with bayonet, charged the camp. To the surprised 
and terrorized British the rocks had become suddenly an active 
volcano which was pouring forth. Onward and upward they climbed, 
cutting and hacking and slashing, and plunging into an inferno of 
grape-shot, shrapnel and shell, unheeding they tore their way 
through, cut away the pickets, mounted the parapet, entered the 
fort at the point of the bayonet, shouting ' The fort's our own. ' And 
there they placed Old Glory, that wonderful thing — at its best only 
a piece of painted bunting, at its worst a mere rag, tattered and torn, 
stained by smoke, riddled by shot and shell, but the very soul and 
inspiration of a Nation's love, for which these forefathers of ours 
flung thus forward in the face of fearful odds, and as they hacked 
and cut and pushed their way to the front line of battle, as they fell, 
they turned, and with their last breath on this earth, breathed out a 
cheer for the flag — our Flag. So that flag in its imperishable glory 
rests with us immortal, so that future generations may read the story 
of that dearly bought emblem, and know as we know, that so long 
as American honor and American patriotism stand guard beneath it, 
in this whole wide world, there is not an arm strong enough nor a 
heart brave enough to pull that flag down. 

" Last winter I found it necessary to be far away for several months. 
Why, how can you goat such a time ? What will become of the arch ?' 
asked my friends. But I assured them that I had no worries on that 
score. I felt a good deal like Rufus, who, on going on a fishing 
excursion, was addressed by a gentleman who thought it a good time 
to reprove him for his laziness. He said, 'Rufus, do you think it 
right to leave your wife at the washtub while you pass your time in 
fishing?' 'Oh, yes, it's all right. My wife don't need no watching; 

464 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Mrs. Zeb she will wash just as hard as if I was there.' And I was right. They 
JUaynew ^jj -forked and accomplished just as much as if I were here. But at 
their head, leading them on, was a very able general in the patriotic 
work, our ex-General and Regent, Mrs. John Howard Abeel. Her 
untiring zeal and devotion to this work, which was started while she 
was at the head of the Society, make it eminently fit that her loving 
hands should be the ones to draw the veil aside and reveal in all its 
glory our labor of love. 

"Your Excellency, it is my great pleasure and privilege, on behalf 
of the Daughters of the Revolution of the State of New York, to 
present this arch, erected to commemorate the deed and date of 
General Anthony Wayne, and his brave men who took this strong- 
hold from the British one hundred and thirty years ago. To the State 
of New York, through you, its Governor, do we present this 
Memorial, trusting it may long stand as a testimonial of our love 
of country; so that it may be read by all men. " 

CHAIRMAN SEWARD: "The next thing in order will be the 
unveiling of the Arch, by Mrs. John Howard Abeel." 

The flags which draped the arch w^ere then removed. 

CHAIRMAN SEWARD: "I have the honor to present to you 
your Guest of Honor for the day, Hon. Charles E. Hughes, Governor 

of the State of New York. " 

Governor HON. CHARLES E. HUGHES: "Mr. Chairman, Madam 
Hughes Regent, Daughters of the Revolution, Ladies and Gentlemen: Despite 
the announcement of the program, I am sure you will understand 
that it would be utterly impossible for me to attempt a formal address. 
As the functions of this Celebration, day by day, make their demands 
upon time and strength, I am thoroughly convinced that if I put in an 
appearance on all the occasions at which I am expected, I shall be 
doing very well, even if no remarks are made. But of all the func- 
tions connected with these commemorative exercises, there is none 
at which I should feel a greater pleasure in being present than at this 
function, so significant in the character of its testimonial. I am 
always glad of the opportunity to hear the Daughters of Eloquence 
speak the praise of their Revolutionary fathers. 

"We have had an inspiring tribute from the Regent of the Society, 
under whose auspices this dedication is held, and I congratulate all 

Dedication of Stony Point Arch 465 

who have had the rare pleasure of listening to the beautiful and Governor 
eloquent words of the address of your Regent. Hughes 

"Had there been no settlement made in this Valley, and had it 
never been the scene of struggle, its discovery and the exploration of 
this most beautiful of rivers would have been events worthy of com- 
memoration by all the world. 

"When, however, we reflect upon the progress of the past three 
hundred years, to so large a degree made possible by the discovery 
and the invention which we are celebrating, we find the charm of 
Nature heightened by the fascination of the history of human achieve- 
ment. This is a celebration in which the daring of the explorer and 
the patient work of the inventor are alike commemorated, both being 
the most significant of all in what they typify, connected with the 
progress of humanity. We have along this Valley many industries, 
vast commerce, prosperous communities, and at the wonderful 
harbor to the south the metropolis of a Continent. If we were 
unworthy of our ancestors, this would be a celebration simply of 
wealth and material gain, for here, perhaps, as nowhere else in the 
world, are signs of the progress of man in making Nature contribute 
to his happiness, and in utilizing the increasing facilities for the inter- 
change of the products of industry. Here is wealth beyond the dreams 
of the early times to which our attention is directed. Here, to-day, 
are the signs that point unfailingly to a future still more prosperous 
than the past which we celebrate. But it is because we are worthy 
of our ancestors, and cherish the treasure which they have com- 
mitted to our trust, that we turn aside from the indications of material 
gain, much as we prize them, to pay our sincere tribute of respect to 
sacrifice, to courage, to loyalty and intense love of freedom, which 
are commemorated in that beautiful Arch. 

"It is well that this dedication should bring us to this historic spot. 
All along the Valley are the scenes of most romantic story, and of 
many incidents in the historical struggle for independence, but here 
we find particularly emphasized the importance of this great river in 
the war of the Revolution; and the necessity of maintaining it clear 
of control, in order that the Colonies might successfully cooperate 
against their common foe. 

"The Hudson has been and is the highway of commerce; it links 
us to the vast West; it is the avenue by which products of the 


466 The Hudson-Fulton Celebration 

Governor entire United States are transported to all the Nations of the earth. 

Hughes Precisely because of the facts which made it and will always make it 
an avenue of commerce, it was the point of greatest importance, 
so far as control and strategy were concerned, in the War of Inde- 
pendence. The control of this river lost, the Colonies were hope- 
lessly divided. This river Washington must hold, and his great 
military genius he devoted to securing it. Again and again the effort 
was made to break permanently the line of communication — to 
sever the Colonies, to destroy all possibility of confederation in struggle, 
and thus to put an end to the great War for Independence. Here on 
this spot was one of these rare exploits in which strategy and bravery 
both reached the highest level of attainment. Strongly fortified, 
deemed impregnable, the British stood here, apparently secure in 
their control of the entrance to the Highlands, and efforts based upon 
that supposed security were made for the purpose of distracting, 
annoying and annihilating on either side the force of the confederation. 
"We must pause as we stand here to pay a tribute to the eminent 
foreigner who contributed so greatly to the success of the Revolution- 
ary struggle. I refer to Baron Steuben. Our great historian, John 
Fiske, in one of those illuminative paragraphs with which his work 
abounds, shows to what degree the success of the storming of Stony 
Point was due to the organization and drill which the coming of Baron 
Steuben made possible. Here were those who were trained in a severe 
school and had learned a lesson of discipline, which enabled them 
to put their matchless bravery to the best uses, at a time of crisis in 
the war. And so, when the great leader determined to secure this 
important'' means of communication, he resolved, if it were possible, to 
subdue this supposedly impregnable fortress. It was possible for the 
same reason that independence was declared, and the Union saved 
in the Civil War; and for the same reason that we had a Washing-